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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science CHAPTER 7 BOOKS ON TEACHING SCIENCE 7.1 David C. Kramer. Animals in the Classroom: Selection, Care, and Observations. Menlo Park, Calif.: Addison-Wesley, 1989. 234 pp. Price: $19.95 (ISBN 0-201-20679-X) Animals in the Classroom: Selection, Care, and Observations is for elementary and middle school teachers interested in keeping small animals such as earthworms, praying mantises, frogs, and hamsters in the classroom. The book focuses on 28 individual creatures that represent various levels of the animal kingdom, from worms through mammals. A section on each animal combines text and illustrations to describe where and how the animal lives in nature, how to obtain it, and how to care for it with classroom-tested techniques. The book encourages teachers to stimulate student curiosity and interest in learning about animals. It helps teachers select appropriate animals and care for them humanely, and supplies background information to help answer students' questions and provide meaningful learning experiences with the animals. Suggestions for student observations and activities are given. 7.2 Margaret Jorgensen. Assessing Habits of Mind: Performance-Based Assessment in Science and Mathematics. Columbus, Ohio: ERIC Clearinghouse for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education, 1994. 112 pp. Price: $16.75 (ERIC Accession No. SE 054 513) This book is designed to provide K-12 science and mathematics teachers with strategies for identifying, developing, and using performance-based assessment in the classroom. In 7 chapters, the book defines performance-based assessment, discusses why it should be used in the classroom, presents a structure for designing performance-based assessments, describes the process of developing scoring rubrics, and suggests guidelines for reviewing commercially developed assessments as well as those developed by colleagues or available in the public domain. The book closes with a list of important but as yet unanswered questions on this subject—questions about equity, fairness, consequences of use, and concerns shared by theoreticians and practitioners about the value and appropriateness of performance-based assessment. 7.3 Senta A. Raizen, Joan B. Baron, Audrey B. Champagne, and others. Assessment in Science Education: The Middle Years. Washington, D.C.: National Center for Improving Science Education, 1990. 129 pp. (Available from Learning Innovations; see app. A.) Price: $18.00 Assessment in Science Education: The Middle Years is 1 in a series of 5 reports on science and mathematics
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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science Facilitating student discussion
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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science ORDERING INFORMATION FOR PUBLICATIONS IN CHAPTER 7 The prices given for books and other publications in chapter 7 do not include the costs of shipping and handling. Before placing an order, readers are advised to contact the publishers of these items for current ordering information, including shipping charges. In some cases, discounts or special rates may be available to schools and educators. Publishers' names are cited in the bibliographic data of the annotations. Their addresses and telephone and fax numbers, as well as e-mail addresses, when available, are listed in appendix A, "Publishers and Suppliers." for young adults (ages 10 to 14) from the National Center for Improving Science Education. This 8-chapter report addresses the role of assessment in early adolescents' science learning. It first reviews the capabilities and interests of early adolescents and considers the nature of an education, especially in science and technology, that can build on these assets. It discusses what is known about the cognitive and social development of 10- to 14-year-old students, and reviews the nature of science programs and the middle school environment. The core of the report then explains assessment and instruction in the service of science learning as viewed by the National Center for Improving Science Education, and it points out opportunities for assessment presented by the growing cognitive abilities of early adolescents. Examples show how scientific inquiry itself can provide assessment opportunities and how teachers can weave assessment into their science teaching. Finally, the report discusses assessment for broad policy purposes. It suggests 6 principles for science assessments at the middle-level and recommends steps for achieving these principles. 7.4 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). Barrier-Free in Brief: Laboratories and Classrooms in Science and Engineering. Washington, D.C.: AAAS, 1991. 36 pp. Price: Free (ISBN 0-87168-421-6) Barrier-Free in Brief was prepared by the American Association for the Advancement of Science's Project on Science, Technology, and Disability. The booklet is a guide for university research laboratories, but it addresses meeting the needs of students with disabilities in the science classroom in any educational institution. A barrier-free classroom is defined as being fully accessible to people with disabilities. The booklet offers specific suggestions about organizing a barrier-free classroom and teaching students with disabilities. It presents related material such as a building access checklist and a list of organizations to contact for information on helping students with particular disabilities. 7.5 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). Benchmarks for Science Literacy. New York, N.Y.: Oxford University Press, 1993. 418 pp. Price: $22.95 (ISBN 0-19-508986-3) Benchmarks for Science Literacy on Disk [text and companion software version] Price: $24.95 Created in close consultation with teachers, administrators, and scientists, Benchmarks for Science Literacy and its companion Benchmarks for Science Literacy on Disk suggest guidelines for what all students should know and be able to do in science and mathematics by the end of specific grade levels. Benchmarks is part of the Project 2061 initiative of AAAS. The volume outlines ways of achieving the standards for science literacy recommended in the 1989 AAAS publication Science for All Americans. Rather than being a proposed curriculum or a plan for one, Benchmarks is a compendium of specific goals that educators and policymakers can use to build new curricula. The software version allows users to browse, assemble, and print benchmarks in various formats, examine conceptual strands, use cross-reference features to identify conceptual connections, and brainstorm activities to address random sets of benchmarks from one grade span.
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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science 7.6 National Center for Improving Science Education. Building Scientific Literacy: A Blueprint for Science in the Middle Years. Washington, D.C.: National Center for Improving Science Education, 1992. 73 pp. (Available from Learning Innovations; see app. A.) Price: $8.40 Building Scientific Literacy is 1 in a series of 5 reports on science and mathematics for young adults (ages 10 to 14) from the National Center for Improving Science Education. This report is a blueprint for the creation of an effective national program of science education for students in America's middle-grade schools. It is designed as a "briefing" for those who have a concern with and responsibility for education in public schools—middle-level teachers and principals, science specialists, curriculum directors, assessment personnel, staff development leaders, school district superintendents and administrators, and state and federal education officials. The report first surveys what is known about middle-level curriculum instruction, assessment, and teacher development, and then proposes ideal goals for science education in the middle years. Included are specific recommendations on what the federal government, state agencies, institutions of higher education, building and district administrators, and teachers should do to promote changes in policies and practices in the science curriculum. 7.7 Sally Berman. Catch Them Thinking in Science: A Handbook of Classroom Strategies. Palatine, Ill.: IRI/Skylight Publishing, 1993. 127 pp. Price: $22.95 (ISBN 0-932935-55-9) Catch Them Thinking in Science is designed to help middle and high school teachers create activities and lessons that emphasize and teach higher-level thinking skills in science. Featured activity topics include, for example, salamanders and frogs, planets, fungi, and elements and compounds. The activities require cooperative learning while using discipline-crossing strategies such as think-pair-share, Venn diagrams, prediction guides, learning logs, wraparounds, webs, and metacognitive questioning methods. The 21 chapters or lessons are grouped in 3 parts: part I focuses on information-gathering activities, part II on activities that involve organizing and making sense of information, and part III on activities that combine critical and creative thinking and transfer. Some lessons can be used exactly as they appear; others can serve as models for lessons that fit into any curriculum, lecture, or textbook assignment. Each lesson includes background information and suggestions for guiding discussion. Blackline masters are also provided. 7.8 Joseph L. Accongio and Rodney L. Doran. Classroom Assessment: Key to Reform in Secondary Science Education. Columbus, Ohio: ERIC Clearinghouse for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education, 1993. 207 pp. Price: $16.75 Classroom Assessment: Key to Reform in Secondary Science Education discusses how teachers can improve assessment techniques for measuring and evaluating outcomes of science instruction in their classrooms. This monograph was undertaken with the idea that the improvement of assessment practices directly relates to the improvement of instruction and achievement in science. Its 5 chapters address these topics: (1) Assessing Science Achievement in Middle and High Schools; (2) A Framework for Teaching and Assessing Science: The Nature of Science and the Nature of the Learner; (3) Assessing Levels of Cognition in the Content Areas of Science; (4) Assessing Process Skills: Scientific Thinking, Inquiry and Problem Solving; and (5) Authentic Assessment in Science: Performing Like a Scientist. Appendixes include concrete examples of items that can be used to assess learning in the cognitive domain. They also present items for assessing planning, performing, and reasoning in scientific problem solving. Other appendixes offer proficiency profiles and a rate sheet for science process skills, and examples of authentic assessment tasks. 7.9 Robert J. Stahl, ed. Cooperative Learning in Science: A Handbook for Teachers. Menlo Park, Calif.: Addison-Wesley, Innovative Learning Publications, 1996. 445 pp. (Available from Addison-Wesley/Longman; see app. A.) Price: $22.95 (ISBN 0-201-49422-1) This Handbook for Teachers contains 16 essays by teachers and leaders in the cooperative learning movement. It describes cooperative learning strategies that can be used effectively in the classroom. One essay, for example, gives step-by-step directions for using Jigsaw—a learning strategy that involves team learning. Another essay offers suggestions on how to implement cooperative learning in classrooms with students of different achievement levels and cultures. Other entries in the volume present an approach to learning that requires students to "compete" in games and tournaments; guidelines for structuring successful academic controversy within the classroom; and procedures for helping students complete research papers within a cooperative learning context. Many of the strategies are appropriate for any science content area and can be
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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science used with all levels of students—from elementary through high school—as well as in teacher training and professional staff development workshops. Some essays provide classroom examples and scenarios; others include sample lesson plans, resource materials, generic checklists, and forms. 7.10 Alfred De Vito. Creative Well-springs for Science Teaching. 2nd ed. West Lafayette, Ind.: Creative Ventures, 1989. 348 pp. Price: $18.95 (ISBN 0-942034-06-6) This lighthearted but useful book stresses methods for creative teaching to improve the quality of science education for children. Creative Wellsprings for Science Teaching presents 3 approaches to teaching science—morphological, process, and ideation-generation—and outlines classroom activities for each approach. The book addresses the following topics: educating the gifted in science; science instruction and its enhancement through provocative question asking; the skill of building models; and peripheral enhancements to use in the classroom, such as discrepant events, puzzlers, problems, and tenacious "think abouts." Creative Wellsprings emphasizes ways that teachers can expand basic classroom activities into multiple activities and experiments that stimulate thinking and foster a challenging atmosphere. 7.11 Imogene Forte and Sandra Schurr. The Definitive Middle School Guide: A Handbook for Success. Nashville, Tenn.: Incentive Publications, 1993. 351 pp. Price: $29.95 (ISBN 0-86530-270-7) The Definitive Middle School Guide is a handbook for teachers and administrators about middle school education and its essential program components. The book features 7 self-contained modules designed to help readers think about what makes an effective middle school. The topics addressed are (1) the needs and characteristics of young adolescents and basic elements of the exemplary middle school, including facility requirements and classroom management tips; (2) ways of forming interdisciplinary teams; (3) characteristics of successful advisory programs and advisory activities; (4) methods for implementing cooperative student learning; (5) suggestions for fostering creative and critical-thinking skills; (6) assessment strategies; and (7) guidelines for designing and implementing an interdisciplinary curriculum. Each module includes a short overview, important questions about its topic, a glossary, findings from the published literature, "need-to-know" information about the topic in a "Top Ten" list format, and activities at each level of Bloom's Taxonomy. A comprehensive index and bibliography are also provided. 7.12 Susan Loucks-Horsley, Jackie Grennon Brooks, Maura O. Carlson, and others. Developing and Supporting Teachers for Science Education in the Middle Years. Washington, D.C.: National Center for Improving Science Education, 1990. 94 pp. (Available from Learning Innovations; see app. A.) Price: $18.00 Developing and Supporting Teachers for Science Education in the Middle Years is 1 in a series of 5 reports on science and mathematics for young adults (ages 10 to 14) from the National Center for Improving Science Education. It addresses issues of improving middle-grade science education, with an emphasis on the importance of the teacher as learner and facilitator. Written from the perspective that science education reform depends on helping individual teachers change their practices and beliefs, the report considers what teachers need to know, believe, and be able to do to meet the science and other learning needs of young adolescents. It also looks at what development opportunities and organizational features and structures teachers need in order to change or refine the knowledge, beliefs, practices, and classroom environments which current research says are critical to middle-grade science learning. Also addressed is the question of how prospective science teachers can best be prepared to participate fully in good programs for middle-grade students. Finally, the report provides specific recommendations for implementing changes pertaining to the development and support of teachers. 7.13 Committee on Goals 2000 and the Inclusion of Students with Disabilities, Board on Testing and Assessment, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National Research Council. Educating One and All: Students with Disabilities and Standards-Based Reform. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1997. 302 pp. Price: $42.95 (ISBN 0-309-05789-2) In Educating One and All, an expert committee makes recommendations to states and communities that have adopted standards-based reform and that are trying to make these reforms consistent with current policies and practices in special education. Educating One and All explores the ideas, implementation issues, and legislative initiatives behind the tradition of special education for students with disabilities. It also
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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science investigates the policy and practice implications of the current reform movement toward high educational standards for all students. In addition, the report describes the diverse population of students with disabilities and the variation in their school experiences and educational needs. It examines the assumptions about curriculum and instruction that are embodied in standards-based reform and also examines the curricula, instruction, and postschool outcomes of special education; points of alignment between these assumptions and outcomes are identified. The report also analyzes technical and policy issues involved in increasing the participation of students with disabilities in assessments and accountability systems. Finally, it addresses some legal and resource implications of standards-based reforms. 7.14 Lars J. Helgeson and William C. Bohnsack. Flinn Scientific Science Safety Lecture Series: Secondary. Batavia, Ill.: Flinn Scientific, 1996. 500 pp. Price: $99.95 (ISBN 1-877991-41-4) This series of 9 lectures is designed to provide a short course in laboratory safety for secondary teachers (grades 6-12). Topics discussed include the legal aspects of laboratory safety, chemical hazards, proper storage and disposal of chemicals, biological safety, personal protective and emergency equipment, ventilation of science laboratories, and teaching techniques to reduce hazards. Each lecture includes activities that require participants to think critically about important safety-related ideas. Transparency masters and tests are provided for each lecture, and a generic chemical hygiene plan for high school laboratories is included in an appendix. 7.15 National Environmental Education and Training Foundation. Getting Started: A Guide to Bringing Environmental Education into Your Classroom. David Bones, ed. Ann Arbor, Mich.: National Consortium for Environmental Education and Training, 1994. 138 pp. (Available from Kendall/Hunt; see app. A.) Price: $15.95 (ISBN 0-7872219-1-0) This volume is a collection of real stories about teachers in grades K-12 who started environmental programs in their classrooms. Getting Started contains brief, helpful suggestions, resources, and ideas on bringing environmental education into the classroom. The first section provides a brief overview of the scope, history, and value of environmental education. The second offers suggestions for instructional materials, funding, workshops, courses, and in-service opportunities in environmental education. The third section includes information on networking with other environmental educators; securing grants; managing a growing environmental project; and locating awards, scholarships, and stipends. Rather than outlining a comprehensive program, the guide offers stories and information to inspire teachers and help them creatively find resources to meet their own unique needs. 7.16 Maria Sosa, Estrella M. Triana, Valerie L. Worthington, and Mary C. Chobot, eds. Great Explorations: Discovering Science in the Library. Washington, D.C.: American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1994. 187 pp. Price: $14.95 (ISBN 0-87168-537-X) Great Explorations addresses the role that librarians and media specialists can play in science, mathematics, and technology education reform. This volume is the result of a project that brought together 28 school and public librarians from the Washington, D.C., area. In its 12 chapters, the book offers information on selecting good science resources for a library and on disseminating new science and mathematics education projects, products, techniques, and practices. Topics addressed include creating hands-on and interdisciplinary activities in a library (directions for 13 activities are included); technology in the library; teaching science in a multicultural context; fund-raising for a media center; and forming partnerships with teachers, administrators, parents, and community leaders to promote education reform. Many chapters have lists of resources, networks, or references. One chapter describes events, activities, and exhibits conducted by project participants to implement science, mathematics, and technology reform at their schools. 7.17 David Jarmul, ed. Headline News, Science Views II. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1993. 256 pp. Price: $19.95 (ISBN 0-309-04834-6) Headline News, a book of 75 previously published articles, is designed to help teachers and students make sense of some of today's most important issues involving science, technology, and health care. Written by scientific and technical experts and distributed by the National Academy Op-Ed Service, the short, readable articles appeared originally on the editorial and opinion pages of 250 daily newspapers. They are organized in 10 chapters by subject: science and society, education, the environment, health care, diet and nutrition, technology and transportation,
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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science the economy, international affairs, looking to the future, and the scientific enterprise. Topics discussed include global warming, health care reform, traffic jams, foods in our future, science and animals, computers, the brain, gene therapy, and toxic waste sites. The book also includes an essay that tells readers how to write and publish their own op-ed articles. 7.18 Robert J. Swartz and Sandra Parks. Infusing Critical and Creative Thinking into Content Instruction: A Lesson Design Handbook for the Elementary Grades. Pacific Grove, Calif.: Critical Thinking Press and Software, 1994. 549 pp. Price: Teacher's Handbook, $42.95 (ISBN 0-89455-481-6); Macintosh or Windows Masters, $19.95 This handbook presents a teacher-oriented approach to improving student thinking that infuses critical and creative thinking into content instruction. The thinking skills and processes featured in the book include generating, clarifying, and assessing the reasonableness of ideas, and decision making and problem solving. Sample lessons in core content areas, together with activity sheets, are provided to help teachers construct their own infused lessons. The book also includes a variety of examples for the science classroom. 7.19 John W. Layman, George Ochoa, and Henry Heikkinne. Inquiry and Learning: Realizing Science Standards in the Classroom. New York, N.Y.: College Entrance Examination Board, 1996. 71 pp. Price: $12.00 (ISBN 0-87447-547-3) Inquiry and Learning addresses the central question of how science instruction based on national standards should look and feel in the classroom. The book also considers 2 issues related to that question: how teachers can cultivate the quality of scientific thinking and understanding defined by standards, and how they can verify that students have actually attained the level of learning envisioned by the standards. Specific examples of productive classroom practice are highlighted. Recent research findings and advances in the understanding of student cognition and learning then provide the framework for generalizing from those practices. The teaching and assessment standards from the National Science Education Standards (see 7.27) help frame the book's discussion of content standards in the classroom. 7.20 Merrill Harmin. Inspiring Active Learning: A Handbook for Teachers. Alexandria, Va.: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1994. 208 pp. Price: $14.95 (ISBN 0-87120-228-X) Inspiring Active Learning is a handbook of instructional strategies for teachers to use in helping students become active, responsible learners. These strategies are centered on teachers' and students' mutual respect, collaboration, and commitment to learning. The description of each strategy is followed by examples of how it can be used, at any grade level and in any subject specialty. The strategies are grouped in broad categories. In addition to basic instructional strategies, the categories include raising student motivation; organizing the classroom; handling homework, testing, and grading; and producing meaningful learning. An indexed glossary provides quick access to all the strategies. 7.21 Robin Fogarty and Judy Stoehr. Integrating Curricula with Multiple Intelligences: Teams, Themes, and Threads. Palatine, Ill.: IRI/Skylight Publishing, 1995. 221 pp. Price: $35.95 (ISBN 0-932935-81-8) "Multiple intelligences theory," pioneered by Howard Gardner, holds that each person receives and expresses ideas in a myriad of ways—verbal, logical, musical, visual, bodily, interpersonal, and intrapersonal. Integrating Curricula with Multiple Intelligences offers ideas for translating multiple intelligences theory into classroom activities that meet a variety of integrated curriculum models and assessment needs. The first of 4 chapters reviews Gardner's theory and discusses 10 different ways (fragmented, connected, nested, sequenced, shared, webbed, threaded, integrated, immersed, and networked) of integrating curricula in a classroom. The second chapter explores the concept of developing teacher teams to implement holistic, integrated, and interdisciplinary approaches to curriculum. The third chapter presents a 6-step process for developing thematic learning units that focus on thinking, decision making, and problem solving. The final chapter highlights ways of threading specific skills into subject-matter content. An endnote describes assessment issues that arise when using integrated curricula and holistic instruction with multiple intelligences.
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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science 7.22 Diane C. Cantrell and Patricia A. Barron, eds. Integrating Environmental Education and Science: Using and Developing Learning Episodes. Newark, Ohio: Environmental Education Council of Ohio, 1994. 182 pp. (Available from ERIC Clearinghouse for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education; see app. A.) Price: $16.75 Integrating Environmental Education and Science is designed to encourage environmental literacy and responsible environmental behavior, and to assist developers and teachers in designing curriculum. The first of the book's 3 main sections discusses goals of environmental and science education, identifies key content elements, and suggests various ways to organize the curriculum. The second section defines and exemplifies the term "learning episode." The last section offers general guidelines for developing learning episodes. The volume's appendixes include an outline of Ohio's Model Competency-Based Science Program; guidelines for environmental education activities; helpful lists, samples, and tips; curricular and professional resources; an overview of the learning episodes included in the book; linkages to ninth-grade proficiency test outcomes; and blank forms for models and webs. 7.23 Michael J. Caduto and Joseph Bruchac. Keepers of Life: Discovering Plants Through Native American Stories and Earth Activities for Children. Golden, Colo.: Fulcrum Publishing, 1994. 265 pp. Price: $26.95 (ISBN 1-55591-186-2) This book, about learning to understand, live with, and care for plants, draws on Native American history and culture and uses an interdisciplinary approach. Eighteen carefully selected Native North American stories are combined with imaginative hands-on activities to promote children's understanding of, appreciation for, empathy with, and stewardship of plants. The indoor and outdoor activities in the 15 chapters cover a wide range of concepts: botany, plant ecology, environmental and stewardship issues that are important to plants, and the natural history of North American plants and plantlike organisms. Children are introduced to the greenhouse effect, global warming, ozone depletion, acid rain, endangered species, and extinction. Each chapter includes extensive background information, suggested discussion questions, and extensions. The book emphasizes the complex and interconnected nature of all living things. An index of activities arranged by subject describes the specific lessons taught by each activity. A teacher's guide is available; it lists books, guides to environmental and outdoor education, and interdisciplinary studies. 7.24 Michael J. Caduto and Joseph Bruchac. Keepers of the Animals: Native American Stories and Wildlife Activities for Children. Golden, Colo.: Fulcrum Publishing, 1991. 286 pp. Price: $26.95 (ISBN 1-55591-088-2) This volume is about learning to understand, live with, and care for animals. Combining 24 carefully selected Native American animal stories with interdisciplinary activities, it guides students through a study of the concepts and topics of wildlife ecology; issues in environmental stewardship that are particularly important to animals; and the natural history and habitat of North American animals, from mollusk to mammal. The activities are designed to provoke curiosity and facilitate discovery of animals and their environments. They involve students in creative arts, theater, reading, writing, listening, science, social studies, mathematics, and sensory awareness. Each chapter includes extensive science background information, discussion questions, and extensions. An index of activities arranged by subject describes the specific lessons taught by each activity. A companion teacher's guide that discusses the nature of Native North American stories and cultures is available. That volume provides lists of books for further reading and suggests guides to environmental and outdoor education. 7.25 Francis X. Sutman, Virginia French Allen, and Francis Shoemaker. Learning English through Science: A Guide to Collaboration for Science Teachers, English Teachers, and Teachers of English as a Second Language. Washington, D.C.: National Science Teachers Association, 1986. 43 pp. Price: $4.00 (ISBN 0-87355-061-7) This 7-chapter booklet, written by English teachers and a science education specialist, suggests teaching procedures that can help students learn the English language and science together. The opening chapters describe general strategies, such as visual materials and student notebooks, for teaching in multilingual settings; specific methods, such as improving nontechnical vocabulary and comprehension of sentence structure, to prepare limited-English-proficient (LEP) students for reading science materials; activities, such as dialogues, close exercises, crossword puzzles, group activities, and hands-on activities, that are particularly effective for teaching science concepts to LEP students; and samples of 3 science lessons that teach both
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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science English language and science content. A closing chapter presents a model that teachers can use to develop and conduct their own lessons to stress science comprehension and English-language learning. 7.26 Paul S. George, Chris Stevenson, Julia Thomason, and James Beane. The Middle School—and Beyond. Alexandria, Va.: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1992. 172 pp. Price: $17.95 (ISBN 0-87120-190-9) This book describes how middle schools across the nation are focusing on students' needs, accommodating diversity, integrating the curriculum, emphasizing a close-knit school community, and creating the kinds of learning experiences that promote excellence. The Middle School—and Beyond is organized in 7 chapters that address the middle school concept (grades 6-8), the traits of positive student-teacher relationships, the organization of effective middle schools, new visions of the middle school curriculum, leadership in middle schools, and the impact of the middle school movement on some elementary and high schools. 7.27 National Research Council. National Science Education Standards. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1996. 272 pp. Price: $19.95 (ISBN 0-309-05326-9) In an effort to guide the science education system in the United States, this document offers a vision of what it means to be scientifically literate and describes what students nationwide should know and be able to do in science as a result of their learning experiences. The volume is the result of a 3-year effort that involved thousands of teachers, parents, scientists, and others. The standards address what students should be able to do and understand at different grade levels, exemplary practices of science teaching and teacher training, criteria for assessing and analyzing learning, the nature and design of the school and district science program, and the support and resources needed to provide all students with the opportunity to learn science. The standards suggested in this document reflect the principles that learning science should be an inquiry-based process, that science in schools should reflect the intellectual trends of contemporary science, and that all Americans have a role in science education reform. 7.28 Richard F. Brinckerhoff. One-Minute Readings: Issues in Science, Technology, and Society. Menlo Park, Calif.: Addison-Wesley, 1992. 142 pp. Prices: Student book, $10.95 (ISBN 0-201-23157-3); Teacher's guide, $7.95 (ISBN 0-201-23159-X) One-Minute Readings offers 80 succinct readings—1- or 2-page issue descriptions, interwoven with questions—designed to provoke student thinking about real-world problems related to science, technology, and society. The readings touch upon social and ethical aspects of many topics in chemistry, physics, biology, and social science. They include current questions or dilemmas in medicine, environmental science, bioethics, space science, and computers. Readers, for example, are asked to consider whether parents should be able to learn—or choose—the sex of their unborn child (and what rights such a fetus may have); whether there is a moral difference between an athlete's taking energy-giving glucose pills and taking an anabolic steroid; and whether there is a distinction between an individual who flushes polluting material down a drain and an oil company whose tanker causes an oil spill. Teachers can use the readings for several purposes: to add debate about science topics to any course, to promote the integration of science content and social issues in the classroom, to expose students to the applications of science, and to offer problem-solving practice for decision making as an adult. 7.29 David L. Haury and Peter Rillero. Perspectives of Hands-On Science Teaching. Columbus, Ohio: ERIC Clearinghouse for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education, 1994. 156 pp. Price: $14.50 (ERIC Accession No. SE 054 205) In question-and-answer format, this book addresses frequently asked questions about hands-on approaches to science teaching and learning. The volume was intended to be a ready reference for making the case for an activity-based, inquiry-oriented, hands-on approach to teaching and learning in the science classroom. To present a range of perspectives, the book offers the views of three groups of individuals: teachers, curriculum developers, and science education scholars. Topics discussed include these: what hands-on learning is; how a hands-on science approach fits into a textbook-centered science program; how practicing teachers can gain experience with hands-on methods; how the use of hands-on materials should, or should not, vary with students' ages; where to find resources or materials to develop hands-on activities; and how hands-on
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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science learning can be evaluated. An appendix provides a list of selected materials that support an activity-based approach to science teaching; included are curriculum guides, supplementary materials, program frameworks, and planning resources. 7.30 John W. Jewett, Jr. Physics Begins with an M … Mysteries, Magic, and Myth. Boston, Mass.: Allyn and Bacon, 1994. 432 pp. Price: $29.95 (ISBN 0-205-15133-7) This resource book presents some thought-provoking questions (mysteries), activities (magic tricks), and misconceptions (myths) that challenge students to explore the application of physics to everyday life. Although the material was prepared for high school and college students, many of the activities and concepts can be adapted for middle school. Students, for example, are asked to use their knowledge of physics to figure out why it is a myth that a vacuum cleaner "sucks up" dirt. Or why, mysteriously, scraps of paper put in a metal kitchen strainer and then held over a candle flame do not burn. The mysteries, magic tricks, and myths are organized in 29 chapters by topics often found in introductory physics books. Examples include vectors, Newton's laws, friction, equilibrium, gravity, energy, momentum, pressure, fluids, heat, simple harmonic motion, electric fields and forces, reflection and refraction, and polarization. At the end of each chapter is a discussion section containing comments on the mysteries, magic, and myths in that chapter. Each chapter also contains a brief outline of relevant physics principles. References and a subject index are included. 7.31 Stanley L. Helgeson. Problem Solving Research in Middle/Junior High School Science Education. Columbus, Ohio: ERIC Clearinghouse for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education, 1992. 97 pp. Price: $14.00 Drawing on 145 papers published over the past 30 years, this resource summarizes various aspects of research on the importance of problem-solving skills in school science. Although the book's primary concern is with science in the middle grades, some studies that are referenced extend into the elementary grades and high school years. Subjects of research reviewed in the summary include these: instruments used to assess problem-solving skills or abilities; strategies or behaviors exhibited by students as they engage in problem solving; students' cognitive styles or preferences in relationship to problem solving; various aspects of reasoning ability and its relationship to cognitive development; the effects of various aspects of instruction on students' problem-solving abilities; and the effects of certain types of curricula on problem-solving skills. 7.32 Rodger W. Bybee and Joseph D. McInerney, eds. Redesigning the Science Curriculum: A Report on the Implications of Standards and Benchmarks for Science Education. Colorado Springs, Colo.: Biological Sciences Curriculum Study, 1995. 152 pp. Price: $10.00 Redesigning the Science Curriculum is a compilation of background papers and recommendations directed to those responsible for curriculum reform. Largely a response to the first complete draft of the National Science Education Standards (see 7.27), the book grew out of a 1993 conference on "Rethinking the Science Curriculum." Recognizing the need for new science curricula based on standards, it presents the ideas of 20 authorities on science education in brief papers. The papers address questions such as these: How will curriculum development change in an era of standards-based science education? Can curriculum-development groups maintain their integrity and unique approaches to science education and still develop materials that will help science teachers achieve national and local standards? Should those responsible for curriculum development also provide leadership training and technical assistance for school districts developing their own science programs? To what degree can local school districts develop science programs that will achieve local, state, and national standards? Although most papers focus on issues raised by the publication of the National Science Education Standards, other curriculum reform projects, such as Project 2061 and Scope, Sequence, and Coordination, are also discussed. 7.33 Clair G. Wood. Safety in School Science Labs. Natick, Mass.: James A. Kaufman & Associates, 1995. 149 pp. Price: $19.95 (ISBN 0-9647512-0-8) Safety in School Science Labs is a "survival guide" on how to teach science at a time of complex federal legislation on hazardous materials ("right-to-know" laws) and in an era when teachers face increasing risk of becoming defendants in lawsuits brought by students. In plain language the book's 13 chapters discuss the limits of teachers' liabilities in the laboratory; present guidelines for conducting safe experiments; indicate what constitutes a hazardous
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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science material; tell what teachers need to know to comply with federal laws about labeling, storing, and using hazardous materials; and explain how to avoid accidents. Some chapters focus on hazards unique to the chemistry, physics, or biology lab, and the art studio. Since science teachers are frequently called upon to serve as safety training officers for their school districts, a chapter on employee safety training is also included. 7.34 National Science Teachers Association (NSTA). Science and Math Events: Connecting and Competing. Washington, D.C.: NSTA, 1990. 192 pp. Price: $4.00 (ISBN 0-87355-090-0) Science and Math Events lists and analyzes opportunities for teenagers to participate in organized science and math activities both in and outside the classroom. The activities discussed include clubs, interest groups, and fairs at the school or local level; national competitions; and international olympiads or other contests. Part I of Science and Math Events presents the views of four high school teachers on what inspires students to join science fairs or to participate in competitions, and on the benefits students derive from such activities. Part II provides nuts-and-bolts information about starting programs or activities. Included are directions for organizing science interest groups and clubs; a sample science club constitution; tips on planning a successful science fair, invention fair, poster project, or research project; and detailed information about 28 science and 4 math competitions, many of which are open to middle school students. Part III contains the results of an NSTA poll of 164 U.S. Nobel and Medal of Science winners about their experiences with organized science and mathematics events and how such events influenced their careers. 7.35 Rodger W. Bybee, C. Edward Buchwald, Sally Crissman, and others. Science and Technology Education for the Middle Years: Frameworks for Curriculum and Instruction. Washington, D.C.: National Center for Improving Science Education, 1990. 152 pp. (Available from Learning Innovations; see app. A.) Price: $18.00 Science and Technology Education for the Middle Years is 1 in a series of 5 reports on science and mathematics for young adults (ages 10 to 14) from the National Center for Improving Science Education. Synthesized from findings, recommendations, and perspectives in recent studies, this report is a set of policy recommendations for science curriculum and instruction in middle-level schools. The beginning chapters describe characteristics of the early adolescent learner, review the history of education at the middle-level, and review middle-level science programs from the 1970s through the 1990s. Subsequent chapters present a conception of science and technology appropriate for the development of middle-level curriculum and instructional strategies, suggest educational goals and major organizing concepts for programs, and highlight appropriate instruction and learning environments for the early adolescent. Each chapter includes a set of specific recommendations. The report features an annotated bibliography on science and technology education. 7.36 Gerald Kulm and Shirley M. Malcom, eds. Science Assessment in the Service of Reform. Washington, D.C.: American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1991. 410 pp. (Available from Lawrence Erlbaum; see app. A.) Price: $36.00 (ISBN 0-887168-426-5) This volume presents papers by 36 experts—assessment and curriculum specialists, psychologists, researchers, and teachers—on the role of assessment in science education reform. Part I looks at why assessment has assumed such prominence in the debate about the purpose, shape, and control of American education. Part II considers the relationship between science assessment and curriculum reform. It also includes information on existing assessment systems, efforts by some states to develop and test performance assessments, and performance assessments being used in England and Wales. Part III reviews some of the alternative modes of assessment being explored by researchers and practitioners. The central message of this book is that, whatever system of assessment is used, it should meet the following guidelines: (1) It should be free of bias. (2) It should reflect what is being taught and give information to improve classroom instruction, to diagnose problems, and to identify student misconceptions. (3) It should provide a measurement of the effectiveness of a teacher or curriculum. (4) It should reflect the values and content of science teaching. An appendix to the volume provides concrete examples of current assessment practices and innovations in school and university science classrooms.
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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science 7.37 National Science Resources Center. Science for All Children: A Guide to Improving Elementary Science Education in Your School District. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1997. 239 pp. Price: $19.95 (ISBN 0-309-05297-1) Science for All Children presents the strategic planning model of the National Science Resources Center for bringing about districtwide elementary science reform. The model, which is also appropriate for middle school science reform, is based on research and practice. It consists of 5 elements: a research-based, inquiry-centered curriculum; professional development; materials support; appropriate assessment strategies; and community and administrative support. Part 1 of the book's 3 parts explains the rationale for inquiry-centered science and provides some basic tools for planning such a program. Part 2 explains how to implement an inquiry-centered science program by focusing on the 5 elements of the NSRC model. Part 3 presents 8 case studies that show how the model is being implemented in school districts nationwide. Two appendixes provide additional resources. The first describes a number of professional associations and government agencies involved in science education reform. The second describes some exemplary elementary science curriculum materials. 7.38 National Science Teachers Association (NSTA). Science for All Cultures: A Collection of Articles from NSTA's Journals. Arlington, Va.: NSTA, 1993. 72 pp. Price: $16.50 (ISBN 0-87355-122-2) The articles in this collection, written by individuals of culturally diverse backgrounds, discuss the issue of multicultural science education, its scope, its implications for teacher education and for individual and national well-being, and suggestions for using such an approach as an instructional process. The articles had been published between 1988 and 1993 in NSTA journals—The Science Teacher, Science & Children, Science Scope, and The Journal of College Science Teaching. Topics addressed in the articles include the historical contribution of non-European cultures to the advancement of science, the participation rate of female and minority students in science, the relevance of science to everyday life, and the need for culturally relevant assessments. Most of the articles conclude with a list of references. 7.39 Leroy W. Dubeck, Suzanne E. Moshier, and Judith E. Boss. Science in Cinema: Teaching Science Fact through Science Fiction Films. New York, N.Y.: Teachers College Press, 1988. 205 pp. Price: $17.95 (ISBN 0-8077-2915-9) Science in Cinema, written by science and English professors, shows how teachers can use young people's attraction to science fiction films to foster appreciation for real science and its interactions in the world. The real or not-so-real science of 10 popular science fiction films—including Forbidden Planet, The Day the Earth Stood Still, and The Andromeda Strain—is analyzed in depth. By identifying scientific principles portrayed accurately and inaccurately in the films, students can enhance their understanding of these principles and develop an interest in relationships among science, technology, and society. The following is provided for each film: a plot summary; a discussion of relevant scientific principles (such as energy, momentum, gravity); a scientific commentary keyed to the film's sequence of events; classroom activities, such as exercises and discussion topics, to stimulate student thinking; a literary commentary on the sources for the film; and bibliographic information. The book also includes abbreviated information—credits, 1- or 2-paragraph plot summaries, and sequential scientific commentary—about 24 additional films, including The Time Machine and Close Encounters of the Third Kind. 7.40 Victor J. Mayer and Rosanne W. Fortner, eds. Science Is a Study of Earth: A Resource Guide for Science Curriculum Restructure. Columbus, Ohio: The Ohio State University, 1995. 252 pp. Price: $20.00 ($5.00, with teacher request on school letterhead) This resource guide for Earth Systems Education (ESE) was developed by staff and participants in the Program for Leadership in Earth Systems Education (PLESE) conducted at the Ohio State University and the University of Northern Colorado from 1990 to 1994. The guide consists of several independent sections that focus on the following topics: the philosophy and approach of ESE; the current national climate for science education reform and how ESE meshes with other efforts; several successful efforts by teachers to implement ESE curricula in their schools and districts; steps and ideas that teachers have found useful in their own efforts at curriculum restructure using the ESE model; the type of classroom climate that should typify an ESE classroom; ideas about sources of materials and information successfully used by teachers in developing ESE curricula; teacher-developed and -tested
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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science approaches to conducting short ESE workshops; syllabi that provide ideas for the scope and sequence of topics in model ESE curricula; and samples of ESE units developed by teachers for the elementary and middle school levels. 7.41 Mike Watts. The Science of Problem-Solving: A Practical Guide for Science Teachers. Portsmouth, N.H.: Heinemann, 1991. 170 pp. (Available from Greenwood Heinemann; see app. A.) Price: $23.00 (ISBN 0-435-08314-7) The Science of Problem-Solving was written for science teachers in middle and secondary schools who want to know more about problem solving as a strategy for classroom teaching and learning. The book first explores the language of problem solving and justifies the usefulness of problem solving in a student's curriculum. It then considers the skills, processes, and methods involved in problem solving, how such skills can be learned or taught, and whether they can be transferred from one context to another. Later chapters look at the factors that affect learning in individuals and groups as they solve problems; ways in which the often-noisy dynamics of problem-solving exercises can be managed in the classroom; and ways of incorporating problem-solving opportunities into a curriculum. Although much of the book functions as a background reader and is therefore somewhat theoretical, many practical tips for using, thinking about, or engaging in problem-solving activities are given, as well as problems that could contribute to a problem bank or list. 7.42 Robert A. Weisgerber. Science Success for Students with Disabilities. Menlo Park, Calif.: Addison-Wesley, Innovative Learning Publications, 1995. 168 pp. (Available from Addison-Wesley/Longman; see app. A.) Price: $16.95 (ISBN 0-201-49089-7) This comprehensive guide for K-12 teachers suggests classroom-tested techniques for helping intellectually able students with disabilities realize their potential in science. The outcome of 2 research and development studies, it is concerned with individuals with physical, visual, and hearing impairments, as well as with emotional disorders, speech impairments, and learning disabilities. The 5-chapter book provides disability-specific guidelines for making information more accessible in the classroom, laboratory, or field. It provides ideas for avoiding and minimizing the negative effect of attitudinal, personal, or environmental barriers. It also offers strategies, with case examples, for increasing the participation of students in teacher-centered instruction, student-centered activities, or group activities. Specific topics addressed include structuring lessons and activities, gaining students' attention, giving directions, making assignments, evaluating student accomplishments, obtaining and using equipment or materials, and using computers. Also included is a list of sourcebooks, periodicals, computer database sources, software, and organizations concerned with disabilities. Guidelines are given for turning the information in the volume into an in-service workshop. 7.43 Helen H. Voris, Maija Sedzielarz, and Carolyn P. Blackmon. Teach the Mind, Touch the Spirit: A Guide to Focused Field Trips. Chicago, Ill.: Field Museum of Natural History, Department of Education, 1986. 88 pp. Price: $10.00 (ISBN 0-914868-09-8) Based on the experiences of more than 400 teachers at the Field Museum of Natural History, this guide helps K-12 educators become familiar with the unique characteristics of museums as teaching-learning environments. It also helps them develop skill in object-based teaching strategies. The first section of the book describes the philosophy, strategies, and techniques of museum teaching. Tips are given on analyzing a museum exhibit, learning from objects, and using what one knows to ask questions that engage and motivate students. The second section describes an overall structure for field trips, and includes ideas for activities, such as collages, theme boxes, or observation exercises, to be done before, during, and after the trip. The third section provides a general orientation to the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago, including information about its resources for teachers and some ideas for field trip experiences. Many of these ideas focus on science themes, such as prehistoric animals, the structure and history of the earth, and rocks and minerals, and can be easily adapted for use in other natural history museums, zoos, aquariums, and even art and history museums. The fourth section of the publication offers a checklist for planning a field trip and a short bibliography for more information about museum and object-based learning.
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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science 7.44 Helen Ross Russell. Ten-Minute Field Trips: A Teacher's Guide to Using the School Grounds for Environmental Studies. 2nd ed. Washington, D.C.: National Science Teachers Association, 1990. 175 pp. Price: $16.95 (ISBN 0-87355-098-6) Ten-Minute Field Trips is based on the concept that a school site and its surrounding neighborhood can serve as an environmental studies laboratory where elementary and middle school teachers and students can actively investigate natural and built environs. The ideas for school ground field trips listed in the book are many and varied; such trips provide a resource for relating classroom learning to everyday life and for understanding relationships that tie the world together. The guide covers such subjects as animals (birds, insects, earthworms, and others); weather and weather prediction; seasonal changes (leaf coloration, sun and shadows); building materials, rocks, and soil formation; water and its effects; and recycling and natural decomposition. Each subject is introduced with a page or 2 of background information, followed by related classroom activities, a section on teacher preparation, and a list of suggested field trips. Specific directions for conducting field trips are not provided. 7.45 Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development. Turning Points: Preparing American Youth for the 21st Century. New York, N.Y.: Carnegie Corporation of New York, Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development, 1989. 106 pp. Price: $9.95 (ISBN 0-9623154-1-9) This report on preparing American youth for the twenty-first century has 2 parts. The first part examines the condition of America's young adolescents and how well middle-grade schools presently serve them. The second part presents a series of recommendations for a fundamental transformation in middle-grade schools and in relations among parents, schools, and communities. Among the recommendations for transforming middle schools are these: creating a community for learning, teaching a core of common knowledge, ensuring success for all students, empowering teachers and administrators, preparing teachers for the middle grades, improving academic performance through better health and fitness, re-engaging families in the education of young adolescents, and connecting schools with communities. The specific steps or structures needed to achieve these changes are outlined, and case studies from innovative middle schools provided. Several of these case studies address science and mathematics learning. 7.46 David Macaulay. The Way Things Work. Boston, Mass.: Houghton Mifflin, 1988. 384 pp. Price: $29.95 (ISBN 0-395-42857-2) This illustrated guide to how machines and other technologies work is divided in 4 sections—the mechanics of movement, harnessing the elements, working with waves, and electricity and automation. Large, hand-drawn illustrations and brief explanations provide an overview of all the key inventions that shape our lives today. The book brings potentially difficult concepts into the context of everyday life. The Way Things Work demonstrates how machines, from the simplest lever to the most sophisticated computer, do what they do. It also shows how the concept behind 1 invention is linked to the concept behind another. The scientific principles that govern the action of different machines are also explained (for example, how gears make work easier, why jumbo jets are able to fly, what the computer actually does); readers can see why a plow and a zipper are actually similar devices. Some of the hundreds of machines and devices in The Way Things Work include holograms, hang gliders, airliners, telephones, parking meters, robots, televisions, can openers, and compact discs. The book also catalogs the origins or invention of nearly 100 machines, and provides a dictionary of technical terms.
Representative terms from entire chapter: