FIGURE S-1 Dietary reference intakes. This figure shows that the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) is the intake at which the risk of inadequacy is 0.5 (50%) to an individual. The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) is the intake at which the risk of inadequacy is very small—only 0.02 to 0.03 (2 to 3%). The Adequate Intake (AI) does not bear a consistent relationship to the EAR or the RDA because it is set without being able to estimate the average requirement. It is assumed that the AI is at or above the RDA if one could be calculated. At intakes between the RDA and the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL), the risks of inadequacy and of excess are both close to 0. At intakes above the UL, the risk of adverse effect may increase.

Calcium

In this report, three major approaches were considered in deriving the AIs for calcium—calcium balance studies of subjects consuming variable amounts of calcium, a factorial model using calcium accretion based on bone mineral accretion data, and clinical trials which investigated the response of change in bone mineral content/density or fracture rate to varying calcium intakes. The prepublication version of this report estimated per cent maximal calcium retention derived from calcium balance data as one of the three major approaches considered to develop the recommended intakes for calcium. Subsequent comments received following the report's release in prepublication form indicated concerns with the statistical methodology used to obtain such estimates from the available balance data. In response to the technical issues raised, the DRI Committee determined for this final printed version that it would estimate desirable calcium retention in place of estimating the



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