TABLE S-1 Criteria and Dietary Reference Intake Values for Calcium by Life Stage Group

Life Stage Groupa

Criterion b

AI (mg/day) c

0 through 6 months

Human milk content

210

7 through 12 months

Human milk + solid food

270

1 through 3 years

Extrapolation of desirable calcium retention from 4 through 8 years

500

4 through 8 years

Calcium accretion/∆ BMC/calcium balance

800

9 through 13 years

Desirable calcium retention/factorial/∆ BMC

1,300

14 through 18 years

Desirable calcium retention/factorial/∆ BMC

1,300

19 through 30 years

Desirable calcium retention/factorial

1,000

31 through 50 years

Calcium balance

1,000

51 through 70 years

Desirable calcium retention/factorial/∆ BMD

1,200

> 70 years

Extrapolation of desirable calcium retention from 51 through 70 year age group/∆ BMD/fracture rate

1,200

Pregnancy

≤ 18 years

Bone mineral mass

1,300

19 through 50 years

Bone mineral mass

1,000

Lactation

≤ 18 years

Bone mineral mass

1,300

19 through 50 years

Bone mineral mass

1,000

a All groups except Pregnancy and Lactation are males and females.

b Criteria upon which the AI was based vary between life stage groups depending on the data available in the literature that were judged to be appropriate. The value for the AI reflects an approximation of the calcium intake that is judged to maintain calcium nutriture based upon all of the information examined. See Table 4-5 for a detailed summary of the specific approaches and data considered for each life stage group. ∆ BMC is the change in bone mineral content. ∆ BMD is the change in bone mineral density.

c AI = Adequate Intake. The experimentally determined estimate of nutrient intake by a defined group of healthy people. AI is used if the scientific evidence is not available to derive an EAR. For healthy infants fed human milk, AI is an estimated mean intake. Some seemingly healthy individuals may require higher calcium intakes to minimize risk of osteopenia and some individuals may be at low risk on even lower intakes. The AI is believed to cover their needs, but lack of data or uncertainty in the data prevent being able to specify with confidence the percentage of individuals covered by this intake.



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