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DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride
mild enamel fluorosis in the primary teeth, but not the permanent teeth, is higher among formula-fed infants than infants fed cow' s milk, which has a low fluoride concentration similar to that of human milk (Larsen et al., 1988). The current dosage schedule for dietary fluoride supplements in the United States (ADA, 1994) and Canada (Canadian Paediatric Society, 1996) recommends starting supplementation at 6 months of age. Since the intake of fluoride by human milk-fed infants during this period of life does not appear to significantly increase the risk of dental caries, fluoride from human milk is deemed adequate in early life.
AI for Infants
0 through 6 months
Ages > 6 Months
Based on the extensively documented relationships between caries experience and both water fluoride concentrations and fluoride intake, the AI for fluoride from all sources is set at 0.05 mg/kg/day. This intake range is recommended for all ages greater than 6 months because it confers a high level of protection against dental caries and is associated with no known unwanted health effects. The cariostatic effect is due both to preeruptive fluoride incorporation into tooth enamel and to continuing, frequent posteruptive fluoride exposures of the teeth. Indicative of the benefit of continuing posteruptive exposures, several studies have shown that caries experience increases among persons who were raised in a fluoridated community but then moved to an area with a lower water fluoride concentration (Russell, 1949), or when a water system is defluoridated (Lemke et al., 1970).
AI Summary: Ages 7 through 12 Months
Based on an AI for fluoride from all sources of 0.05 mg/kg/day and a reference weight of children in this age range of 9 kg (Table 1-3), the AI is 0.5 mg/day.
AI for Children
7 through 12 months
AI Summary: Ages 1 through 3 Years
Based on an AI for fluoride from all sources of 0.05 mg/kg/day and a reference weight of children 1 through 3 years of age of 13 kg (Table 1-3), the AI is 0.7 mg/day.