Adolescents: Ages 9 through 18 Years

There is no evidence to suggest increased susceptibility to adverse effects during adolescence. Therefore, the same UL specified above for adults is selected for adolescents, 4.0 g (130 mmol)/day.

UL for Adolescents

9 through 18 years

4.0 g (130.0 mmol)/day

Older Adults: Ages > 70

Because of an increasing prevalence of impaired renal function after age 70, a larger UF of 3.3 seems prudent, and the UL for adults of this age is set at 3.0 g (96.8 mmol)/day.

UL for Older Adults

> 70 years

3.0 g (96.8 mmol)/day

Pregnancy and Lactation

During pregnancy, absorption efficiency for phosphorus rises by about 15 percent, and thus, the UL associated with the upper end of the normal range will be about 15 percent lower, that is, about 3.5 g (112.9 mmol)/day. During lactation, the phosphorus economy of a woman does not differ detectably from the nonlactating state. Hence the UL for this physiologic state is not different from the nonlactating state, 4.0 g (130 mmol)/day.

UL for Pregnancy

14 through 50 years

3.5 g (112.9 mmol)/day

UL for Lactation

14 through 50 years

4.0 g (130.0 mmol)/day

Special Considerations

It is recognized that population groups such as professional athletes, military trainees, or those whose level of energy expenditure exceeds 6,000 kcal/day, may have dietary phosphorus intakes whose distributions overlap these limits. In such individuals with phosphorus intakes above the UL, no harm is known to result.

Exposure Assessment

Utilizing the 1994 CSFII data, adjusted for one day food records (Nusser et al., 1996), the highest mean intake of phosphorus for any age and life stage group was reported for males aged 19 through 30 years: 1.7 g (53.5 mmol)/day. The highest reported intake at the

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