indicator of function or other criterion would be used as the basis of the requirement in establishing the EAR, AI, or UL.

For each nutrient, the strengths and weaknesses of relevant studies were assessed. The rationale for the inclusion or exclusion of evidence is given in Chapter 4, Chapter 5, Chapter 6, Chapter 7 through Chapter 8. Where applicable, the strength, consistency, and preponderance of the data and the degree of concordance in epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory evidence influenced the selection of the indicators and the derivation of the EARs, AIs, or ULs.


Uses of the DRIs are summarized in the following Box S–1:

For statistical reasons that will be addressed in a future report, the EAR is greatly preferred over the RDA for use in assessing the nutrient intake of groups.

International Uses of Dietary Reference Intakes

Until more is known about the prevalence of chronic disease risk and habitual nutrient intakes in other countries, the implications of these DRIs should be used with caution outside the United States and Canada. When requirements are estimated to decrease risk of disease, particularly chronic disease, associations may not be easily identified in short-term studies. Further, the AIs developed in this report may be at the upper range of intakes typically found in nationwide surveys if the criterion or outcome chosen involves chronic disease. The implication would be that it might be desirable to achieve an increase in the mean intake of the population in order to lower risk. However, the quantitative aspect is uncertain because of the approximate nature of the AI and limitations of the epidemiological and experimental data.

How to Meet Recommended Dietary Allowances or Adequate Intakes

A primary question that must be answered is “How can individuals consume the RDA or AI if surveys indicate that typical diets contain lower amounts?” This becomes a policy issue with regard to choosing methods to increase consumption of that nutrient in order to decrease the number of individuals at risk due to inadequate dietary intakes. Such methods include educating consumers to change their food consumption behavior, fortifying foodstuffs with

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