fluoride, 289, 300-301, 304

infants, 161, 208-209

lactating women, 17, 240-241

magnesium, 17, 40-41, 192, 204-205, 208-209, 211-212, 214-215, 218, 219-221, 223-227, 228, 229, 231, 234, 240-241, 245, 249

methodological considerations, 40-41, 42, 50, 88

older adults (+70), 231

phosphorus, 9, 40, 154, 158, 161, 164, 166-167, 168, 169, 171, 176-177

young adults, 219-221

Bioavailability of nutrients

calcium, 47-48, 59, 61, 73-74, 80, 94-95

cross-cultural differences in, 47-48

defined, 60, 69

factors affecting, 59, 60-62, 73-74, 151-154

fluoride, 291

from infant formula, 94-95

magnesium, 193, 205, 210, 238

phosphorus, 151-152, 153

and risk assessment, 59, 60-62, 66

from supplements, 62, 74

vegetarian diets and, 80

Bisphosphonate, 278

Blood pressure, 199-200.

See also Hypertension

Body mass.

See Lean body mass

Body Mass Index, 36

Bone

biologically significant nutrients, 38-39, 288-289

collagen by-products, 258

malignancy, 278

matrix proteins, 38-39

metabolism, 41, 38-39, 71, 99-100, 120, 144, 201, 254, 257-258, 284-285

pain, 157

remodeling, 41, 71, 86-87, 88, 102, 114, 289

Bone fracture

calcium and, 6, 9, 13, 76, 83, 84-85, 90, 112-113, 115-116, 121, 123, 126-127, 144, 314-315

fluoride and, 300

gender differences, 90

hip, 47-48, 76, 83, 85, 121, 127

lactation and, 123, 126-127

older adults, 115-116

osteoporotic, 9, 47-48, 83, 84-85

predictors of risk, 85

race/ethnicity and, 73, 83, 84-85, 90

vitamin D and, 260, 273, 274

Bone loss

caffeine and, 76

calcium intakes and, 75, 76, 77-80, 82-83, 87-88, 112

lactation and, 122

menopausal status and, 77-80

sodium and, 75

vitamin D and, 271-272

Bone mass

adults, 86, 105, 106-107

calcium intake and, 13, 15, 74, 85-87

children, 85, 89

fluoride and, 307

and fractures, 13

gender and, 106-107

measurements, 9, 85-86, 89, 102, 104

peak, 34, 86, 87, 102, 106-107, 259

physical activity and, 74-75

race/ethnicity and, 73

vitamin D and, 259, 263-264, 271-272, 278

Bone mineral content (BMC)

and body weight, 97

calcium, 6, 7, 9, 15, 38, 78-79, 97-98, 100, 101-102, 103, 106-107, 144

children, 97-98

defined, 85

fluoride, 38, 288, 300, 307

infants, 95

magnesium, 38, 200

phosphorus, 38, 68, 146, 151, 153, 161, 163, 164, 170, 189

race/ethnicity and, 97

vitamin D and, 38, 260, 266

young adults, 106-107

Bone mineral density (BMD)

in adults, 110, 112, 113-114

caffeine and, 76

calcium and, 6, 9, 71, 74 76, 78-79, 80-81, 102, 103, 104-105, 110, 112, 113-114, 116, 120-121, 123, 126-129, 132, 144

defined, 85

lactation and, 123, 126-129, 132

magnesium and, 200, 201

pregnancy and, 127, 132

research recommendations, 189



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