UL for Infants

0 through 12 months

25 µg (1,000 IU)/day

Children: Ages 1 through 18 Years

No specific data are available for age groups other than adults and infants. Increased rates of bone formation in toddlers (1 year of age and older), children, and adolescents suggest that the adult UL is appropriate for these age groups. In addition, serum calcium levels must support the increased deposition occurring, and no data indicate impairment or insufficiency in renal handling mechanisms by 1 year of age. Therefore, the UL of 50 µg (2,000 IU)/day for adults is also specified for toddlers, children, and adolescents.

UL for Children

1 through 18 years

50 µg (2,000 IU)/day

Pregnancy and Lactation

The available data were judged inadequate to derive a UL for pregnant and lactating women that is different from other adults. Given the minor impact on either circulating vitamin D levels or serum calcium levels in utero or in infants seen with vitamin D supplements of 25 and 50 µg (1,000 and 2,000 IU)/day as previously discussed (Ala-Houhala et al., 1984, 1986), a concern about increased sensitivity during this physiologic period is not warranted.

UL for Pregnancy

14 through 50 years

50 µg (2,000 IU)/day

UL for Lactation

14 through 50 years

50 µg (2,000 IU)/day

Special Considerations

The UL for vitamin D, as with the ULs for other nutrients, only applies to healthy individuals. Granulomatous diseases (for example, sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, histoplasmosis) are characterized by hypercalcemia and/or hypercalciuria in individuals on normal or less-than-normal vitamin D intakes or with exposure to sunlight. This association is apparently due to the extrarenal conversion of 25(OH)D to 1,25(OH) 2D by activated macrophages (Adams, 1989; Sharma, 1996). Increased intestinal absorption of calcium and a proposed increase in bone resorption contributes to the hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria, and the use of glucocorticoids is a well-established treatment in these disorders (Grill and Martin, 1993).

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