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JOHN HEYSHAM GIBBON, September 29, 1903 -February 5, 1973 BY HARRIS B SHUMACKER, JR. JR. TOHN HEYSHAM GIBBON TR or lack, as he was generally JO known, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on Sep- tember 29, 1903. His mother was Mrs. Marjorie Young Gib- bon ant! his father John Heysham Gibbon, a distinguished, nationally recognized surgeon and professor of surgery at the Jefferson Medical College. His family background is of unusual interest and was uncloubtedly of considerable im- - portance 1n 11S career. The first of the Gibbons arrived in Philadelphia from Wiltshire, EnglancI in 1684 and, as Jack's sister Marjorie says, were named prophetically John and Margery. Jack's great-great-grandfather, John Hannum Gibbons, born in Chester County, Pennsylvania and educated in medicine in Edinburgh, was the first American doctor in the direct line of five down to Jack. His son, the first John Heysham Gibbon, born in 1795, dropped the s, ant! the name remained Gibbon thereafter. Though he graduatecl in medicine from the Uni- versity of Pennsylvania, he never practiced; instead he be- came a prominent mineralogist and in IS34 was appointed assayer of the U.S. Mint at Charlotte, North Carolina. His * All quotations except those cited specifically as from other sources are from a carefully prepared, delightful family history written for me by Marjorie Battles during the winter of 1979. 213

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214 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS second] son, Robert, became a practicing physician, as clic! Robert's two sons, laces father and uncle. In acIdition, through Dr. Gibbon, Sr.'s grandmother, Jack had a great- great-great-grancifather who was also a doctor, John Lardner, "Physician of London." A nephew still carries the Gibbon name on in the profession. The family can be proud, indeed, of the heritage of medical service that reached such heights in the accomplishments of John H. Gibbon, Jr. The only grandparent alive during ~ack's life was his ma- ternal grandfather, Samuel B. M. Young, one of our truly outstanding military figures. Born of a prominent Pittsburgh family in 1840, he volunteered upon the outbreak of the Civil War. His promotions from the time of his enlistment in April IS6l, from private through the ranks to brigadier general, came about with unbelievable rapidity, within a period of only four years. Following service in Cuba during the war with Spain, he was made a major general and later a lieuten- ant general. Perhaps the most important post he held was that of the first presidency of the War College in ~ 902. At the time of his retirement, the Secretary of War, Elihu Root, stated "There can be no better wish for the Army in the future than that its officers shall remember how distinction and the highest rank have come to this officer, not as a result of self-seeking or political or social influence, but as the result of duty well done."* This unusual stan(lard of military achievement was up- held by General Young's son, John, and his grandson, Jack, and the lifetime achievements of both, like his, resulted from their own efforts and not from "influence." ~ack's father served both in the Spanish-American War and in WorIc! War I, cluring which his assignments included those of consultant in surgery to the American Expeditionary Forces and, ul- *New York Herald Tribune, 2 Sept. 1924.

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JOHN HEYSHAM GIBBON, JR. 215 timately, surgical consultant to the American hospitals in England. Early during World War II, lack, too, volunteerecT for military duty, thus interrupting his practice, teaching, and, of even more significance, his research activities. Invalided home with a herniated disc after he served with ctistinction in the Pacific with the Pennsylvania Hospital Unit, he took over direction of the surgical service at the Mayo General Hospital in 1945, a post he kept until his discharge at the end of that year. Jack's father, John Gibbon, Sr., was born in Charlotte, North Carolina in 1871. Following his education in prepara- tory schools, he attenclecT the Jefferson Medical College, from which he graduated in IS91. He remained closely associates! with this institution as well as with the Pennsylvania Hospital through his active years. He was a clevoted teacher; a kindly, sympathetic practitioner; and a gentle, careful, skillful opera- tor. He contributed significantly to the clinical surgical litera- ture but, unlike his son, he cTid no experimental laboratory research.- He was honored by being maple an officer of a number of professional societies and became first secretary and then president of the American Surgical Association. In ~ 90 ~ in San Francisco he married Miss Marjorie Young, whom he had met cluring the Spanish War at ~effer- son Barracks, Missouri. She was one of the "five beautiful Young sisters," daughters of General Young and his wife, Margaret McFadden Young. The new Mrs. Gibbon had been eclucatec! in various places according to the location of her father's military assignments. She had a creep love of books and poetry and never stopped reacting. It is probable that lack inherited his fondness for poetry from her. Her experi- ences were broadened by a year abroad when, following the death of her mother and the marriage of her three oIcler sisters at the turn of the century, she took her ten-year-old

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216 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS sister to Dresden for a year of study. Full of wit, affection, anc! corctiality, she made for herself a warm and stimulating place among the family's Philadelphia friencls, though she often told her chilciren amusing tales of what some of the local people had expected of the "Western Bride." Jack and his brothers and sister grew up in a happy house- hold, living in Philadelphia during the winter and in summer near Media on beautiful Lynfielcl Farm, which lack was to inherit upon his parents' death. It must have been a busy home, with many visitors who often stayed weeks at a time, including "army cousins fattening for West Point, southern cousins coming up for their Philadelphia dental appoint- ments, a White Russian refugee, and a homesick Louisiana bride whom mother had met on a commuter train." Jack was eighteen months younger than Marjorie, eigh- teen months older than Sam, and four and a half years oicler than Robert. He was athletic, very competitive, and at times exhibited an "explosive temper." Excelling his brothers ant! friends in almost all sports, he was finally overtaken by them in horsemanship. One of the favorite pastimes of the family was chess, a game often begun before dinner, continuer! be- tween courses, and usually terminated with Jack the winner. This game was one for which his love was never lost. He had great affection ant! admiration for his parents and enjoyed long talks with his father, whose devotion to his profession and receptiveness to new ideas Jack valued highly. Their major differences lay in the field of politics, his liberalism standing far apart from his father's conservatism. Both par- ents died in 1956 within a week of one another. lack attended the Penn Charter School in Philadelphia, where he was an excellent student. Marjorie says that he returned from summer camp in 1919, just before entering Princeton, an entirely changed person, in large measure because of one of his counselors, Jim Landis, who was later to become the first chairman of SEC. Though he had always

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JOHN HEYSHAM GIBBON, JR. 217 been studious, he was now literally "afire" with intellectual interests, teen about literature and philosophy. At the end of his sophomore year, he joined Marjorie, who was taking courses at the Sorbonne, for a summer in Europe. They wanclerecT about free and unrestrained, Jack going along with her "gung-ho" interest in French history, but spending all his spare time reacting William James's Varieties of Religious Expe- rience. He talkect of going to medical school in Edinburgh and of her keeping house there for the two of them. Instead, he returned to Princeton. These first years at Princeton were not entirely happy ones, since he felt too young ant! immature for real companionship with his classmates, having entered be- fore his sixteenth birthday. A great deal of his time was spent reading and studying. He gracluatec3 in 1923 at nineteen. Towards the ens! of his first year in the Jefferson Medical College, Jack consiclered quitting, thinking that something else, perhaps writing, might prove more to his taste. His father made a very strong case for the continuation of his professional education, telling him, "If you clon't want to practice you needn't, but you won't write worse for having it." He received his medical degree in 1927. Though Jack has said anc! written that his interest in re- search was stimulated during his internship at the PennsyI- vania Hospital, Marjorie feels that the investigative scientific spirit may have been with him since early childhood. As an example, according to one of their mother's stories, she was walking down the street one clay holding his little hand when she found that her progress was sIowect by his pausing to wave his foot over the curb. She asked, "Jack, what are you cloing?" He answered "Well, Mother, if God is everywhere and you can't see Him and you can't hear Him, why can't you fee! Him?" His interest in medical experimentation, however, was first aroused by Dr. Joseph Hayman's clinical studies. Dr. Hayman was looking into the effects of potassium chloride

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218 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS versus sodium chloride in the diet of a severe hypertensive; the patient was unaware of which of the two salts he was served. While taking blood pressures at intervals, lack came to the exciting realization that contributions of new knowI- edge could be forthcoming from controller! experimentation. It is interesting that his initial stimulus came from a physi- cian, in view of the hopes of surgeons that their specialty shouIc! be comprised of good physicians who have as their primary therapeutic modality the special capability of operat- ing. This objective certainly underlay Jack Gibbon's profes- sional life. Similarly, the obvious conviction that the best management of surgical disorders requires good basic scien- tific understanding of them makes his early and continuing interest in physiological and biochemical matters of real sig- nificance. It is probably meaningful that during the period from 1930 to 1933, only one of his nine publications ap- peared in a surgical periodical; the remainder were pub- lished in such journals as the American Journal of Medical Sci- ence, the journal of Clinical Investigation, the Proceedings of the Society of Experimental Biology and Medicine, and the Archives of Internal Medicine He consulted his father's partner, John B. Flick, surgeon of the Pennsylvania Hospital, concerning the possibility of a career that would ultimately combine research ant! surgery. John Flick not only assured him that the two were perfectly compatible, but made the fortunate suggestion that he apply for a research fellowship with Dr. Edward B. Churchill at the Harvard Medical School. Jack realized that this would permit him both to find out whether he hac! any capability for re- search and whether he liked it. His father offered no objec- tions, provided he continue to recognize the value of bal- ancing research with surgical experience. He received the appointment and began working with Churchill in February of 1930 in a small laboratory in the

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JOHN HEYSHAM GIBBON, JR. 219 Gate House of the Boston City Hospital. His preceptor sug- gested that his first research effort be a study of the relation- ship between pulmonary artery pressure and Hood flow in experimentally procluced pulmonary arteriovenous fistulas. Stimulatect by this project, he proceeded to undertake a number of other investigations that dealt with pulmonary circulation and cardiac function. A few months after his arrival in Boston, Churchill suc- ceeded to the codirectorship of the West Surgical Service at the Massachusetts General Hospital and moved the labora- tory to the top floor of the Bullfinch Building. It was in this institution in February of 1931 that lack first conceived the idea of developing a mechanism for achieving extracorporeal gaseous exchange ant! temporarily maintaining body circula- tion. A patient hac! developed massive pulmonary embolism following a cholecystectomy. She was taken to the operating room for observation, and Gibbon was assigned the duty of following vital signs. He was to notify his chief when her conclition deteriorated to the point where it was felt justifi- able to undertake pulmonary embolectomyan exceedingly risky procedure at that time. This took place early the next morning and, despite Churchill's well-performed operation, ended fatally. Tack described the development of the idea thus: During that long night, helplessly watching the patient struggle for life as her blood became darker and her veins more distended, the idea naturally occurred to me that if it were possible to remove continuously some of the blue blood from the patient's swollen veins, put oxygen into that blood and allow carbon dioxide to escape from it, and then to inject continuously the now-red blood back into the patient's arteries, we might have saved her life. We would have bypassed the obstructing embolus and performed part of the work of the patient's heart and lungs outside the body.* * J. H. Gibbon, Jr., "The Development of the Heart-Lung Apparatus," Review of Surgery, 27 ( 1970): 23 1-44.

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220 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS The conception of what was to prove his life's principal work was only one of two important events of that year in Boston. The other was his marriage to his constant helper in the laboratory, Churchill's technician Mary Hopkinson, af- fectionately known as Maly, daughter of Charles Hopkinson, one of America's greatest portraitists. It is an extraordinary coincidence that both Jack and his father should have mar- riecl one of five sisters. In the spring of 193 ~ the couple returned to Philadelphia. During the next three ant! a half years, the mornings were spent practicing surgery and the afternoons working upon a variety of research problems in the laboratories of the Uni- versity of Pennsylvania's School of Medicine. This period confirmed John Flick's early judgment that it was feasible to combine clinical surgery with research. Though unable to pursue the idea that had captivated his imagination in Boston, Jack was fortunate in many ways. Of particular value were his research opportunities and close association with Eugene M. Landis, who later became professor of physiology at Harvard. A number of important contributions were forthcoming, many carrier! out conjointly with his wife. The idea of developing an apparatus for cardiopulmo- nary bypass remained continuously and vividly in the back of his mincl. When he asked Churchill for another year's oppor- tunity to work with him, he was not only awarcled a fellow- ship, but was told that Maly might have a position as his technical assistant. The research plan he hac! in mind dill not by any means meet with universal approval. As a matter of fact, Churchill himself was not enthusiastic though he ctict not object to its being undertaken. Others, thinking more of his potential academic career, aclvised him to embark upon less ambitious projects and ones more likely to result in publica- tions in the medical literature. An exception was his friend Eugene Landis, who was particularly helpful and juciged that

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JOHN HEYSHAM GIBBON, JR. 221 the effort was worth the attempt and might, indeed, prove successful. The work was begun and the husband-wife team had a very rewarding year. During the experiments the bloocT had to be renderer! noncoagulable and heparin was available as a suitable agent. The lack of a heparin antagonist at that time did not prove a serious handicap. The initial arterial inflow was through the femoral artery and the venous outflow from a superior vena caval catheter introduced through a jugular vein. Exclusion of cardiac function was achieved by pulmo- nary artery occlusion. The first oxygenator was a revolving cylinder into which the blooct withdrawn from the animal was introclucec3 tangentially at the top in the direction of rotation and resulted in a film of blood descending down the inner surface of the nonwettable metal cylincler. It was collected at the bottom through a knife-like edge into a stationary cup that was made of glass ant] surrounded by a jacket through which warm water could be circulatect to avoid chilling the animal. A similar water jacket was utilized in another portion of the circuit and the blood was returned to the animal. The film of blood was exposed to oxygen and it was determined that it took up oxygen ant! lost carbon dioxide satisfactorily. After a while, to their excitement and joy, it proved possible to sustain the entire cardiorespiratory function of cats for nearly four hours and to demonstrate that the animals could, after the extracorporeal device was cliscontinued, maintain their own cardiac and pulmonary activity. These results were not reported until ~ 937. After the year in Boston the Gibbons returned to Phila- delphia in 1935, and the work was continued in the Harrison Research Laboratories of the University of Pennsylvania. Progressively more refined apparatus was developed, and the experiments went better and better, until by 1939 it was possible to report that, after periods varying from twelve to

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222 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS twenty minutes of total substitution of the device for the function of the heart and lungs, four cats hacl survived in- clefinitely in healthy condition, and others for varying shorter periods of time. Though the initial effort hacI been undertaken with the hope of managing massive pulmonary embolism better, Jack perceived shortly after it was begun that it hac! far greater potentialities. At the time of his report of these studies to the ~ 939 meeting of the American Association for Thoracic Surgery, he stated modestly: "It is conceivable that a cliseasecI mitral valve might be exposed to surgical approach under direct vision and that the fields of cardiac and thoracic sur- gery might be broadenecl."* The presentation was discussed by the guest speaker, Professor Clarence Crafoorc! of Stock- holm, and by Leo Eloesser, who had been president of the organization the preceding year. Eloesser said that the report reminded him of the fantastic tales of Jules Verne, which anticipated seemingly impossible accomplishments that were later realized.: During the next few years, further innovations in the crevice were macle with the idea of supplanting the function of the heart and lungs of larger animals and, eventually, of patients. It was at this time that the investigations had to be stopped because of WorIcl War Il. Upon Jack's return to Philadelphia after his military ser- vice, he was given an appointment as assistant professor of surgery at Pennsylvania; shortly thereafter, early in 1946, he became director of surgical research at the Jefferson Medical * J. H. Gibbon, Jr., "The Maintenance of Life During Experimental Occlusion of the Pulmonary Artery Followed by Survival," Surgery, Gynecology, and Obstetrics, 69 (1939): 602-14. ~ Unfortunately, having forgotten momentarily about the rules of the Society, Jack had already submitted the paper to Surgery, Gynecology, and Obstetrics so that it could not appear in theJournal of 7horacic Surgery, and the discussions of Crafoord and Eloesser did not accompany the publication.

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J[OHN HEYSHAM GIBBON, JR. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1930 237 With Richard Middleton. The prognostic value of the initial leu- kocyte and differential count in lobar pneumonia. Am. I. Med. Sci., 180:31-36. With Edward D. Churchill. Changes in the pulmonary circulation induced by experimentally produced arteriovenous f~stula. Arch. Surg., 21:1188-94. 1931 With Edward D. Churchill. Mechanical influence of the pericar- dium upon cardiac function. I. Clin. Invest., 10:405-22. 1932 With Mary Hopkinson and Edward D. Churchill. Changes in the circulation produced by gradual occlusion of the pulmonary artery. I. Clin. Invest., 11:543-53. With Eugene M. Landis. Vasodilatation in the lower extremities in response to immersing the forearms in warm water. I. Clin. Invest., 11: 1019-36. 1933 With Eugene M. Landis. The effects of temperature and tissue pressure on the movement of fluid through the human capillary wall. I. Clin. Invest., 12: 105-38. With Eugene M. Landis. Effects of alternate suction and pressure on blood flow to the lower extremities. I. Clin. Invest., 12:925-61. With Eugene M. Landis. The effects of alternate suction and pres- sure on circulation in the lower extremities. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 30:593-95. With Eugene M. Landis. A simple method of producing vasodilata- tion in the lower extremities, with reference to its usefulness in studies of peripheral vascular disease. Arch. Intern. Med., 52:785-808. 1934 Actinomycosis of abdominal wall. Ann. Surg., 99:861-64.

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238 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS With John B. Flick. Pericardiectomy for advanced Pick's disease. Arch. Surg., 29: 126-37. 1936 With John B Flick Tofu remove Of left 1lintr for r~rrin~m~ Ann _ ~ ~ . Surg., 103:130-34. With Edward D. Churchill. The physiology of massive pulmonary embolism; experimental study of the changes produced by ob- struction to the flow of blood through the pulmonary artery and its lobar branches. Ann. Surg., 104:811 -22. With John B. Flick. The application of thoracoplasty to the treat- ment of pulmonary tuberculosis. Pa. Med. J., 39:768-72. Artificial maintenance of the circulation during experimental oc- clusion of the pulmonary artery. Arch. Surg., 34:1105-31. 1937 With John B. Flick. Hyperparathyroidism relieved by removal of a parathyroid tumor. Bull. Ayer Clin. Lab. Pa. Hosp., 3:73-78. 1939 Pulmonary embolism; a review of recent contributions. Pa. Med. J., 42:877-80. With Francis C. Grant and Lawrence M. Weinberger. Anoxia of the central nervous system produced by temporary complete arrest of circulation. Trans. Am. Neurol. Assoc., 65:66-72. An oxygenator with a large surface-volume ratio. }. Lab. Clin. Med., 24:1192-98. The immediate effect of scalenotomy upon the size of apical tuber- culous cavities. J. Thorac. Surg., 8:633-37. The maintenance of life during experimental occlusion of the pul- monary artery followed by survival. Surg. Gynecol. Obstet., 69:602- 14. With Harold Smith. Blood chemical aids to surgical therapy. Surg. Clin. North Am., 19: 1583 - 94. 1940 With Lawrence M. Weinberger and Mary H. Gibbon. Temporary arrest of the circulation to the central nervous system. I. Physi- ologic effects. Arch. Neurol. Psychiatry, 43:615-34.

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JOHN HEYSHAM GIBBON, JR. 239 With Lawrence M. Weinberger and Mary H. Gibbon. Temporary arrest of the circulation to the central nervous system. II. Patho- logic effects. Arch. Neurol. Psychiatry, 43:961-86. 1941 With Charles W. Kraul. An efficient oxygenator for blood. I. Lab. Clin. bled., 26: 1803 -9. With Clare C. Hodge. Aseptic immediate anastomosis following resection of the colon for carcinoma. Ann. Surg., 114:635 -52. With Clare C. Hodge. The treatment of minor war injuries. Med. Clin. North Am., 25: 1829-42. With Frank F. Allbritten, Jr., and John B. Flick. The use of sulfanil- amide in partial and total resection of the lung. I. Thorac. Surg., 11:187-97. 1942 With Mary H. Gibbon and Charles W. Kraul. Experimental pulmo- nary edema following lobectomy and blood transfusion. I. Thorac. Surg., 12:60 - 77. With Mary H. Gibbon. Experimental pulmonary edema following lobectomy and plasma infusion. Surgery, 12:694 - 704. 1946 With Leslie W. Freeman. The primary closure of decubitus ulcers. Ann. Surg., 124: 1148-64. With Louis H. Clerf, Peter A. Herbut, and John }. DeTuerk. The diagnosis and operability of bronchogenic carcinoma. }. Thorac. Surg., 17:419-27. 1949 With John Y. Templeton III. Experimental reconstruction of car- diac valves by venous and pericardial grafts. Ann. Surg., 129: 161-76. Cancer of the lung (Thomas Dent Mutter lecture). LXI. Trans. Stud. Coll. Physicians Philadelphia, 17:49-60. With Bernard J. Miller and Frank F. Allbritten, Jr. Blood volume and extracellular fluid changes during thoracic operations. I. Thorac. Surg., 18:605 - 15.

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240 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS With Joseph W. Stayman, fir. Symposium on recent advances in surgical physiology; physiology of cardiac surgery. Surg. Clin. North Am., 29: 1731 -43. 1950 With Frank F. Allbritten, Tr., Herbert Lipshutz, and Bernard I. Miller. Blood volume changes in tuberculous patients treated by thoracoplasty. I. Thorac. Surg., 19:71-79. With Franz Goldstein, Frank F. Allbritten, fir., and Joseph W. Stay- man, fir. The combined manometric determination of oxygen and carbon dioxide in blood, in the presence of low concentra- tions of ethyl ether. I. Biol. Chem., 182:815-20. With {ohn E. Healey, in Intrapericardial anatomy in relation to pneumonectomy for pulmonary carcinoma. J. Thorac. Surg., 19:864-74. John S. Lockwood. Ann. Surg., 132:161. Controlled respiration in thoracic and upper abdominal opera- tions. Minn. Med., 33:1031-34. With Frank F. Allbritten, Jr., Joseph W. Stayman, Jr., and James M. Judd. A clinical study of respiratory exchange during pro- longed operations with an open thorax. Ann. Surg., 132:611-25. 1 1 . . With Frank F. Allbritten, Tr. Recent advances in the surgical treat- ment of carcinoma of the esophagus; discussion of esophago- gastrostomy. Pa. Med. J., 53:811 - 16. With Thomas L. Stokes, Jr. Bronchiectasis. In: Cyclopedia of Med- icine, Surgery and Specialties, ed. George M. Piersol and Edward L. Bortz, 3d. ea., vol. 2, p. 751. Philadelphia: F. A. Davis. With Joseph W. Stayman, Jr., and Frank F. Allbritten, Jr. Con- trolled respiration in thoracic surgery. {. Int. Chir., 10: 106- 11. Carcinoma of the lung with an analysis of symptoms and end results in 243 cases. Chicago Med. Soc. Bull., 13:945-48. 1951 With Frank F. Allbritten, fir., and John Y. Templeton III. Carci- noma of the esophagus and gastric cardia. }. Am. Med. Assoc., 145: 1035-40. Cancer of the esophagus. Med. Rec. Ann., 45:600-602. With Robert K. Finley, {r., John Y. Templeton III, and Robert H. Holland. Changes in urine and serum electrolytes and plasma

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JOHN HEYSHAM GIBBON, JR. 241 volumes after major intrathoracic operations. T. Thorac. Surg., 22:219-34. With Bernard I. Miller and Mary H. Gibbon. Recent advances in the development of a mechanical heart and lung apparatus. Ann. Surg., 134:694- 708. With John Y. Templeton III and Frank F. Allbritten, Tr. Sympo- sium on abdominal surgery; total gastrectomy. Surg. Clin. North Am., 31: 1713-20. An extracorporeal circulation tor the temporary maintenance of the cardiorespiratory functions. Fourteenth Congress de la Societe Internationale de Chirurgie, pp. 984-91. Brussels: Imprimarie Medicate et Scientif~que. With John Y. Templeton III and Robert K. Finley, Jr. Body fluids and electrolytes, blood volume and shock observations on thiocyanate space, serum electrolytes and acid base equilibrium in patients with intrathoracic disease. Surg. Forum, 2:589-95. 1952 The present status of mechanical heart and lungs. Med. Rec. Ann., 46:872-76. With Frank F. Allbritten, fir., Thomas F. Nealon, Jr., and John Y. Templeton III. Symposium on safeguards in surgical diagnosis; the diagnosis of lung cancer. Surg. Clin. North Am., 32: 1657- 72. The pathogenesis and treatment of pulmonary edema in relation to surgery (annual address for 1946~. Trans. Philadelphia Acad. Surg., 37:46-67. 1953 With Bernard I. Miller and Charles Fineberg. Symposium on clin- ical medicine; an improved mechanical heart and lung appa- ratus; its use during open cardiotomy in experimental animals. Med. Clin. North Am., 37: 1603 -24. With Frank F. Allbritten, Jr., John Y. Templeton III, and Thomas F. Nealon, Jr. Cancer of the lung an analysis of 532 consecu- tive cases. Ann. Surg., 138:489-501. With Bernard I. Miller, Victor F. Greco, Harold C. Cohn, and Frank F. Allbritten, Jr. The use of a vent for the left ventricle as a means of avoiding air embolism to the systemic circulation during open cardiotomy with the maintenance of the cardiores-

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242 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS piratory function of animals by a pump oxygenator. Surg. Forum, 4:29-33. With Bernard }. Miller, Victor F. Greco, Burgess A. Smith, Harold C. Cohn, and Frank F. Allbritten, Jr. The production and repair of interatrial septal defects under direct vision with the assis- tance of an extracorporeal pump oxygenator circuit. I. Thorac. Surg., 26:598-616. In memoriam: Samuel Clark Harvey. Ann. Surg., 138:679. 1954 Everett Idris Evans. Ann. Surg., 139:257. With Thomas F. Nealon, Jr. Cancer of the lung. In: Seminar, pp. 20-28. Philadelphia: Merck, Sharp, and Dohme. The application of a mechanical heart and lung apparatus to car- diac surgery. Minn. Med., 37:171-80. With Frank F. Allbritten, Jr., John Y. Templeton III, Robert K. Finley,.}r., Jose H. Amadeo, and Daniel W. Lewis. The results of mitral valvotomy for mitral stenosis. Ann. Surg., 139:786-96. With Bernard J. Miller, Arthur R. C. Dobell, Hans C. Engel, and George B. Voigt. The closure of interventricular septal defects in dogs during open cardiotomy with maintenance of the car- diorespiratory functions by a pump-oxygenator. J. Thorac. Surg., 28:235-40. With Louis H. Clerf, Peter A. Herbut, and Thomas F. Nealon. The lung. In: Pennsylvania Cancer Manual. An Up-to-date Guide For the Practicing Physician, ed. Robert C. Horn, tr., David W. Clare, W. Kenneth Clark, and Benjamin Schneider, chapter 43. Pitts- burgh: The Pittsburgh Press. 1955 With Thomas F. Nealon, Jr., George J. Haupt, and Joyce E. Price. Pulmonary ventilation during open thoracotomy: inflation and deflation time ratios and pressures. J. Thorac. Surg., 30:655- 75. With Thomas L. Stokes, Jr., and John I. McKeown, Jr. Surgical treatment of carcinoma of the lung. Am. I. Surg., 89:484-93. With George J. Haupt. Symposium on applied physiology in modern surgery; the need for adequate pulmonary ventilation during surgical operations. Surg. Clin. North Am., 35: 1553 -71.

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JOHN HEYSHAM GIBBON, JR. 243 The education of a surgeon (Presidential address). Ann. Surg., 142:321 -28. 1956 With Thomas F. Nealon, fir., and Victor F. Greco. A modification of Glassman's gastrostomy with results in 18 patients. Ann. Surg., 43:838-44. With Hans C. Engel. Congenital malformations of the heart and great vessels. In: Cole's Operative Technique. Specialty Surgery, p. 1 19. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. With Thomas F. Nealon, tr., and Joyce E. Price. Respiratory aci- dosis of pulmonary ventilation during open thoracotomy the effect of compression of the lung. Surg. Forum, 7: 193 - 96. With Thomas F. Nealon, fir., George I. Haupt, Harold Chase, and Joyce E. Price. Insufficient carbon dioxide absorption requiring increased pulmonary ventilation during operations with open thoracotomy. I. Thorac. Surg., 32:464-80. 1957 With Thomas F. Nealon, tr. Carcinoma of the lung and tumors of the thorax. In: Surgery, Principles and Practice, ed. J. G. Allen, H. N. Harkins, C. A. Moyer, and I. E. Rhoads, p. 1205. Philadel- phia: J. B. Lippincott. With Thomas F. Nealon, Tr., and Harold F. Chase. Factors in- fluencing the adequacy of carbon dioxide absorption in clinical anesthesia. Anesthesiology, 19:75-81. With John Y. Templeton III and Thomas F. Nealon, Jr. Factors influencing the survival of patients with cancer of the lung. Ann. Surg., 145:637-41. With Thomas F. Nealon, Jr. Symposium on common operations refinements in technique. Technique of pneumonectomy. Surg. Clin. North Am., 37: 1551-63. 1958 With John Y. Templeton III. Current status of pump oxygenators in cardiac surgery and persistent problems in their use. Prog. Cardiovasc. Dis., 1:56-65. With John Y. Templeton III. Evaluation of current cardiac surgical procedures. I. Newark Beth Isr. Hosp., 9:87-96.

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244 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS With Thomas F. Nealon, ir., and Joyce E. Price. The importance of measuring ventilation during the steady state. Surg. Forum, 8:458-65. With Richard T. Cathcart, Thomas F. Nealon, Jr., William Frai- mow, and Louis I. Hampton. Cardiac output under general anesthesia. The effect of mean endotracheal pressure. Ann. Surg., 148:488-97. With Thomas F. Nealon, fir. The effect of position on pulmonary ventilation. I. Thorac. Surg., 36:459-554. With David C. Schechter and Thomas F. Nealon, fir. Recipient set for removal of potassium and ammonium from bank blood. Arch. Surg., 77:944-46. Extracorporeal maintenance of cardiorespiratory functions. Harvey Lectures, vol. 53, pp. 186-224. New York: Academic Press. With David C. Schechter and Thomas F. Nealon, fir. A simple extracorporeal device for reducing elevated blood ammonia levels; preliminary report. Surgery, 44:892-97. With David C. Schechter and Thomas F. Nealon, fir. An ion ex- change resin type artificial kidney. Surg. Forum, 9:110-114. 1959 With David C. Schechter and Thomas F. Nealon, Jr. The removal of excessive potassium and ammonium from bank blood prior to transfusion. Surg. Gynecol. Obstet., 108:1-6. With Thomas F. Nealon, fir., Richard T. Cathcart, William Frai- mow, and Edward D. McLaughlin. The effect of mean endo- tracheal pressure on the cardiac output of patients undergoing intrathoracic operations. I. Thorac. Surg., 38:449-57. With Thomas F. Nealon, {r. Carcinoma of the lung. In: Current Therapy, p. 73. Howard, Conn.: W. B. Saunders. Maintenance of cardiorespiratory functions by extracorporeal cir- culation (The Lewis A. Conner Memorial Lecture). Circulation, 19:646-56. With Thomas F. Nealon, Jr., and Joyce E. Price. The effect of com- pression of the lung on pulmonary ventilation. Surg. Forum, 7: 193-96. 1960 With Thomas F. Nealon, Jr. Preoperative and postoperative man- agement in the treatment of neoplasms of the chest. In: Treat-

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JOHN HEYSHAM GIBBON, JR. 245 ment of Cancer and Allied Diseases, ed. G. T. Pack and I. M. Ariel, vol. 4, p. 279. New York: Paul B. Hoeber. With Charles Fineberg and Nicholas P. Foris. Experimental sham coronary endarterectomy with and without coronary artery per- fusion. Surgery, 47:160-64. With Edward D. McLaughlin and Thomas F. Nealon, {r. Treat- ment of bank blood by resins. i. Thorac. Surg., 40:6Q2- 10. With Walter F. Ballinger II, John Y. Templeton III, and Thomas F. Nealon, in The complications of esophageal hiatal hernia. Pa. Med. I., 63:51-56. With George I. Haupt, Rudolph C. Camishion, and John Y. Tem- pleton III. Treatment of malignant pleural effusions by talc poudrage. I. Am. Med. Assoc., 172:918-21. With Thomas F. Nealon, {r. Recent advances in surgical research and their clinical applications; the physiological effects of pul- monary ventilation during operations under general anesthesia. Surg. Clin. North Am., 40: 1491- 1502. 1961 With Thomas F. Nealon, fir., John Y. Templeton III, and Vincent D. Cuddy. Instrumental perforation of the esophagus. I. Thorac. Surg., 41 :75 - 79. With Rudolph C. Camishion and John Y. Templeton III. Leiomy- oma of the esophagus: review of the literature and report of two cases. Ann. Surg., 153:95 1 - 56. Broncho-esophagology and thoracic surgery. The team effort. Trans. Am. Bronchoesoph. Assoc., 41: 19-24. With Rudolph C. Camishion, Yoshinori Ota, and Vincent D. Cuddy. Pulmonary arterial blood flow through an acutely atelectatic lung. I. Thorac. Surg., 42:599-6 14. Anesthesia and pulmonary problems. Surg. Gynecol. Obstet., 112: 223-27. The road ahead for thoracic surgery (Presidential address). J. Thorac. Surg., 42: 141 -49. With Rudolph C. Camishion and Yoshinori Ota. Blood flow through the superior mesenteric artery with antegrade and ret- rograde perfusion of the aorta. Circulation, 24:900. 1962 With Rudolph C. Camishion and Thomas F. Nealon, {r. Methods

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246 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS of improving morbidity and mortality rates in standard opera- tions; talc poudrage in the treatment of pleural effusion due to cancer. Surg. Clin. North Am., 42:1521-26. With Jerome L. Sandler and Thomas F. Nealon, in Clinical experi- ence with a cation exchange resin in the treatment of stored blood. l. Cardiovasc. Surg., 3:94-98. With Yoshinori Ota and Rudolph C. Camishion. Dirofilar~a imitas (heart worms) and Depetalonema species as causes of "trans- fusion reactions" in dogs. Surgery, 51:518-26. Surgery of the Chest (editor). Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders. 1963 With Rudolph C. Camishion, Leon P. Scicchitano, and Robert Trotta. Blood flow through the superior mesenteric artery dur- ing retrograde aortic perfusion. Surgery, 54:651-55. 1965 With Thomas F. Nealon, fir. The lung, the trachea and the pleura. In: Management of the Patient with Cancer, ed. Thomas F. Nealon, Jr., p. 470. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders. 1966 With Rudolph C. Camishion, Louis Pierucci, and bunco Iida. Pa- ralysis of the left recurrent laryngeal nerve secondary to mitral valvular disease: report of two cases and review of the literature. Ann. Surg., 163:818-28. The artificial intracorporeal heart (Presidential address). Surgery, 59:1-5. 1967 The early development of an extracorporeal circulation with an artificial heart and lung. Trans. Am. Soc. Artif. Intern. Organs, 13:77-79. 1969 With David C. Sabiston and Frank C. Spencer, eds. Surgery of the Chest, 2d. ed. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders.

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J JOHN HEYSHAM GIBBON, JR. 247 1970 With Thomas F. Nealon, fir., and Joseph McCloskey. Cancer de pulmon: reflexiones y revision del significado de las metastasis linfaticas. Prensa Med. Argent., 57:1244-47. The development of the heart-lung apparatus. Rev. Surg., 27:231 -44. 1971 Memoir of I. Parsons Schaeffer, 1878-1970. Trans. Stud. Coll. Physicians Philadelphia, 38:249-51.