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DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride
ic effect. This posteruptive effect is due mainly to reduced acid production by plaque bacteria and to an increased rate of enamel remineralization during an acidogenic challenge (Bowden, 1990; Hamilton, 1990; Marquis, 1995).
Physiology of Absorption, Metabolism, and Excretion
Fifty percent of orally ingested fluoride is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract after approximately 30 minutes. In the absence of high dietary concentrations of calcium and certain other cations with which fluoride may form insoluble and poorly absorbed compounds, 80 percent or more is typically absorbed. Body fluid and tissue fluoride concentrations are proportional to the long-term level of intake; they are not homeostatically regulated (Guy, 1979). About 99 percent of the body's fluoride is found in calcified tissues—to which it is strongly but not irreversibly bound. Fluoride in bone appears to exist in both a rapidly exchangeable pool and a slowly exchangeable pool. The former is located in the hydration shells on bone crystallites, where fluoride may be exchanged isoionically or heteroionically with ions in the surrounding extracellular fluids. Mobilization from the slowly exchangeable pool results from the resorption associated with the process of bone remodeling.
The elimination of absorbed fluoride occurs almost exclusively via the kidneys. The renal handling of fluoride is characterized by unrestricted filtration through the glomeruli followed by a variable degree of tubular reabsorption. The extent of reabsorption is inversely related to tubular fluid pH. The renal clearance of fluoride in adults is about 30 to 40 ml/minute (Cowell and Taylor, 1981; Schiffl and Binswanger, 1982; Waterhouse et al., 1980). The rate of fluoride removal from plasma, which in healthy adults is approximately 75 ml/minute, is virtually equal to the sum of the renal and calcified tissues clearances.
The fractional retention or balance of fluoride at any age depends on the quantitative features of absorption and excretion. For healthy, young, or middle-aged adults, approximately 50 percent of absorbed fluoride is retained by uptake in calcified tissues, and 50 percent is excreted in the urine. For young children, as much as 80 percent can be retained owing to increased uptake by the developing skeleton and teeth (Ekstrand et al., 1994a, b). Such data are not available for persons in the later years of life, but based on bone mineral dynamics, it is likely that the fraction excreted is greater than the fraction retained.
Under most dietary conditions, fluoride balance is positive.