of French children (Ruiz et al., 1995) found that 93 percent of the children with low vertebral BMD and 84 percent of those with low femoral neck BMD had dietary calcium intakes below 1,000 mg (25 mmol)/day; the investigators concluded that dietary calcium requirements for prepubertal and pubertal children were above 1,000 mg (25 mmol)/day.

Several retrospective studies suggest that higher calcium intakes in childhood are associated with greater bone mass in adulthood (Halioua and Anderson, 1989; Matkovic et al., 1994; Nieves et al., 1995; Sandler et al., 1985). As it appears now, and pending further research in this area, higher calcium intakes likely need to be maintained throughout growth in order to produce a higher peak bone mass.

AI Summary: Ages 9 through 13 and 14 through 18 Years

The three major lines of evidence for calcium needs in this age group —the factorial approach, calcium retention to meet peak bone mineral accretion, and clinical trials in which bone mineral content was measured in response to variable calcium intakes—provide estimates of calcium intake in the range of 1,100 to 1,600 mg (27.5 to 40 mmol)/day to attain a desirable level of calcium retention. Most of the data are based on balance studies and clinical intervention trials in girls. Thus, it is important to note that the value of peak bone mineral accretion for boys had to be used in the equation derived from balance studies in girls due to lack of data on boys. Given the extrapolation to boys for the balance data, the clinical trials being conducted primarily in girls, and the lack of data on bone mineral accretion at higher calcium intakes than that reported by Martin et al. (1997), it was inappropriate to establish a gender-specific AI for this age group. In considering collectively the evidence above, an AI of 1,300 mg (32.5 mmol)/day was judged as a reasonable goal for calcium intake for both boys and girls in this age group. Too few data exist in males to allow a gender difference to be established or to recommend different intakes within the age range.

AI for Boys

9 through 13 years

1,300 mg (32.5 mmol)/day

 

14 through 18 years

1,300 mg (32.5 mmol)/day

AI for Girls

9 through 13 years

1,300 mg (32.5 mmol)/day

 

14 through 18 years

1,300 mg (32.5 mmol)/day

Utilizing the 1994 CFSII data, adjusted for day-to-day variation



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