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DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride
the United States, Greer et al. (1982a) followed groups of infants who were fed human milk and exposed on average to 35 minutes/day of sunshine. Those who received either a placebo or 10 µg (400 IU)/day of vitamin D had similar serum 25(OH)D concentrations at 1 year of age. Similarly, in Hong Kong, Leung et al. (1989) followed 150 formula-fed infants who had a mean intake of 8.6, 3.9, and 3.8 µg (345, 154, and 153 IU)/day of vitamin D at 6, 12, and 18 months, respectively. They observed that none of the infants at 18 months had a serum 25(OH)D level less than 25 nmol/liter (10 ng/ml) and that the mean values in May and June were higher than in January through April.
AI Summary: Ages 7 through 12 Months
In the absence of any sunlight exposure, an AI of 5 µg (200 IU)/day will result in few infants ages 7 through 12 months with serum 25(OH)D concentrations less than 27.5 nmol/liter (11 ng/ml). This is based on the observation that, in the absence of sun-mediated vitamin D synthesis, approximately 5 µg (200 IU)/day of vitamin D maintained 25(OH)D levels in the normal range, but below circulating concentrations attained by infants in the summer. However, an intake of 10 µg (400 IU), which is supplied by 1 liter of most infant formulas or 1 quart of milk, would not be excessive.
AI for Infants
7 through 12 months
5 µg (200 IU)/day
Ages 1 through 3 and 4 through 8 Years
Indicator Used to Estimate the AI
Serum 25(OH)D. Essentially no scientific literature exists that systematically evaluates the influence of different amounts of vitamin D intake on either BMC, bone radiography, or serum 25(OH)D in children aged 1 through 3 and 4 through 8. Although vitamin D intake was not reported, Meulmeester et al. (1990) measured circulating concentrations of 25(OH)D and PTH in 8-year-old children in an observational study and found that the serum PTH increased when the 25(OH)D levels were below 20 nmol/liter (8 ng/ml). Because serum 25(OH)D concentrations in children correlate well with cumulative exposure to sunlight or dietary intake of vitamin D, this biochemical marker is appropriate for assessment of vitamin D needs of growing children. The major limiting factor in interpret-