employed in traditional academic positions. Many disciplinary societies profile people with advanced degrees in their publications and Web pages, many of whom have found satisfying alternative careers. An extended discussion of this issue, including a series of profiles, is offered in the COSEPUP publication Careers in Science and Engineering: A Student Planning Guide to Grad School and Beyond (see "Resources"). A few of these profiles are included in this guide.

Choosing a research topic. Urge the student to think through a research topic in advance-to imagine a thesis title, list hypotheses to test and perhaps expected outcomes, and write a full proposal. The title and outcomes might



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