Index

A

Abuse of immigrants, 181

Adaptation of immigrants, 15-16, 18.

See also Assimilation of immigrants

Admission preferences.

See Preference system

Admissions

age structure of, 54-55

asylees, 38, 42, 44, 64

attitudes about level of, 391-392

average annual, 51

employment-based, 41, 64

family-sponsored, 28 n.7, 41, 43, 64

Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA), 52

nonimmigrants, 49

occupational earnings by, 193

race/ethnicity, 64

refugees, 38, 41, 42, 44, 64

Africa

gross national product, 176

population shifts, 20, 79

African Americans.

See also Black immigrants;

Blacks;

specific country

attitudes toward immigration, 13, 392, 394

employment impacts on, 6, 220, 222-224

social and spatial mobility, 366

African immigrants. See also specific country

citizenship, 382

educational attainment, 188, 190

fiscal impact, 277, 280-282, 290-291

gender profiles, 190

household characteristics, 272-273, 290-291

lotteries, 46

volume, 177

wages, 176-178, 188, 190

Age profiles. See also Elderly population;

Generational perspectives;

Time of arrival

at arrival in U.S., 302, 303-304, 326-332, 334-336, 358-361

and attitudes toward immigration, 390, 403

childbearing, 58, 85

construction of, 323-325

and crime, 386-387, 388

and dependency ratios, 107-110

and economic impacts, 77



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--> Index A Abuse of immigrants, 181 Adaptation of immigrants, 15-16, 18. See also Assimilation of immigrants Admission preferences. See Preference system Admissions age structure of, 54-55 asylees, 38, 42, 44, 64 attitudes about level of, 391-392 average annual, 51 employment-based, 41, 64 family-sponsored, 28 n.7, 41, 43, 64 Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA), 52 nonimmigrants, 49 occupational earnings by, 193 race/ethnicity, 64 refugees, 38, 41, 42, 44, 64 Africa gross national product, 176 population shifts, 20, 79 African Americans. See also Black immigrants; Blacks; specific country attitudes toward immigration, 13, 392, 394 employment impacts on, 6, 220, 222-224 social and spatial mobility, 366 African immigrants. See also specific country citizenship, 382 educational attainment, 188, 190 fiscal impact, 277, 280-282, 290-291 gender profiles, 190 household characteristics, 272-273, 290-291 lotteries, 46 volume, 177 wages, 176-178, 188, 190 Age profiles. See also Elderly population; Generational perspectives; Time of arrival at arrival in U.S., 302, 303-304, 326-332, 334-336, 358-361 and attitudes toward immigration, 390, 403 childbearing, 58, 85 construction of, 323-325 and crime, 386-387, 388 and dependency ratios, 107-110 and economic impacts, 77

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--> educational attainment, 241-248, 312, 355-358 employment, 206-208 and expenditures attributable to immigrant labor, 234-235 and federal benefits, 311-312, 315 and fertility rates, 58, 85, 96, 102, 103, 110 and fiscal impacts, 10, 11, 54, 55, 106, 108, 110, 290-291, 293, 303-304, 323-325, 353 gender composition, 100, 198-204, 205-208, 241-250 heads of households, 272-273 households, 272-273 labor impacts, 54, 77 longitudinal, 323-325 and marital status, 57 median, 101-103 mortality rates, 96 net present value and, 327-336, 342-343 patterns, 54-55 projected, 3-4, 101-110, 122-123 and public assistance, 305 n.5, 309-314, 315 race/ethnicity and, 113-114 school-age, 77, 94, 103-104 social impacts, 77, 306 n.5 and taxes, 305 n.5, 308, 314-316, 349-352 time since arrival, 302 and wages, 198-204, 241-250 working age, 77, 105, 110 young adults, 94, 104-105, 291 Agriculture, work force, 27, 29, 52, 149 Ahmed, Bashir, 40 Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), 10, 30, 272-273, 278, 306 n.5, 307, 308 n.9, 309, 311, 313, 339, 352 Aleuts, 80 n.3 Alien and Sedition Act of 1798, 14 Aliens of exceptional ability, 42-43 Amerasians, 41, 42, 44, 46 American Indians, 80 n.3, 114, 366 Amnesty. See Illegal immigrants/ immigration Anaheim, 61 Ancestry, 85, 90-92, 118-122, 123 Anti-Terrorism Act of 1996, 29-30 Arizona, 254 Arts, contributions of immigrants to, 385 Asia, 79. See also specific country Asian immigrants. See also specific country attitudes about, 392 citizenship, 26 n.6, 30, 382 educational attainment, 12, 186, 187, 189, 366 emigration from U.S., 40 English proficiency, 376 exclusion, 23-25, 26 fiscal burden of, 275, 280, 282, 288, 322 gender profiles, 186-187, 189, 191 household characteristics, 271-273, 275, 277, 278, 283, 290-291, 293 integration, 367-368 intermarriage, 370-371 occupational attainment, 366 quotas, 27 segregation indices, 367 skills, 28 volume, 28, 32, 36, 37, 38 wages, 186, 187, 189, 191, 202, 236 waiting lists, 46 Asian population, U.S. ancestry, 85, 90-92, 119, 120-122 attitudes toward immigration, 392 n.23, 396 defined, 80 exogamy, 90-92, 115-116, 117, 122, 132 fertility, 85-87, 115 intermarriage rates, 91, 113, 132 mortality, 88, 131 population growth and size, 4, 114-115, 117, 121, 122 racial/ethnic attribution, 93, 115-116, 117, 118, 123, 133 size, 114-115 Assimilation of immigrants. See also Exogamy; Generational perspectives; Intermarriage citizenship and, 382 economic, 164, 181-182, 196-205

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--> and education, 372-376 fiscal impacts and, 302 generational perspectives, 12-13, 365-366, 396 historical context, 364 into labor market, 18, 39, 158-160 and policy on immigration, 15-16 racial/ethnic, 374-375, 395-396 residential integration, 366-367 social and spatial mobility, 365-369 Asylum and asylees. See also Refugees admission trends, 38, 42, 44, 64 defined, 22 earnings, 194, 195 excluded groups, 30 international comparisons, 64-65 policy on admissions, 28-29, 38, 40, 41, 42 Atlanta, 223 Atlantic Monthly, 393 Attitudes about immigrants admissions level, 391-392 crime and violence, 364, 386, 389 economic conditions and, 13, 24-25, 26, 396 illegal immigration, 390-391, 393 intermarriage, 369-372 labor-related, 23, 24-25, 26, 27, 144-145, 364, 390-392 population composition, 119, 383 racial/ethnic, 13, 364, 369-371, 374, 375, 382-383, 392 survey results, 402-405 trends, 46-47, 390 unemployment and, 390, 404 welfare-related, 26 Attribution Asians, 85, 93, 115-116, 117-118, 120-121, 123, 133, 375 blacks, 84-85, 93, 114, 118-119, 120, 133, 375 defined, 77 and educational success, 374-376 Hispanics, 85, 92 n.17, 93, 115, 116-118, 120-122, 123, 133, 375 and intermarriage rates, 91 Irish, 119, 370, 372 and population analysis, 4, 84-85, 89-90, 92-93, 114, 116-123, 133 racial issues, 370, 374 rates, 114, 115, 116-118, 120-122, 123, 133 social dimensions, 363, 369-370, 374-375 whites, 84, 93, 118, 120, 121-122, 133, 370-371, 396 Aussiedler, 63, 64 Australia, 20, 52, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 379 Australian immigrants, 186, 188, 190 Austria, 63, 64, 66, 186, 187, 189 Austria-Hungary immigrants, 24 B Baby-boom generation, 76, 94, 102, 106, 107-108, 110, 324, 347, 353 , 389 Baby-bust generation, 76 Benefits. See Public assistance, benefits, and services; individual programs Births fiscal impacts, 302 to later generations, 83, 130 multiple-ancestry, 84, 90, 92 rates, 34, 85-87, 96-97 underreporting, 85 Black immigrants. See also Africa; African Americans; specific country ancestry, 84-85, 90-92, 119, 120 attitudes about, 392, 394, 396, 404, 405 attitudes toward immigration, 13, 392, 395 distribution, 224 education, 375 employment impacts, 6, 220, 222-224 exogamy, 90-92, 118-119 n.46, 132 fertility rates, 85-87, 114 integration, 366, 367, 369 intermarriage, 113, 132 male, 222 mortality, 88, 131 population size and growth, 114, 115, 116, 121, 123 racial/ethnic attribution, 93, 114, 118, 133, 375

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--> segregation indices, 366, 367 unemployment, 222 wages, 222-224 Blacks. See African Americans; Black immigrants Border enforcement, 25, 51 Border Patrol, 26, 29, 51-52, 387 Bracero Program, 27, 30 British immigrants, 23, 28, 36, 46, 186, 187, 189 Bureau of Economic Analysis, 231 Bureau of the Census emigration estimates, 40 fertility estimates, 85, 86, 87 immigration data, 22, 31, 84, 89, 227, 362, 382 n.12 mortality estimates, 87-88 population estimates, 86, 94 n.20 Public Use Samples, 182 n.8, 224 n.37, 271, 273 n.27, 306, 308, 309 n.12, 362 wage data, 182 n.8 C California attitudes of residents toward immigration, 391, 402-405 budget, 277-280, 286 labor market, 226 legislation, 254 net annual fiscal impact, 282-294, 321 population, 228-230 Proposition187, 254 public services, 278, 283 revenues, 278-282, 283, 315 n.14 spending, 280-282, 283 California immigrants educational attainment, 141-142 employment, 211-217, 221 n.35, 225 federal budget for, 280-282 fiscal impact of, 8, 9-10, 254, 257, 277-289, 290-291, 321-323 household characteristics, 9, 273, 277, 278, 280, 282 illegal, 51, 254 intermarriage, 371 population composition, 228-230, 277, 287 studies, 8, 321-322 taxes, 278-279, 280, 281, 286-287 trends, 59, 61 wages, 179-180 Canadian immigrants in U.S.; See also European/Canadian immigrants athletes, 386 citizenship, 382 educational attainment, 186, 187, 189 English proficiency, 376 fiscal burden, 9-10, 275, 277, 280, 282, 288 gender profiles, 176-178, 186-187, 189, 191 household characteristics, 271-273, 275, 277 illegal, 26 numerical limits, 46 volume of, 28, 31 n.11, 36, 37 wages, 176-178, 186, 187, 189, 191 Canadian immigration system admissions, 62, 63, 67 asylees and refugees, 20, 67, 72 citizenship, 379 classes, 67, 71-72 composition of immigrants by type of admission, 64 and economic growth, 154-155 illegal immigrants, 50 national origin of immigrants, 65, 66 percentage of foreign-born, 62-63 planning, 65, 67 point-based preference system, 65, 67, 72-75 Capital complementarity to immigrant labor, 137 flows, 18, 148, 153 n.19 Capital/labor ratios, 148, 161 Caribbean. See Latin America and the Caribbean Castro, Fidel, 223 Census, 141. See also Bureau of the Census Central America, 174

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--> Central Europe, 365-366, 395 Characteristics of immigrants age, 54-55 family structure, 55-58 and fiscal impacts, 303-305, 306-308 gender, 52-54 Chicago, 61, 372, 394 Child care. See Household services Childbearing rates, 4, 57, 58, 77. See also Fertility rates Children of immigrants, 9, 41, 42, 43-44, 45, 54, 55, 57, 58, 298, 309, 316-323, 327, 377, 395 China, 62, 175, 176 Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, 14, 23, 24, 50 n.23 Chinese immigrants, 16, 23, 24, 26 n.6, 28, 42, 46, 50 n.23, 374 Chinese Student Protection Act, 42, 46 Citizens, relatives of, 41-42 Citizenship and naturalization advantages, 378-379 annual growth of, 379-382 Asian immigrants, 24, 26, 30, 382 eligibility, 22 n.3, 379 historical perspective, 379 n.8, 380, 382 incentives/propensity, 30, 378-379, 382 international comparisons, 379-380, 381 temporal trends, 382 Civil War, U.S., 47-48 Coale-Demeny model life tables, 125 Colbert, Claudette, 385 College enrollments, 104-105, 122 Colorado, 386 Commodity labor shares, 232-235, 251-253 Comparative advantage, 147-148 Congressional Budget Office (CBO), 323-324, 339 n.27, 346 Consumer Expenditure Survey, 232 Consumer price impacts of immigrant labor, 231-233, 251-253 household composition and, 232-235 occupational distribution of immigrants and, 144, 230-231 Consumer price index, 274 Consumer spending by immigrants changes, 264-266 measurement of, 264 Consumption of goods expenditures attributable to immigrant labor, 232-235 specialization in, 145 Crime and violence, 364, 386-389 Criminals, exclusion of, 23 Croatia, 386 Cuba, 386 Cuban Americans, 393 Cuban immigrants, 44, 181, 223, 365, 367 n.3, 375 Cultural impacts on arts and sciences, 383-386 concerns, 14, 383 family structure and, 55 generational, 82, 383 Current Population Surveys (CPS), 40, 85, 86, 130, 227, 271 n.25, 278, 306, 312, 315, 340, 362, 389 Czech Republic, 386 D Deaths, 83, 96-98. See also Mortality rates Demographics. See also Age profiles; Gender profiles; Race/ethnicity emigration and, 39-40 foreign residents, 52-55, 80 models, See Fiscal accounting model; Population projection model population effects, 94 unit of account, 255-256, 305; See also Households, immigrant Denmark, 62, 63, 64, 66 Department of the Treasury, Bureau of Immigration, 24, 26 Dependency ratios, 107-110 Deportation, 24, 30 Dillingham Commission, 24-25 Distribution. See Geographic distribution of immigrants Diversity admissions, 25, 29, 42, 44, 46 Dollar flow discount, 301 Dominican Republic, 386

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--> Dominican Republic immigrants, 28, 194, 196 Dynamic fiscal accounting, 255-256 Dynamic incidence calculation approach, 298-299 discounting dollar flows, 301 revenue and spending projections, 299-301 time of arrival, 301-302 E Earnings. See also Income; Wages annual, 176-178 disparities, by nativity, 176-178 domestic, 16, 17, 221-225, 219-228 and educational attainment, 302, 307 and fiscal impacts, 302, 307 gender profiles, 193-196 national origin and, 194, 196 occupational, 192-196 and public assistance, 306-307 temporal trends, 192-196, 307 by visa class, 195 Eastern Europe, 20, 175, 176 Eastern European immigrants, 25-26, 27, 31, 36, 68, 364, 395. See also specific country Eastern Hemisphere immigrants, 24, 26, 27 Economic growth agglomeration effects and, 150 assimilation of immigrants and, 9, 181-182, 196-204 conceptual framework, 155-156 crowding effects and, 150, 303 emigration and, 155 endogenous, 162 entrepreneurs and, 162-163 exogenous, 162 fertility rates and, 158, 160 fiscal impact of immigration, 8-12, 98, 271, 274, 275-276, 278-279, 284, 291-294 gains to immigrants, 174-181 generational assimilation and, 5, 10, 158-160, 164-165 historical context, 154-155 labor markets and, 4, 6, 16-17, 151-164, 220 migration and, 154-155, 157, 162 persistence of effects, 158-160 single-good model, 155-158 technological changes and, 155, 160-163 two-good model, 166-169 Economic impacts. See also specific aspects of the economy dollar-exchange rate, 148 gains to immigrants, 174-181 labor-market changes, 137-142 of nonimmigrants, 49-50 of population change, 77, 98 prices of goods and services, 135-136, 137, 230-235 recession, 308 unemployment, 104 Ecuador, 175, 176 Education, public assimilation and, 372-376 bilingual, 311, 321, 326, 356 generational perspective, 311, 312, 355-358, 374-376 policies, 103-104 public spending on, 273 n.27, 276, 281 Educational attainment age profiles, 241-248 and attitudes toward immigration, 13, 390-392, 396, 403 and earnings, 302, 307 and emigration, 39 and expenditures attributable to immigrant labor, 233-235 and fiscal impact, 10-11, 307, 327-332, 353, 358-361 gender profiles, 183-190, 241-248 generational perspective, 355-358 labor-market impacts, 77, 141-142, 151, 220 national origin and, 7, 186-190 by nativity, 141-142, 182-185 and net present value, 327-336 requirements, 46

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--> and self-employment, 163 and social impact, 306 n.5 and taxes, 349-352 temporal trends, 183-185 and wages, 7, 17, 151, 179, 181, 182-191, 227-228, 235, 241-248 Eisenhower, Dwight D., 27 El Salvador, 186, 187, 189 Elasticity of demand, 219-220, 222 Elderly population benefits, 297, 309-311, 320 changes in, 54, 55, 297 dependency ratio, 107, 108-110 fiscal impacts, 10, 76, 77, 106, 290, 293, 307 n.7, 320 growth, 3-4, 106, 122 health benefits, 76, 77, 106, 110, 304, 309-310, 347 OASDHI, 307 n.7, 309, 320, 326; see also Social Security oldest-old, 85, 106-107, 110, 320 pensions, 76, 77, 106, 110 taxes, 320 Emigration defined, 21 demographic information, 39-40 and earnings, 182 n.17 estimates, 40 fiscal effects, 40 n.17, 304, 326 illegal immigrants, 38, 39 generational perspective, 83, 89 n.14 modeling, 82, 84, 88, 89, 326 national origin and, 40, 65, 66 policymaking, 38-40 and population changes, 34, 35, 38-39, 78 and wages and earnings, 182 n.7, 204-205 Employer sanctions, 2, 25, 29, 52 Employment. See also Labor entries; Occupations, immigrant; Workforce, immigrant age profiles, 206-209 educational attainment and, 209, 236 gender profiles, 162-163, 205-209 by nativity, 206-209, 236 skills and, 236 telephone verification system, 2, 25, 29, 51 temporal trends, 8, 206-209 Employment-based admission preferences admission trends, 41, 64 Canadian system, 65, 67, 71-75 and earnings, 194-195 international comparisons, 64, 65 legislation, 24, 25, 28, 29, 182 national-origin trends, 46 numerical limits on, 41, 42 and occupational skills of immigrants, 218 waiting lists, 45-46 English language education, 11, 55, 278 n.32, 304, 311, 311 n.13 generational distribution of immigrants and, 82 primacy, 14, 376-378 proficiency, 13, 181, 197, 302, 311 n.13, 376-378, 395-396 requirements for entry, 25 Entrepreneurs, 162-163, 363 n.1 See also Investors, admissions Enumeration of immigrants emigration and, 38-40 illegal entry and, 52 racial/ethnic considerations, 80 Environmental impacts, 77 n.2, 98-99 Eskimos, 80 n.3 Ethnic affiliation. See Race/ethnicity Europe, 78, 150, 162, 175 European/Canadian immigrants, 271-273, 277, 278, 280, 281, 282, 287 n.45, 288, 290-291, 293 European immigrants. See also specific country attitudes about, 119, 392 citizenship, 382 educational attainment, 186, 187, 189 emigration from U.S. 40 entry routes, 31 n.11 fiscal burden, 9-10, 275, 277, 280, 282, 288 gender profiles, 176-178, 186-187, 189, 191

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--> geographic distribution, 59 n.28 household characteristics, 271-273, 275, 277 lotteries, 46 volume, 36, 37, 119 wages, 176-178, 186-189, 191, 202, 236 Exchange visitors, 49 Exclusion, 15. See also Preference system of criminals, 23 of feeble-minded, 50 n.23 of paupers, 23, 50 n.23 race-based, 23-25, 50 n.23 of terrorists, 29-30 Exogamy. See also Intermarriage births, 92 data sources, 91 defined, 77, 89 generational perspective, 91-92, 132 modeling, 89-92, 132 and racial/ethnic composition, 114, 115, 117-119, 132 Expenditures. See Public spending; State and local government Export-intensive industries, 148-149 F Families. See also Households, all defined, 56 n.23 modeling, 305 n.5, 335 public services utilization, 255 reunification policy, 29, 38, 53, 54, 56, 64, 68, 218 structure, 55-59 tax contribution, 255 Family-sponsored admission preferences admissions, 28 n.7, 41, 43, 64 and earnings, 194, 195 international comparisons, 64 legislation, 27-28 numerical limits, 41, 42 waiting lists, 44-45 Farmworkers, 27, 29, 52 Federal budget adjustments, 325, 338 benefits, 325, 338 calculating, 303 for California immigrants, 280, 282, 321-323 capital costs, 303 congestion costs, 303, 315, 316 current costs, 303 deficit, 299-300, 318 n.15, 324, 325 net annual fiscal impact of immigration, 257, 270-294 rate of interest, 325-326, 339-340 taxes, 325 Federal expenditures. See Public spending Federal policy on immigration. See also Exclusion; Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986; Preference system; Quotas admissions, 12, 333, 364 competing goals, 15-16, 28, 38 current, 37-52, 103 debate, 1, 16-17, 22, 38, 96, 140, 364 determinants, 15-17, 37-38, 354 diversity, 38 emigration and, 38-40 family reunification, 2, 29, 38, 53, 54, 56, 68 humanitarian, 28, 29, 37 illegal immigrants, 50-52 legal immigrants, 40-46 and net fiscal impact, 333, 354 nonimmigrants, 48-50 population impacts of, 95-96 size of government and, 8, 46-48 and skills of immigrants, 194, 196, 218 state/local impacts, 17 target population, 30-31 Federal revenues. See Public revenues; Taxes Females. See also Gender profiles labor force participation, 105 Fertility rates age and, 58, 85, 96, 102, 103, 105, 110 and economic growth, 158, 160 fiscal impacts, 304 generational perspective, 83, 85, 86, 94 n.20, 158-160, 303 immigrants, 2, 77, 83, 95, 97, 304, 365 and labor force, 105

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--> modeling, 82, 83, 85-87, 94 n.20, 329 n.23 and population change, 2, 34, 94, 95, 97, 111, 134 racial/ethnic distribution, 85-87, 114, 115, 119, 121, 365 Finland, 62, 63, 64, 66 Fiscal accounting model implementation, 263-270, 285 n.39 net annual fiscal impact, 257-260, 261, 270 nonresident revenues and spending, 260, 262-263, 269-270 population and population change, 263 privateness parameter, 265-266 public service utilization, 258-259, 262 revenue and revenue changes, 259, 260-263, 266-269 social rate of discount, 256 spending and spending changes, 264-266 unit of analysis, 255-256 Fiscal impacts. See also Net annual fiscal impact; Net present values; Public assistance, benefits, and services; Public revenues; Public spending; Social Security; Taxes age-related, 11, 54, 55, 106, 108, 110, 272, 290-291, 293, 307 n.5, 308-314, 318-319, 323-332, 334-336, 358-361 aggregate cross-sectional, 316-323 average, 331, 333-337 baseline scenario, 324, 325-331, 337 benefit expenditures, 8, 299-301, 307, 308-314, 338 budget assumptions and, 324, 325, 337-338 calculations, 303; See also Dynamic incidence calculation case studies, 18-19, 320-323; See also California; New Jersey characteristics of immigrants and, 303-305, 306-308 competing, 16 data sources, 306, 362 debt/GDP ratio and, 299-300, 325, 337-338 deficit and, 299-300, 302-303 discount rates, 298, 301 on earnings, 307 education costs, 326 educational attainment and, 11-12, 307, 353 of emigration, 40 n.17, 326 estimation, See Fiscal accounting model exclusion of nonresident children and, 316-318 federal policy and, 254-255 of fertility rates, 304 generational perspectives, 215, 289, 294, 316-323 geographic distribution of immigrants and, 59, 255, 305 household characteristics and, 271-273, 275, 277, 292-293 illegal immigrants, 254, 306 importance, 254-255 incremental immigrants, 331-336 independent of characteristics of immigrants, 302-305 interest rates and, 337, 339-340 internal migration and, 305 labor impacts and, 255, 258 n.5, 305 on native-born population, 8, 318-320 new immigrants, 10, 257-270, 289-292, 293-294, 301-302, 304-305 of population changes, 98, 289-292 by regional origin of immigrant, 271-273, 275-277, 280-283, 287-288, 290-291, 293 revenue/spending adjustments scenario, 338 scope of study, 18 size of government and, 46-48 state and local, 12, 305, 336-337, 341-343; See also specific states studies of, 8, 362 taxes, 8, 299-301, 314-316, 326, 338, 340 time of arrival and, 301-302, 303-304, 307-308, 340

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--> timing of, 341-344 welfare reform and, 326, 337, 338-339 Florida immigrants, 59, 61, 179-180, 211-217, 228-230, 254, 311 n.13, 391 Food stamps, 30 Foreign-born residents, permanent population changes, 34-36 Foreign government officials, 49 France, 63, 64, 66, 379 Franklin, Aretha, 385 Fraudulent documents, 52 French immigrants, 36 G Gallup polls, 402 Garment industry, 147-148, 225 Gender profiles. See also Females; Males age and, 100, 198-204, 206-209, 241-250 citizenship and, 382 educational attainment, 183-190, 241-250 emigration, 39 employment, 162-163, 205-209 fertility rates, 96 immigration and, 99-101, 402-404 marital status, 57 mortality rates, 96, 131 national origin, 186-191, 196, 249-250 occupations, 210-218 population distribution, 52-54 wages and earnings, 17, 176-178, 181, 183-191, 193-196, 198-204, 223, 241-250 General Social Survey, 307, 355 Generational perspectives assimilation, 12-13, 365-366, 396 desegregation, 367-369 economic growth, 5, 10, 158-160, 164-165 education, 311, 312, 355-358, 374-376 emigration, 89 n.14 and English proficiency, 377 exogamy, 91-92, 114 female dominance concept, 128-130 fertility rates, 83, 85-87 fiscal impact, 215, 289, 294, 316-323, 353 immigration, 89, 365 intermarriage, 12-13, 369-370 modeling approach, 81, 82-83, 89, 127-130 and net present value, 327-336, 342-343 population growth, 3, 111-113 public assistance and benefits, 297, 309-314 race/ethnicity, 114, 117, 367-369 taxes, 314-316, 319, 349-352 Geneva, Switzerland, 379 Gentleman's Agreement with Japan (1907), 24 Geographic distribution of immigrants and fiscal impacts, 59, 304, 305 and labor-market impacts, 6, 59, 61, 220-228 metropolitan concentration, 58-62, 104, 228-230, 304 residential concentrations, 365-367 and wages, 179-180 German immigrants, 23, 28, 36, 395 Germany, 50 n.22, 63, 64-65, 66, 155, 379 Goods and services. See Consumer price impacts; Household services; Price of goods and services Grant, Cary, 385 Great Depression, 26, 31, 32, 35, 68 Great Lakes immigrants, 61 Greek immigrants, 24 Greeley, Andrew, 369 Green cards. See Visas, permanent resident Gross domestic product (GDP), foreign by country and region, per capita, 174-176 debt ratio, 324 n.19, 337-338, 354 Gross domestic product, U.S. debt ratio, 299-300, 324, 325, 337-338 growth, 308, 334 n.25 labor contribution, 138, 151-153 labor-market impacts of immigration, 6, 136-137, 152-153, 155, 156, 164, 171-172

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--> per capita, 176 projecting, 299-301, 325, 344-345 state/local allocations, 47 Gross national product, U.S., 47 H Haitian Americans, 393 Haitian immigrants, 16, 374, 375 Health care, 76, 105, 110, 324 Hispanic immigrants. See Hispanics, U.S.; Latin American and Caribbean immigrants Hispanics, U.S. See also Latin American and Caribbean immigrants ancestry, 4, 85, 90-92, 119-122, 181 attitudes toward immigration, 13, 392, 394, 396, 404, 405 defined, 80 educational attainment, 375 English proficiency, 181 exogamy, 90-92, 115-116, 117-118, 132 fertility rates, 85-87, 115, 121, 365 fiscal burden of, 323 geographic distribution, 26 immigration trends, 38, 322 integration, 366, 367 n.3 intermarriage rates, 91, 113, 121, 132, 370-371 male, 222 mortality, 88, 131 native, 222 population size and growth, 4, 38, 80, 114-115, 117-118, 121, 123 racial/ethnic attribution, 92 n.17, 93, 115, 116-118, 122, 123, 133 segregation indices, 367 wages, 181, 222 Hong Kong, 377 Hope, Bob, 385 Hotel industry, 225 Household services, 144, 146, 149, 232, 234, 235 Households, all consumer price impacts by composition of, 232-235 defined, 56 n.24, 263, 270-271 education expenditures on, 276, 281 fiscal impacts on, 10, 270, 274, 276, 279, 281 income, 290 modeling, 263; see also Fiscal accounting model renters, 274 spending on public services to, 274, 276, 278 n.32, 280, 281, 283 taxes, 274, 276, 280, 281, 283, 318 Households, immigrant. See also Families; Fiscal accounting model African, 272-273, 277, 280, 290-291 age profiles, 272-273, 290-291, 293, 317 Asian, 271-273, 275, 277, 280, 281, 282, 283, 288, 290-291, 293 California, 9, 10, 273, 277-284, 286, 287-288, 289-292, 293, 320-323 children, 9, 271, 275, 277, 282, 289, 292, 294, 316-318, 319-320 composition, 9, 56, 233-234, 256, 263, 271, 272-273, 275, 277, 280 , 282 current immigrants, 282-289 economic status, 9, 272-273, 277, 280, 282, 287, 293 education services to, 9, 273 n.27, 275-277, 278 n.32, 280, 281, 292-293, 321 European/Canadian, 9-10, 271-273, 275, 277, 278, 280, 281, 282, 287 n.45, 288, 290, 291, 293 fiscal impacts of, 9-10, 270-294, 316-323 fiscal redistribution from native households to, 275, 279-280 Latin American and Caribbean, 9-10, 271-273, 275, 277, 280, 281, 282, 287, 288, 290, 291, 293 male-headed family, 56 modeling, 319 new immigrants, 264, 265, 268, 289-292, 294 New Jersey, 9, 10, 271-277, 282, 284, 290, 291, 293, 320-323

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--> size, 56 n.27, 271, 272-273, 277, 293 spending on public services to, 264-266, 271, 274, 276, 279 n.34, 35, 280, 282, 283, 290, 293 taxes, 266-268, 269-270, 271, 274, 275, 280, 283, 286-287, 290, 322 welfare utilization, 55, 265, 271, 272-273, 275, 277, 282, 283 Households, nonimmigrant age profiles, 272-273, 280 characteristics, 272, 273 education services to, 273 n.27, 276, 281 fiscal burden of immigrants on, 9-10, 265-266, 270-294 fiscal redistribution to immigrant households, 275, 279-280 income, 271, 272-273, 288 number in U.S., 288 size, 56 n.27, 271, 272, 273 spending on public services to, 271, 274, 280, 281, 283 taxes, 265-266, 271, 274, 275, 279 n.34, 35, 280, 281, 283 Houston, 61, 223 Humanitarian assistance, 28-29, 38 I Illegal immigrants/immigration, 190 amnesty for, 25, 29, 32 n.12, 41, 42, 44, 46, 51-52, 379 attitudes about, 390-391, 393 border enforcement against, 51-52, 386 and crime, 30, 387 defined, 21 developed countries, 20, 50 emigration, 39 employer sanctions, 2, 25, 29, 52 entry routes, 26, 52 estimates, 51-52, 88 fiscal impact, 14, 254, 306 geographic distribution, 60-62 legislation and, 2, 25, 26, 29, 30, 50 n.23 modeling and research, 88, 89, 306 national origin, 26, 51 net, 60 nonimmigrants as, 50, 51 and policy formation, 16 population changes due to, 2, 32, 37, 50-51 public assistance and, 25, 263 n.13 skills, 190, 192, 196, 236 survey participation, 190, 192 telephone verification system, 2, 25 trends, 27, 32, 37 and wages, 7, 236 Illegal Immigration Act of 1996, 25, 29 Illinois, 59, 61, 179-180, 211-217, 228-230, 391 Imhoff, Gary, 386 Immigration defined, 21 modeling, 82, 88-89, 95, 97 Immigration Act of 1891, 23, 24 Immigration Act of 1924, 24, 68 Immigration Act of 1990, 15, 25, 28, 29, 38 Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) admissions data, 22, 31, 32 n.12, 379 n.11, 387 n.18 definition of immigrant, 21 n.1 demographic data, 192 economic data, 192 enforcement by, 387 history, 23 illegal immigration data, 89, 393 Immigration Marriage Fraud Amendments of 1986, 44 Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952, 24 1965 amendments, 2, 24, 27-28, 36, 68, 182 1976 amendments, 25 Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA), 2, 25, 29, 32, 41, 42, 44, 46 Import-intensive industries, 148-149 Income. See also Earnings; Wages after-tax, 258 n.5 aggregate, 314

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--> and attitudes toward immigration, 390, 403-404 averages, 193 and expenditures attributable to immigrant labor, 234-235 family, 174 n.1 and fiscal impacts, 256, 300-301 free trade and, 147 generational assimilation and, 158-160, 164-165 household, 272-273 labor-market structure and, 137, 142, 147, 151, 156-157, 160, 164-165 measures of, 192 by nativity, 194 rate of immigration and, 137-138, 164 technology transfer and, 161 temporal trends, 268 n.21 India, 62-63, 175, 176, 186, 187, 189, 377 Indian immigrants, 26 n.6, 45, 194, 196 Industrial Revolution, 154-155 Institutional effects of immigration, 382-386 Interethnic relations, 389-390, 394-395 Intermarriage. See also Exogamy ancestry and, 91, 132 attitudes about, 369-371 data sources, 91 and identity, 369-372 by nativity, 132 race/ethnicity and, 4, 12-13, 91-92, 113, 115-116, 119, 121, 123, 132, 369-372, 396 rates, 370-371 International comparisons of citizenship requirements, 379-380, 381 of immigration, 62-65 of wages, 174-177 International trade, 5, 143, 146-149 Intracompany transferees, 49, 66 Investors, admissions, 29, 42, 43, 45, 49, 72 n.33 Ireland, 155 Irish immigrants 23, 28, 29, 36, 46, 119, 369, 395 Israel, 62, 63, 65, 66 Italian immigrants, 24, 28, 395 Italy, 63, 66, 386 J Japan, 62, 63, 65, 66, 175, 176 Japanese Exclusion Act of 1924, 24 Japanese immigrants, 23-24, 186, 187, 189, 367 n.3, 369 Job opportunities, 7, 138, 210, 221 K Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts, 383, 385 Kennedy, John F., 27 Korean immigrants, 374, 393 Kuwait, 62, 63, 66 L Labor, highly skilled, 138, 150, 162, 164, 194, 196, 209-210, 211-212 Labor, skilled admissions, 42, 43 complementarity of immigrants and natives, 137-141, 151, 152, 157, 163-164 gender profiles, 186, 209-210, 212-215, 222 migration profiles, 174 wages, 137-141, 143, 159-160, 201, 223 waiting lists, 45 Labor, unskilled admissions, 42, 43 gender profiles, 209-210, 212-215, 222 migration profiles, 174 needed, 42, 43 numerical limits, 42 occupations, 209-210, 212-215 substitution of immigrants for natives, 137-141, 142, 145-146, 151 , 157, 163-164, 219, 227 wages, 137, 141, 143, 159-160, 201-202, 223 waiting lists, 45

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--> Labor market impacts age of immigrants and, 54, 77, 104 baseline analysis, 5, 136-142, 150 benefit/cost assessment, 170-172 of complementarity of capital, 137 of complementarity of skilled labor, 5, 137-141, 151, 152, 157, 164 , 219 on consumption, 145-146, 164, 232-233, 251-252 displacement of native workers, 6, 135, 143, 144-145, 220, 221-224, 236-237, 364 distributional, 144, 373 economic growth, 4, 6, 153-164, 220, 234 educational attainment and, 77, 141-142, 151, 220, 227-228, 235-236 elasticity of demand, 219-220, 222, 226 factor proportions analysis, 226-228 fiscal burdens and, 255, 258 n.5, 305 on GDP, 6, 136-137, 152-153, 155, 156, 164, 171-172 geographic distribution of immigrants and, 6, 59, 61, 220, 221-230, 236-237 of highly skilled workers, 15, 138, 150, 164 on income, 137, 142, 147, 156-157, 160, 164-165 on industrial composition, 147-149 internal migration and, 6, 228-230, 236-237 international-trade analogy, 5, 143, 146-149, 164 local, 221-225, 236 magnitude of effects, 151-153 measure of, 225-228 prices of goods and services, 4, 135-136, 137, 142-143, 164, 215, 230-235 prices of inputs, 137 on productivity, 5, 144, 150 returns to scale, 5, 149-151, 155, 156-157, 160 scope of study, 17-18 skilled workers, 5, 137-141, 143, 155-160, 162, 170 specialization in production, 5, 145-146, 164 substitution for domestic labor, 5, 137-141, 142, 145-146, 151, 157 , 163-164, 219, 227 two-good, two-factor model, 143-146, 166-169 unemployment, 18, 104 unskilled workers, 5, 137-141, 143, 155-160, 162, 170, 223 wages, 4, 6, 135, 137-141, 142, 143, 151, 157, 161, 164, 219-220, 230, 235-236 Labor markets aggregate, 6-7 assimilation into, 18, 39, 158, 164, 181-182 discrimination, 181 elasticity of demand in, 219, 222 supply of workers, 4, 6, 219, 220 wage inequities, 201-202 Lamm, Richard, 386 Land rents, 264 Language. See English language Latin America and the Caribbean, 79 Latin American and Caribbean immigrants. See also Hispanics, U.S. educational attainment, 186-187, 189 English proficiency, 376 fertility, 277, 282, 365 fiscal burden, 9-10, 275, 277, 282, 287, 288, 291, 293 gender profiles, 186, 187, 189, 191 household composition, 271-273, 275, 277 migrant workers, 27 public assistance to, 275, 277, 282 volume of immigrants, 32, 36, 37, 177 wages, 186, 187, 189, 191 Legislation. See also individual statutes anti-terrorism, 29-30 evolution of, 23-30 exclusion, 14, 23-25 humanitarian admissions, 38 and illegal immigration, 2, 26 migrant workers, 27, 29

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--> preference system, 2, 20, 24, 25, 27-29 quotas, 24, 25-26, 27-28 refugees, 25, 28-29 and volume of immigration, 32 welfare reform, 2, 30, 254, 326, 338-339 Life expectancy, 87-88, 94, 131 Literacy requirements, 24-25 Lithuania, 386 Los Angeles, 61, 179-180, 221, 223, 225, 235, 393, 394. See also California Los Angeles Times, 394 Lotteries, 46 M Males. See also Gender profiles heads of households, 56 Malthus, Thomas, 154 Marital status, 56, 57 Marriage fraud, 44 Maryland, 61 Medicaid, 55, 273, 280, 308 n.9, 309-310, 320, 323-324, 330, 339, 352 Medi-Cal health insurance, 278, 282 n.37 Medicare, 10, 11, 255, 280, 283, 304, 308 n.9, 309-310, 319, 320, 323-324, 330 Men. See Gender profiles; Males Mexican immigrants agricultural workers, 27, 225 deportation, 26 educational attainment, 186, 187, 189, 375 emigration from U.S., 39 gender profiles, 162, 176-179, 186, 187, 189, 191 geographic segregation, 368-369 illegal, 16, 26, 37, 39, 50, 51 integration, 367 naturalization, 382 number of, 28, 31 n.11, 36, 37 occupational earnings, 194, 196 wages, 137-141, 143, 157, 174, 176, 179, 181, 186, 187, 189, 191, 193, 197-198, 201-203, 224-225, 227, 235-236, 249 waiting lists, 45 Mexico, 65, 155, 162, 174, 175, 176, 386 Miami, 61, 223, 373, 393 Migrant workers, 27, 29, 52 Migration and economic growth, 154-155 internal, 6, 61-62, 228-230, 305, 365 international, 84 native, 228-230 net, 21, 78, 83 rich nations to poor nations, 155 n.20, 162 secondary, 365 Miles, Jack, 393 Ministers and religious workers, 43 Models/modeling. See Population projection model Mortality rates age and, 76, 96 fiscal impacts, 304 gender and, 96, 131 immigrant rates, 77, 95 modeling, 82, 83, 87-88, 131 and population change, 34, 35, 77, 95, 96, 134 race/ethnicity and, 88 Multi-City Study of Urban Inequality, 394 Multinational companies, 20, 45-46, 49 N National Academy of Engineering, 385 National Academy of Sciences, 385 National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), 85, 92 National defense, 256, 283, 285, 293, 302 National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988, 375 National Football League (NFL), 385-386 National Hockey League (NHL), 386 National Income and Product Accounts (NIPA), 308, 315 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 367 National Opinion Research Center, 355 National/regional origin of immigrants and educational attainment, 186-190 and emigration, 40, 66 employment-preference, 46

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--> family-preference, 45 fiscal impacts, 271-273, 275-277, 280-283, 287-288, 290-291, 293 gender profiles, 186-191, 249-250 and geographic distribution in U.S., 59 n.28 illegal immigrants, 26, 51 international comparisons, 65, 66 and occupational earnings, 194, 196 and population changes in U.S. 32, 36-37 quotas, 24, 25-26, 27, 36 racial/ethnic classifications, 80 n.4 and wages, 7, 174, 176-178, 186-191, 202-204, 235-236, 249-250 Native American, 80 n.3 Naturalization. See Citizenship and naturalization Nebraska, 61 Net annual fiscal impact (NAFI) California, 277-282, 320-323 comparability of cross-sectional results with, 320-323 current immigrants, 282-289 defined, 289 federal budgets, 280, 282, 317 modeling, 257-260, 261, 262 on native households, 284, 292 new immigrants, 270, 289-292, 293-294 New Jersey, 271-277, 320-323 per capita, 317 state and local budgets, 271-280, 281, 317 Net immigration and age structure, 102-110 defined, 77 n.1 emigration and, 39 and geographic distribution, 59 n.28 illegal, 60 international comparisons, 65, 66 modeling, 83, 88-89 population impacts, 3, 4, 33 n.14, 34, 39, 40, 77 n.1, 95, 96, 97-98, 102-106, 108-122 and racial/ethnic composition, 4, 114-122 Net migration, 21, 78, 83, 127, 228 n.40 Net present value (NPV) age at arrival and, 326-332, 334-336, 358-361 for average citizen, 348-349 educational attainment and, 327-332, 358-361 federal level, 330-331 for immigrants, 358-361 incremental immigrant, 331, 333-336 for natives, 358-361 negative estimates, 347-348 positive estimates, 344-347 single immigrant scenario, 341-343 state and local level, 326-327, 347-348 stream of one immigrant per year, 343-344 time since arrival, 340, 358-361 weighted average, 341, 343-345 welfare reform and, 339 Netherlands, 63, 64, 66, 386 New Deal, 47 New England immigrants, 61 New Jersey attitudes toward immigration, 391 budget, 271-277, 285-286 education benefits, 321 net annual fiscal impact, 282, 284-292, 321 public services, 271, 272-273, 275-276 revenues, 271, 274, 321 spending, 272-273, 275-277 New Jersey immigrants employment, 211-217 fiscal impact of, 8, 9-10, 254, 257, 271-277, 282, 284, 287-288, 290, 321-322 household characteristics, 271-272, 275, 277, 284, 290 population composition, 228-230, 271, 275 revenues from, 271 studies, 8, 321-322 trends, 59, 61 wages, 179-180 New York City, 61, 225, 228-230

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--> New York State, 59, 61, 179-180, 211-217, 254, 391, 393 New Zealand, 65 Nicaragua, 175, 176 Nigeria, 386 Nobel prizes and laureates, 383, 384-385 Nonimmigrants, 2, 21, 48-50, 51, 66, 190, 192, 196, 306, 382 Nonresident revenues and spending, 262-263, 269-270 North America, 79, 175 North American immigrants. 187, 189. See also specific country North Carolina, 61 Northern European immigrants, 26 Norway, 63, 64, 66 Norwegian Nobel Committee, 384 Numerical limits on immigration annual, 40-41 country-based, 41, 68 employment-based preferences, 41 exempted populations, 41, 46 family-related preferences, 41 legislation, 24, 25-27 O Occupations, immigrant earnings by, 193-195 gender profile, 209-218 high-education, 8, 209-210, 211-212, 236 low-education, 8, 209-210, 212-215, 236 medium-education, 216-218 public-sector, 218 temporal trends, 210, 213-217 Oceania, 79, 176, 272-273, 280, 281, 282, 290-291, 382 Office of Immigration, U.S., 23 Oklahoma, 61 Old-Age, Survivors, Disability, and Health Insurance (OASDHI), 307 , 308 n.9, 309, 320, 326, 337, 347; see also Social Security P Panama, 64, 386 Panama Canal Company, 64 Panama Canal Treaty, 64 Parents, 41, 44, 195 Park, Robert, 372 Parolees, 42 Patent system, 161 n.33 Peck, Gregory, 385 Pennsylvania immigrants, 59 Pensions, 76, 105, 110, 326 n.20 Permanent residents children of, 41 visas, See Visas, permanent resident Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (1996) , 2, 10, 30, 254, 264 n.15, 326, 337, 338-339, 351, 354 Personal services (nonhousehold), 149 Philippines, 7, 174, 175, 176, 377 Physicians, 7, 194, 196, 210, 211 Policy. See Federal policy on immigration; State and local government Polish immigrants, 24, 28, 46 Political asylum. See Asylum and asylees Population dependency analysis, 107, 108-109 world, 20, 78-79 Population projection model age distribution, 84 base population, 84-85 data requirements, 125 definition of population, 125 emigration and, 82, 84, 88, 89 exogamy assumptions, 89-92, 132 fertility assumption, 3, 82, 83, 85-87, 94 n.20, 130 generational perspective, 3, 81, 83-84, 89, 91-92, 122, 124 immigrant-generation approach, 82-83 immigration assumptions, 82, 88-89, 95 with international migration, 3, 126-127 mortality assumptions, 3, 82, 83, 87-88, 131 net migration, 83, 88-89

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--> with no international migration, 125-126 and policy changes, 89 n.13 with population by generations, 127-130 racial/ethnic attribution in, 81-82, 84, 92-93, 133 sensitivity of results, 133 standard cohort-component, 81, 82 Portugal, 186, 187, 189 Poverty, as a basis for exclusion, 23, 50 n.23 Preference system, 28. See also Employment-based admission preferences; Family-sponsored admission preferences diversity admissions, 25, 29, 46 executives, 45 legislation, 2, 24, 25, 27-29, 68 refugees, 25 and skills of immigrants, 2, 194, 196, 218 Price of goods and services. See also Consumer price impacts labor-market structure and, 4, 135-136, 143, 144, 164, 215, 230-235 Priority workers, 42, 45 Professionals, 42, 43, 45-46 Property rights, 161 n.33 Public assistance, benefits, and services. See also specific program; Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act age profiles of recipients, 308-316 fiscal impacts, 255, 256, 257-259, 262, 309-316 generational perspectives on, 297, 309-314, 319-320 household utilization, 55, 265, 272-273, 275, 276-277, 278, 282, 283 legislation, 2, 30, 326, 338-339 new immigrants, 10, 255, 264 payment for, 264 public opinion, 26 spending on benefits, 272-273, 319 utilization modeling, 258-259, 262, 264 n.17 Public goods and pure public goods, 256-257, 265, 285, 302, 334-335 n.25 Public revenues. See also Taxes federal aid to states, 262 fees and licenses, 267, 278 modeling, 259, 260-263, 266-269 nonresident sources, 260, 262-263, 269-270 Public spending age of immigrants and, 304 on debt, 304, 318 n.15 on education, 275-276, 281 historical trends, 47-48 modeling, 264-266, 269-270 for nonresident business services, 269-270 per capita share, 303 projections, 10-11, 299-301 on public assistance and benefits, 10, 272-273, 304-305 on public goods, 293, 302, 303, 304, 318 Public Use Micro Sample (PUMS), 271, 273 n.27, 306, 308, 309 n.12, 362 Q Quota Act (1921), 25-26 Quotas Eastern Hemisphere, 24, 26, 27 legislation, 24, 68 national-origin-based, 24, 25-26, 27, 36, 68 numerical, 24, 25-26, 27-28, 68 skills-based, 24, 27 Western Hemisphere, 24, 25, 68 R Race/ethnicity admissions based on, 64 attitudes toward immigrants, 364, 374, 375, 392, 393-394 classifications, 80 and education, 355-358 exclusions based on, 23-24 and expenditures attributable to immigrant labor, 234-235

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--> and fiscal impacts, 322 geographic segregation by, 367-368 interethnic tensions, 393-394 Racial/ethnic distribution age structure, 113-114 attribution issue, 4, 77, 84-85, 89-90, 92-93, 114, 115-119, 121-122, 123, 370 exogamy and, 114, 115, 117-119 fertility rates, 85-87, 114 generational perspectives, 114, 117, 355-358, 367-368 intermarriage and, 4, 113, 123, 369-372, 396 international comparisons, 64 labor-force participation, 105 modeling, 81-82, 84-85, 87-88, 92-93, 133 mortality, 88, 131 population composition, 4, 34, 37, 77, 80, 113-122, 123 projected, 114-122, 123 Refugee Act of 1980, 25, 28-29, 38 Refugees admission trends, 38, 41, 42, 44, 64 Canadian system for, 20, 67, 72 defined, 22 earnings, 194, 195, 196 European, 27 international comparisons, 64 legislation, 25, 28-29, 38 policy on admissions, 41, 42, 196, 365 resettlement, 25, 28-29, 38 Relatives of U.S. citizens, 41, 44 Representatives of international organizations, 49 Research and development, 162, 164 Resettlement of refugees, 25, 28-29, 38 Restaurants, ethnic, 146, 213-215 Retail trade, 149 Revenues. See Public revenues; Taxes Robinson, Gregg, 40 Romania, 386 Roosevelt, Theodore, 119 Russia, 62 Russian immigrants, 24, 386 S San Diego, 226, 373, 375-376 San Francisco, 61 Savings rate, 162-163 Scandinavian countries, 155. See also specific country Scandinavian immigrants, 23, 36 School-age population, 77, 94, 103-104 School enrollments, 3, 77, 103-104, 122 Science and arts, contributions to, 383-386 Sciences, contributions of immigrants to, 383-385 Scope of study, 1, 17-19 Seasonal agricultural workers, 27, 29, 52 Self-employment, 162-163, 182 n.8 Service industries immigrant labor-cost shares, 232 occupations of immigrants, 212-215 workforce, 149 Siblings of immigrants, 42, 43, 45 Silicon Valley, 150 Skills of immigrants. See also Educational attainment; Labor, highly skilled; Labor, skilled; Labor, unskilled and economic assimilation, 181-182 and fiscal burden, 335-336 national origin and, 7, 185-190, 235-236 policy on immigration and, 2, 194, 196, 218 trends, 181-185 and wage disparities, 7, 137-141, 143, 157, 179, 181, 193, 197-198, 201-202, 224-225, 227, 235-236 Smith, Adam, 154 Social dimensions of immigration. See Assimilation of immigrants; Attitudes about immigration; Education, public; Exogamy; Geographic distribution of immigrants; Intermarriage age distributions and, 55, 77 citizenship and naturalization, 363, 378-382 concerns, 14 crime and criminals, 53, 386-389

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--> education, 103-104, 122, 372-376 gender balance and, 53 generational perspectives, 374-377, 395-396 interethnic relations, 389-390, 393-395 literacy, 363, 376-378 of population change, 77 public assistance programs, 30, 55 racial/ethnic identity, 363, 369-372 residential integration, 366-368 segregation indices, 366-369 social and spatial mobility, 363, 365-368 Social Security, 10, 11, 40 n.17, 44, 54, 110, 255, 280, 282, 283, 297-298, 304, 309-311, 325 n.20, 330, 342; see also Old-Age Survivors, Disability, and Health Insurance Social Security Administration, 347 South African immigrants, 186, 188, 190 South America, 174, 175, 376 South American immigrants, 23, 287, 289. See also specific country Southern European immigrants, 25-26, 31, 36, 68, 110, 364, 376, 395. See also specific country Soviet Union, 20, 28 n.8, 64. See also specific country Special immigrants, 42, 45 Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), 308 n.9 Sponsors, 30 Sports, contributions of immigrants to, 385-386 Spouses, 41, 42, 43-44, 45, 195, 209 Standards of living. See Gross domestic product State and local government. See also California; New Jersey budget, 271-277, 285-289, 324 n.20 congestive costs, 303, 316 deficit, 324 n.20 education, 262, 273 n.27, 278 n.32, 311 revenues. See Public revenues; Taxes spending. See Public spending Students, foreign-born, 49-50, 51, 103 n.30 Supplementary Security Income (SSI), 10-11, 30, 44, 55, 273, 278, 282 n.37, 304, 308 n.9, 309, 311, 312, 330, 339, 351 Survey of Income and Program Participation, 306, 362 Sweden, 63, 64, 66, 386 Switzerland, 62, 63, 64, 66, 379 T Taiwan, 186, 187, 189 Tampa Bay, 386 Taxes, federal, state, and local and age profiles of immigrants, 305 n.5, 314-316, 320, 349-352 aggregate, 314-316 business/corporate, 9, 256, 262, 267-268, 274, 279, 285 n.40, 314 disability insurance, 278-279, 283 and earnings, 306 and educational attainment, 349-352 exclusions, 285 n.38 generational perspective, 314-316, 319-320, 349-352 immigrant contributions, 256, 276, 280, 281, 283, 314-316, 326, 339 , 340 income and payroll, 256, 267, 274, 276, 278, 283, 314 licenses and fees, 267, 278 modeling, 259, 260-263 native burden, 255, 260-263, 265-266, 279 n.35, 281, 283 net annual fiscal impact, 261 net present value, 326-332, 347-348 new immigrant impact, 256, 260, 261, 262, 265, 268, 340, 349 per capita net, 320 projections, 10-11, 256, 297-301 property and utility, 9, 256, 267-268, 274, 276, 278, 279, 281, 314 sales and excise, 256, 267, 276, 278, 281, 314 shifting burden of, 266-267 state and local, 314 time since arrival and, 307 tourists and tourism, 279

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--> Technology, 155, 160-163, 264 n.16 Temporary workers and trainees, foreign, 49-50 Terminology, 21-22, 56 n.24 Texas, 59, 61, 179-180, 211-217, 228-230, 254, 391, 405 Textile industry, 145-146, 147-148, 215 Time of arrival and citizenship and naturalization, 382 and earnings, 192-196, 307 and educational attainment, 183-185 and employment, 206-209 and fiscal impacts, 301-302, 303-304, 307-308 and income, 268 n.21 and occupational attainment, 210, 213-217 and wages, 7, 177-178, 183-185, 198-204, 241-250 Tourists and tourism, 49, 50, 51, 274 n.29, 275 n.29 Trade. See International trade Transit aliens, 49 Treaty traders, 49 Truman, Harry S, 27 Turkey, 64 U Undocumented immigrants. See Illegal immigrants/immigration Unemployment, 18, 104, 105 United Kingdom, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66. See also British immigrants United Nations, 79 U.S. Commission on Immigration Reform, 1, 15, 17-19 Unskilled labor. See Labor, unskilled V Venezuela, 386 Vietnamese immigrants, 28, 194, 196, 365, 367 n.3, 375, 395 Visa systems Canadian, 65, 67, 72-75 legislation, 24, 29 Visas, permanent resident. See also Employment-based admission preferences; Family-sponsored admission preferences admissions, 42, 43, 209 allocations, 41-43 conditional, 44 and data collection, 192 lotteries, 46 unused, 41 waiting list, 45 Voting, 30, 78, 226, 273, 372-373 W Wages. See also Earnings; Income age profiles, 197-204, 241-250 by country, 187-190, 196, 249-250 cross-sectional data, 197-198 discrimination, 179, 181 disparities, by nativity, 176-179, 182-185, 197-202, 241-248 dispersion, 174 early arrivals, 177-178 educational attainment and, 7, 17, 151, 179, 181, 182-190, 227-228, 235, 241-248 elasticity of, 221-222 emigration and, 204-205 factor price equalization, 174 n.3 flows of immigrants and, 227-230 gender differences, 17, 176-178, 181, 183-191, 198-204, 241-250 generational assimilation and, 158-160 geographic distribution of immigrants and, 179-180, 221-222, 225-228 growth/convergence rate, 197-205, 241-250 hourly, 176-178, 179, 180 illegal immigrants and, 7, 236 international comparisons, 174-177 local markets, 221-225 migrant workers, 27 national origin and, 7, 174, 176-178, 186-191, 202-204, 235-236, 249-250

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--> productivity differences and, 174 n.3 race/ethnicity and, 181 redistribution of workers and, 7, 137-142, 151-152, 157, 164 skill levels and, 137-141, 143, 157, 179, 181, 193, 197-198, 201-202, 224-225, 227, 235-236 temporal trends, 177-178, 183-185, 198-204, 241-250 Waiting lists, 44-45 Washington, D.C., 61 Washington immigrants, 61 Washington Post, 393 Wealth of Nations, 154 Welfare. See Public assistance, benefits, and services West Indian immigrants, 375 Western Europe, 174, 175, 176, 182 Western Hemisphere immigration emigration from U.S., 40 quotas, 24, 25, 68 White immigrants; see specific area and country ancestry, 84, 119, 120 attitudes toward immigration, 13, 394, 396 defined, 80 education, 375 exogamy, 90-92, 118 n.46, 132 fertility rates, 85-87 fiscal impact of 322 intermarriage rates, 90, 91, 113, 132, 370 mortality, 88, 131 racial/ethnic attribution, 93, 118, 121-122, 133, 370-371 population size and growth, 114, 115, 116, 121, 123 unemployment, 222 wages, 222, 223 Whites. See White immigrants Women. See Females Work experience, requirements, 46 Workers. See Labor Workforce, immigrant in agriculture, 149 in service industries, 149 size of, 77, 105, 110, 122 in traded-goods sector, 148-149 Working-age population, 77, 105, 110 World War I, 25, 31, 35 World War II, 26, 27, 29 n.9, 31-32, 35, 68, 76 Wyoming, 61 Y Young adults, 54, 55, 104-105 Youth dependency ratio, 107-108 Yugoslavia, 386