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DAVID LOCKE WEBSTER II November 6, 1888-December ~ 7, 1976 BY PAUL KIRKPATRICK THE LIFE to be reviewed here was that of a professional physicist, an educator, a national servant, a family man, and a keen appreciator of the natural earth—its rock, its air, its water, and its celestial environment. He was avid about his hobbies and always macle science out of them by studying them in productive depth. Near the encI, he said that he should have specializes] in geology rather than physics, but few physicists would second this tardy preference. As with able and versatile men in general, there was a variety of good lives open to Webster; like them all, the path actually chosen was a function of the elaborate complex of unpredictables that we must call "chance." David Webster was born in Boston, ant! New England was stamped on his tongue to the end, as any ear for dialect wouIcI recognize, but it would be wrong just to pronounce him a New England type except as it was typical of nineteenth- century New Englanclers to resist complete uniformity. Webster had such individuality or self-dependence. To his students he was a "character," but that tells nothing precise since characters defy characterization. FAMILY DATA Each of Webster's parents was anteceded by at least seven generations of New England ancestors, the regressing lines 367
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368 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS vanishing at about the mid-seventeenth-century peak of immigration from Britain. All of the names seem English, and Webster has ciroppecl a remark that his ancestors were Puritans from the northeast part of England Yorkshire, Norfolk, and thereabouts and that they left Englancl, bounct for America, about two jumps ahead of the sheriff. If this reference hac! any other than a facetious meaning, it should be realizes! that there must then have been some two hundred and fifty unconnected ancestors in the migratory flow that generated our subject, and it is unlikely that one denigration couIct fit them all. The Webster name is best remembered in Massachusetts history because of two individuals. One of them (Daniel) shared a seventeenth-century ancestor with our subject. The other (Noah) was on an unrelated! line. Webster's father, Andrew Gerrish Webster, deprived of a college education by Civil War conditions, was of the type capable of self-education. His recorcled description of him- self was "Tastes simple self-containecI." His wife, Webster's mother, scorned this modesty and pointed out some of his valued services in the community of Boston, the center of his business interest, which was the tanning and wholesale clistri- bution of leather. Webster's mother was born Lizzie Florence Briggs in Boston in IS53. The Briggs name had been known in the shipbuilcling business for more than two centuries, but in the middle of the nineteenth century steamships had improved to the point where they couicl cirive the windjammers off the oceans. I,izzie's father (Harrison Otis Briggs) gave up the contest, mover! his family to England, ant! got himself a job in a shipyard in Liverpool. There Lizzie got most of her schooling. For reasons unknown, the family returned to America after a dozen years, and Webster picks up the story at that point.
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DAVID LOCKE WEBSTER II 369 By the time the family returned to the United States the old square-rigged sailing ships were almost a thing of the past, and my grandfather never had built steamships. So Grandpa Briggs went into a bank instead of going back into shipping. As President of the Bank of the Republic in Boston he had a prominent part of some kind in the reconstruction of the South after the Civil War. He was very definitely not a carpetbagger. His work was entirely altruistic, and just what he did there I am not sure, but I know it was for the benefit of the Southerners. My mother once described her father as having "great sweetness and unselfishness, with dignity and reserve. . . a clear and quick brain, great kindness of heart and a sense of humor, very fond of music, literature, travel, and outdoor sports."* Webster's father left his Boston leather business about 1910 at an age now considerecI appropriate for retirement, but he had other interests to follow, particularly real estate. He worked until his death at ninety-three. His son has citec! evidence that at that age he was still "a keen man." There is also evidence that prolonged physical and mental health were Webster family characteristics, traits borne out by David Locke the second. CHILDHOOD Raising the young Webster from his tweIve-pound birth weight to his teens was a project shared by numerous loving and unskilled hands. In his last decade of life, the product of their efforts testified: "I grew up practically alone [though he had a beloved elcler brother who hac! been brought along under a different formula]. My childhood was deadly un- interesting. ~ was not allowect to play with other children because it was feared ~ might catch germs of one kind or another." ~ When first sent to school at age five, he was completely surprised by the discovery of what it was like to play with * Personal journal of David Locke Webster II, n.d. t Ibid.
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370 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS other children. His playmates found that he was under motherly orders to keep his hat on (to avoid fatal pneu- monia), so naturally they knocked it off. "It was a completely wrong introduction to clearing with humanity, and ~ don't think I have ever really recoverer! from it,* he said in his eighty-seventh year. Had Webster's career been steered by modern aptitude tests, he would never have become a physicist, for, as he confessed in later life, his most clifficult elementary subject was arithmetic. His later high-level aptitude for mathematics first became perceptible in the later courses of algebra and geometry, subjects that he found easy and fun. Other detester! experiences of Webster's schooling phase were compulsory dancing lessons (from about age eight), compulsory piano lessons (beginning at about ten and com- pletely ineffective), ant! school athletics. He likes] bodily activity and suffered from no handicapping physical disabili- ties, but he was cleadly sick of being regimented in every way and came to the point of automatically opposing any new thrust of it. Another form of systematic observance, which began in early childhood but never pair! off to the satisfaction of those who administered it, was religious training. Perhaps it would have been more effective had it not been so competitive. He has written that he was "dragged every Sunday to one church or another. . . Land] . . . all through the Episcopal Sunday School,"T but on weekdays there were other pressures. His scholarly and respected paternal grandfather, a devoted Swedenborgian, bore as much responsibility, by family agree- ment, for the boy's upbringing as did his mother. In David's early years his mother's time was taken up by "social duties," and he spent most of his time with nursemaids, all Irish * Ibid. t Ibid.
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DAVID LOCKE WEBSTER II 37 Catholic, anti, it appears, as much concerned with the welfare of his soul as with that of his body. EDUCATION AND RELATED MATTERS Such experiences were not without later effect. Early warning about Robert Ingersoll drew him into broadening critical reading. Association with his grandfather led him to appreciate Emanuel Swedenborg as a great scientist consider- ably ahead of Kant and Laplace on some discoveries. Webster's obligatory Sunday morning studies of the Episcopal Book of Common Prayer and the Creed made wonderful material for swearing, and he developer! an ability at pic- turesque profanity that stayed with him for life. Ricliculing religion is a simpler course of action than try- ing to think it out, and Webster's ironic experiences did not leave him an impious scoffer but a thoughtful agnostic who would sneak attendance at a Catholic mass, to see what it was like, when grouncled on some long solo flight. After a sailing or flying near-miss he confessed that he could thank God without believing in him. When required to fill out a "re- ligious preference" blank he would profess agnosticism. In a later year at Stanford, on his morning walks to the Quad, he developed a good acquaintance with his neighbor, the university chaplain. These peripatetic philosophers wasted little time on trivialities and subsequently the chap- lain, an inveterate author, expressed in the frontal pages of a book his gratitude for aid received from "Dr. David Webster, ctistinguishect atheist of Stanford University." Until he went to a teaching post at the University of Michi- gan in his twenty-eighth year, Webster had tract no ex- perience of public education. His own schooling was in Boston private schools, finishing for Harvard at Noble Sc Greenough's Classical School. Webster himself wrote "I went from there to Harvard because in those clays no one with my
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BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 372 background and upbringing would have thought of going to college anywhere else." ~ There is nothing to be found in Webster's papers about his undergraduate years at Harvard and almost nothing in the possession of his family. He came through in the usual four years with the much less usual summa cum laude. He seems to have been less than completely satisfied with his record and to have grieved over the presence there of a single C grade. His mother appealed to the Harvard administration about the disgraceful C and had to be satisfied with the decIa- ration that there was nothing higher that the College could give than a summa cum laude, but if the defeated gladiator would present himself at the president's office, that official would publicly put a wreath of laurel and roses on his brow. It is comforting to know that this record did not denote any complete life switch to middle-of-the-road conformities. It surprises this reviewer of his life to find that the child non- conformist could so abruptly convert to conventional aca- demic ideals of performance and aspiration. RESEARCH BEGINNINGS Following graduation Webster went on for the doctorate, working principally under the direction of veteran Professor Theodore Lyman on the optical properties of chlorine gas, a rather unexciting classical field that did not firmly hold his interest beyond the three years of degree work. Phrases like "modern physics" and "atomic physics" were resounding in the halls of science and young searchers and researchers recognized that the old classical fields no longer offered the maxima of either the prizes or the fun. Webster selected the field of X-ray physics, and it was to be the area of his chief research effort for three decades. With his new degree he *IBM.
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DAVID LOCKE WEBSTER II 373 received appointment to an instructorship. He assembled X-ray equipment and went to work on problems of his own choosing. A brief flashback is necessary here. The three gracluate- stuclent years were not unmitigated labor: In 191~ Webster met and in 1912 married Anna Cutler Woodman. Little is known about this romance, but he has recorded that he was drawn to her because, unlike most of the girls he knew, she was training herself to do something, to become a teacher. Another strong plus for Anna was that she was just the kind who wouIcI like a honeymoon on a sailboat, sharing with him his most beloved avocation. In another year, their family of two girls anti two boys started coming. Back at the research laboratory there were interesting developments. Throughout the first clecade of this century, X-rays were used but not unclerstooc3. Not until 1912 was it uniformly agreed that these rays were waves much like ordinary light and not showers of submicroscopic bullets. As waves, they were in the field of the spectroscopist, but none of his instruments could disperse them or measure their wavelengths. The spectrometer that could do these things had been invented by W. Lawrence Bragg, who used a crystal in place of the familiar prism or grating, and so opened up the science of X-ray spectroscopy. Webster, with some shop aicI, put together an X-ray spec- trometer on the Bragg pattern and got started observing the nature of the spectra emitted by the then recently available glass X-ray tubes developed for medical use. He could iclen- tify the range of wavelengths the tube emitted when in high- voltage operation, and he could measure in an approximate manner the relative output strengths of the different wave- lengths he chose to observe. Before going further with the laboratory data, we inter- polate. Experimenters had concluded, before spectrometers came to their aicI, that the X-ray power put out by the com-
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374 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS mon tubes comprised a wide variety of wavelengths. It was evident that electrons in the evacuated tube were accelerated to high speeds by an applied and measurable voltage but were then abruptly stopped by their impact upon a metal target (in this case, of tungsten). The observed X-rays radiated out from the spot on the target where the electrons collided, so one had to suppose that the X-rays got their energy from what the electrons surrendered when they were stopped. But it would have been rash to suppose that all of the electron kinetic energy reappeared as radiation energy. Such uncertainties had a serious importance since these were days when the old quantum theory was out on trial. It grew in credibility as it was found applicable to more phe- nomena. Here was a relatively uncluttered phenomenon in- volving electrons and a kind of light, a sort of reverse of the phenomenon of photoelectricity, which had been greatly clarified by the application of quantum concepts, particularly the doctrine that light, though demonstrably a kind of wave, dealt out its energy in little mutually exclusive packets. Phy- sicists uncounted had wondered if something of the kind were involved in the X-ray tube. Finding out would require, among other things, quantitative X-ray measurements such as a Bragg spectrometer might facilitate. Professor William Duane, very senior to Webster in the Harvard science escalator, was well aware of the theoretical problems in the X-ray field and of possible modes of solution. He borrowed Webster's spectrometer and assigned one of his younger men, Franklin C. Hunt, to explore with it the con- tinuous X-ray spectra of tungsten, making careful records of the voltages used to accelerate the electrons. The investiga- tion was a brilliant success, showing that the spectrum was abruptly terminated at its high-frequency end and that the terminal frequency there fitted into the famed Planck- Einstein energy formula, which equates the energy of an
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DAVID LOCKE WEBSTER II 375 electron to that of a radiation particle (or, as we came to say later, to the energy of a photon). Professor Duane promptly reported these findings to a meeting of the American Physical Society and the news went round the worIcI under the title of the law of Duane and Hunt, and so it is still known and clescribec! in many a book on many a library shelf. What the world did not know and found out only very recently is that the Duane-Hunt experiment had been con- ceivecl, nicely performed, and recorcled (but not publicizecl) earlier by David Webster. Now the writer of this memoir must switch to the first person. ~ worked beside Webster at Stanford University for more than a decade and talked with him occasionally about scientific matters for three decades more. There was much talk about X-rays, but never did he tell me of his anticipation of Duane and Hunt. I clo not know why. I came to know of it only because Webster was a meticulous recorder. In his postmortem effects were an uncounted number of loose-leaf ring binders—certainly between one and two huncTrecI- among which I found his Harvard research notes. They show that he knew exactly what he was doing on March 3l, 1915, when he gathered data on the tungsten continuous spectrum, plotted a curve, noted that it terminates! on the shortwave sicle, and calculated therefrom a good value of the Planck constant h. He was aware that he had been scooped, and I do not understand why he clid not try to salvage what glory was possible later. Young scientists upward bound are expected to put their best feat forward. HacI he been as skillet] or as well motivated in the matter of public relations as he was in * For a discussion of David Webster's work in this connection, see P. Kirkpatrick, "Confirming the Planck-Einstein equation h v = ( i/2)mv2," American f ournal of Physics, 48( 10):803~.
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376 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS scientific performance ant! recording, the law of Duane and Hunt might have been Webster's law all these years. WORLD WAR I From Harvard, Webster went in 1917 to an assistant pro- fessorship in the University of Michigan, which turned out to be but his entrance vestibule to WorIct War I, the first of two wars in which he was destined to rencler scientific service. He was caught in the general ctraft, but fount} a more useful and attractive occupation in the air service of the Army Signal Reserve Corps. He was not a flyer himself at this stage, but requested and got flight instruction. Here began a personal enthusiasm comparable to that which he had always felt, and possibly inherited, for sailing. His responsibilities started with the testing of flight instruments but progressed rapidly to testing and criticism of the many products of the suciclenly created military airplane industry, and also of foreign planes. He has been called the first test pilot in American air service, but he later declined this ctistinction, since there was then no such recognized title. His flight instruction took place at Gerstner Fielc! (Louisiana) where he had been sent to have charge of the measuring instruments intenclecT for use in tests of the Amer- ican modification of the British DH4 airplane. Though aware of his defective hearing and apprehensive about a tendency to airsickness, Webster mastered flying promptly and was told by his French instructor, "Mon Dieu! You fly like ze God Himself! "* The new American planes were a bitter disappointment, particularly their much-touted Liberty motor, which was re- placing the British Rolis-Royce. The ship was entirely clis- qualified from aerial combat. Webster has written about these trials: * Personal journal of David Locke Webster II.
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390 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS she rendered him an abundance of human unclerstancting, literary criticism, social guidance, and flight companionship. The dearest friend of his later years was the space scientist, Alberta Alksne, with whom he wrote theoretical papers and toured Australia, New ZealancI, and the Barrier Reef. Webster stopper! working at NASA in 1975, when he was eighty-six years oIcI. He was not eager to quit, but years of battling with uremic poisoning had worn him clown ant! he cliect on December 17, 1976. He retained his curiosity about the worIct anc! life to the end, asking, almost at the last, "What's it all about?" It is not the function of these pages to praise but to recall anc! commemorate. In summary, Davic! Webster in his thirties was known among physicists of his time as an X-ray man anc! more particularly as an experimenter rather than as a theorist. This trend of his reputation was an acciclental result of his opportunities ant! no real choice of his own. He was conscious that he tract no great gifts of digital dexterity and no kind of apprenticeship in the manual arts of the instrument shop, but at Stanford, in a delicate anti budgetIess experimental program, any such disadvantages were com- pensatect by his superior understancling of what was being attempted, his mathematical familiarity with its past ant! pre- sumable future, and his ability to theorize his way out of a dilemma. In the twenties he was the only possible theorist in the small Department. He came to realize, though none too rapidly, that high-cIass power in such physics was an essential condition for the future growth ant! service of a university physics department in either its teaching or its investigative function. In this need he took the strong step of securing the appointment of Felix Bloch (1932), the more to Webster's crectit inasmuch as his makeup incluclect a trace of ethnic . . . . c .lscrlmlnatlon.
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DAVID LOCKE WEBSTER II 391 This wouIcl have been an appropriate time to swing the research emphasis of the Department into one of the new productive channels, but Webster preferred to carry on with X-ray observations using more energetic collisions. This simple-sounding extension wouIct have required far bigger budgets than the Department tract ever seen; Webster went to the foundations for such support and was turned clown. This was his last attempt at major research leaclership. William Hansen, meanwhile, pores! over cheaper ways to get high- energy electron collisions producing the cavity oscillator, which lecl to the klystron and to the two-mile linear electron accelerator. In the list of Webster's life achievements the production of Hansen is not the least. This prodigious undergracluate (now long cleact) was first Webster's wor- shipper, then his replacement in advanced lectures, and later his adversary in klystron diplomacy and management. Webster held the fixed opinion that a university has in its work of teaching and scholarly investigation two separable functions with a degree of competition between them. He felt the dishonesty of spending tuition receipts on the showier activity of research, visible to clonors and popular with most of the costly scholars. Opposing this custom in principle, he unavoiclably practiced it and confessed in print that he could not serve two competing masters with fairness if he had to clivide individual clays between them. It was a relief to him that he lived to see research supported in relative abundance from other sources. Webster never click set his evident capacities and less evident ambitions on any resolute pursuit of maximum professional visibility. He took up the questions of living as they acictressec! him. His always curious mince was intrigued by the problems of nature and he solved a few. More solu- tions wouic! have meant more glory, but sometimes it ap- peared that his payoff was more in the solving than in the
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392 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS solution. It was characteristic that when he visitec! Hawaii and saw the destructive work of a "tidal wave," he busied himself for two years on tsunami research and determined the effects of certain idealizec! island forms upon the impacting sea waves. When he learner! of the anomalous magnetizations frozen into historic lava flows, it was not long before he was in conference with vuIcanologists about causes of the phe- nomena and their possible use in predicting eruptions. The impression of Webster's personality was one of strength anc! gentleness. He was often charming, though cer- tainly with no intent to charm. He hac! some biases ant! the grace to conceal them. Though not infallible in clearings with people, he was quite clevoicI of guile and was irritated by signs of it in others. Since successful diplomacy cannot operate without guile, his had its limits. His judgments of others were confident, but some found his condemnations exaggerated. In general, people likecl him warmly and remembered him lastingly. His concern for public opinion was slight and yet detectable. His memory became richly Fled with science items now rapidly becoming historic anct with details of personal ex- periences relevant to many continuing lives. It must always seem a definite human loss when such slowly built files are wiped out without a copy. David Webster was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1923.
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DAVID LOCKE WEBSTER II B IB LIOGRAPHY 1912 393 On an electromagnetic theory of gravitation. Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci., 47:559-81. On the existence and properties of the ether. Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci., 48:509-27. 1913 The theory of the scattering of Rontgen radiation. Philos. Mag., 25:23~1 '11. 1914 The effect of pressure on the absorption of light by bromine and chlorine, and its theoretical significance. Phys. Rev., 4:177-94. 1915 Planck's radiation formula and the classical electrodynamics. Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci., 50:129~5. The intensities of X-ray spectra. Phys. Rev., 5:238~3. The X-ray spectrum of tungsten at a constant potential. Phys. Rev., 6:56. Parson's magneton theory of atomic structure. Phys. Rev., 6:54. 1916 The emission quanta of characteristic X-rays. Phys. Rev., 7:403. The emission quanta of characteristic X-rays. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 2:90-94. Experiments on the emission quanta of characteristic X-rays. Phys. Rev., 7:599~13. With H. Clark. A test for X-ray refraction made with monochroma- tic rays. Phys. Rev., 8:528-53. Notes on Page's theory of heat radiation. Phys. Rev., 8:66-69. 1917 With H. Clark. The intensities of X-rays of the L series. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 3:181-85. X-ray emissivity as a function of cathode potential. Phys. Rev 9:220-25. .,
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394 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS The theory of electromagnetic mass of the Parson magneton and other non-spherical systems. Phys. Rev., 9:484-99. Equations as statements about things. Science, 46:187-89. 1918 The scattering of alpha rays as evidence on the Parson magneton hypothesis. I. Am. Chem. Soc., 40:375-79. 1919 An approximate law of energy distribution in the general X-ray spectrum. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 5:163-66. The origin of the general radiation spectrum of X-rays. Phys. Rev., 13:303-5. 1920 The intensities of X-rays of the L series. II. The critical potentials of the platinum lines. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 6:26-35. The physics of flight. I. Franklin Inst., 189:553-80. Quantum emission phenomena in radiation. Phys. Rev., 16:31-40. Quantum emission phenomena radiation. Science, 51:504. Problems of X-ray emission. Bull. Natl. Res. Council U.S., 1: 427-55. 1921 High-frequency limits of X-ray spectra at different angles from the cathode stream. Phys. Rev., 18:155. Some X-ray isochromats. Phys. Rev., 18:321-22. A general survey of the present status of the atomic structure prob- lem. Bull. Natl. Res. Council U.S., 2:336-55. The present conception of atomic structure. Bull. Natl. Res. Coun- cil U.S., 2 (part 1):335-55. 1922 With H. N. Russell. Note on the masses of the stars. Not. R. Astron. Soc.,82:181-82. The penetration of cathode rays in molybdenum, and its effect on the X-ray spectrum. Phys. Rev., 19:545~6. A device for timing ionization currents accurately. Phys. Rev., 19: 546.
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DAVID LOCKE WEBSTER II 395 1923 With A. E. Hennings. The penetration of cathode rays in molyb- denum. Phys. Rev., 21:301-11. With A. E. Hennings. X-ray isochromats of molybdenum. Phys. Rev., 21:312-25. With E. R. Drew and H. W. Farwell. General Physicsfor Colleges. New York: D. Appleton-Century Co. 1924 The distribution of energy in the continuous X-ray spectrum. Radi- ology, 2:21~21. A possible explanation of tertiary line spectra in X-rays. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 10:186-90. A possible explanation of tertiary line spectra in X-rays. Phys. Rev., 23:663. 1925 With P. A. Ross. The Compton effect with no box around the tubes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 11:56-61. With P. A. Ross. The Compton effect: Evidence on its relation to Duane's box effect. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 11:61~4. With P. A. Ross. The Compton effect with hard X-rays. Tungsten K series. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 11:224~27. With P. A. Ross. The Compton effect with hard X-rays. Phys. Rev., 25:7 14. With P. A. Ross. The Compton and Duane effects. Phys. Rev., 25:235. 1926 The use of British units in the teaching of mechanics. Bull. Am. Phys. Soc., 1: 1-7. The teaching of physics, with special reference to the teaching of physics to students of agriculture. Bull. Am. Phys. Soc., 1:7-25. Continuity of the X-ray spectrum at a wave-length twice the short- wave limit. Phys. Rev., 27:638. 1927 Direct and indirect ejection of K electrons by cathode rays. Phys. Rev., 30:365.
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396 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Large losses of energy by cathode rays: Ratio of the probabilities of the two types. Phys. Rev., 30:365. Direct and indirect production of characteristic X-rays. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 13:445-56. 1928 Direct and indirect characteristic X-rays: Their ratio as a function of cathode-ray energy. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 14:330-39. K-electron ionization by direct impact of cathode rays. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 14:339-44. K-electron ionization by direct impact of cathode rays. Phys. Rev., 31:1118. With H. Clark, R. M. Yeatmen, and W. W. Hansen. Intensities of K-series X-rays from thin targets. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 14:679-86. With R. M. Yeatman. The ballistic method of ionization measure- ment with a quadrant electrometer. I. Opt. Soc. Am. Rev. Sci. Instrum., 17 :248-53. With R. M. Yeatman. Recombination of ions in the chamber of an X-ray spectrometer. Phys. Rev., 32:325. 1929 With W. W. Nicholas and M. Siegbahn. Emission of X-rays, wave- lengths and data on absorption limits. In: International Critical Tables, vol. 6, pp. 23-49. New York: McGraw-Hill. With W. W. Hansen. The relation between the continuous and line spectra of X-rays from thin targets. Phys. Rev., 33:635-36. 1931 With H. Clark and W. W. Hansen. Effects of cathode-ray diffusion on intensities in X-ray spectra. Phys. Rev., 37:115-35. 1932 With W. W. Hansen and F. B. Duveneck. Probabilities of K-electron ionization of silver by cathode rays. Phys. Rev., 42:141~2. With W. W. Hansen and F. B. Duveneck. Measurement of X-ray intensities as functions of voltage, up to 180 kv. Rev. Sci. Instrum., 3 :729~9.
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DAVID LOCKE WEBSTER II 1933 397 With W. W. Hansen and F. B. Duveneck. Relative intensity of the silver K-lines from a thick target as a function of voltage and emergence angle. Phys. Rev., 43:385. With W. W. Hansen and F. B. Duveneck. Probabilities of K-electron ionization of silver by cathode rays. Phys. Rev., 43:839-58. With W. W. Hansen and F. B. Duveneck. X-ray line intensities and cathode-ray retardation in thick targets of silver. Phys. Rev., 44:25~64. With L. T. Pockman and P. Kirkpatrick. Probabilities of L ioniza- tions of Au by cathode rays. Phys. Rev., 44:130-31. 1934 Vacuum-leak hunting with carbon dioxide. Rev. Sci. Instrum., 5:42~3. Facing reality in the teaching of magnetism. Am. Phys. Teach., 2:7-10. Current progress in X-ray physics. Science, 79:191-97. Unscrambling the dielectric constant. Am. Phys. Teach., 2:149-51. On the teaching of magnetism. Am. Phys. Teach., 2: 179-80. With L. T. Pockman and P. Kirkpatrick. X-ray line intensities in thick targets of nickel. Phys. Rev., 45:151. 1935 With W. W. Hansen and F. B. Duveneck. Errata: Ionization area of He and Bethe's theory. Phys. Rev., 47:699. With W. W. Hansen and P. Kirkpatrick. Electron optics of a 3000 kv X-ray tube. Phys. Rev., 48:486. 1936 With W. W. Hansen. Electrostatic focusing at relativistic speeds. Rev. Sci. Instrum., 7:17-23. 1938 Contributions of Edwin Herbert Hall to the teaching of physics. Am. Phys. Teach., 6: 1~16. With N. C. Little, F. W. Warburton, M. W. White, S. R. Williams,
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398 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS and W. H. Michener. What is the meter-kilogram-second system of units? Am. Phys. Teach., 6:144-51. 1939 Cathode-ray bunching. J. Appl. Phys., 10:501-9. Surface currents in deep tidal waters. Science, 90:107-8. The theory of klystron oscillations. I Appl. Phys., 10: 86~72. With L. T. Pockman, K. Harworth, and P. Kirkpatrick. Probability of K ionization of nickel by cathode rays. Phys. Rev., 55:682. 1 940 The ground school of the Civilian Pilot Training Program. Air Facts, 3: 16-27. Perceptual disorientation during landing of airplane. Science, 92:1-3. 1941 With L. T. Pockman. New techniques for making thin targets. Rev. Sci. Instrum., 12:389-92. With D. i. Brimm, Jr., and }. R. Cram. Flight Instructor's Manual, Civil Aeronautics Bull. no. 5, 3d ed. Civil Aeronautics Admini- stration. 146 pp. Wash., D.C.: U.S. Govt. Print. Off. With D. I. Brimm, fir., and I. R. Cram. Civil Pilot Training Manual, Civil Aeronautics Bull. no.23,2d ed. Civil Aeronautics Admini- stration. 334 pp. Wash., D.C.: U.S. Govt. Print. Off. 1942 Velocity modulation currents. J. Appl. Phys., 13: 786-87. 1946 Forces on ferromagnets through which electrons are moving. Am. J. Phys., 14:360-64. Forces on ferromagnets through which electrons are moving. Phys. Rev., 70:446. 1947 With L. T. Pockman, P. Kirkpatrick, and K. Harworth. The prob- ability of K ionization of nickel by electrons as a function of their energy. Phys. Rev., 71:330-38.
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DAVID LOCKE WEBSTER II 399 With L. T. Pockman, P. Kirkpatrick, and K. Harworth. Probability of K ionization of nickel by electrons. Phys. Rev., 71:470. What shall we say about airplanes? Am. l. Phys., 15:228-37. 1950 With W. F. Brown, Jr., N. H. Frank, W. H. Michener, C. C. Mur- dock, and E. C. Kemble. The teaching of electricity and mag- netism at college level. Am. l. Phys., 18:1-25; 69-88. 1951 Masses of carriers in conductors. Phys. Rev., 82:808-9. 1953 Roentgen ray physics. In: The Science of Radiology, ed. Otto Glaser, pp. 39-63. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C Thomas. 1957 Reminiscences of the early years of the Association. Am. I. Phys., 25: 131-34. 1961 Relativity and parallel wires. Am. }. Phys., 29:841~4. Relativity of moving circuits and magnets. Am. I. Phys., 29:262-68. 1963 Schisms charges and currents in rotating matter. Am. I. Phys., 31:590-97. 1967 Dynamical friction. Am. }. Phys., 35:186-93. 1970 Electricity. In: Encyclopaedia Britannica, pp. 127-86. Chicago: En- cyclopaedia Britannica. With A. Y. Alksne. Magnetic and electric fields in the magneto- sheath. Planet. Space Sci., 18: 1203-12.
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400 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1972 With A. Y. Alksne and R. C. Whitten. Does Io's ionosphere in- fluence Jupiter's radio bursts? Astrophys. }., 174:685-96. 1973 With R. C. Whitten. Which electromagnetic equations apply in rotating coordinates? Astrophys. Space Sci., 24:323-33.