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APPENDIX Minutes of the Proceedings of the B National Academy of Sciences at the Meeting Held for Organization in the Chapel of the J~ew York University on the 22nd, 23rd, and 24th days of April 1863 In accordance with an appointment made by the Hon. Henry Wilson of Mass. of which due notice had been given, the members of The National Academy of Sciences met in the Chapel of the New York University at ~ ~ a. m. on Wednesday, April 2 2nd, ~ 863. Mr. Wilson was present and called the meeting to order; and after a brief statement of the origin and history of the Bill incorporating the Academy, which was by him introduced into the Senate of the United States called upon Prof. Agassiz, the first named in the Bill, to take the chair. Prof. Agassiz on account of temporary ill health declined the honor tendered him; and after some few pertinent remarks upon the importance of the establishment of the Academy to the progress of Science, and to the general interests of the country, nominated Prof. Joseph Henry of Washington, as chairman, & Prof. Alexis Caswell of R. I. as secretary, pro tempore, both of whom were ap- pointed and entered upon their respective duties. The following Resolutions offered by Dr. Gibbs of New York were unani- mously adopted: Resolved, that the Academy accepts the Act of Incorporation, & hereby declares its intention of entering with earnestness & devotion upon the high course marked out for it by Congress. 598

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Appends B / 599 Resolved, that the thanks of the Academy be presented to the Hon. Henry Wilson for the statesmanlike and successful action in the Senate of the United States for the establishment of a National Academy of Sciences; & that he be invited at this and at all other times when agreeable to him, to be present at, and assured of a cordial welcome at, the meetings of the Academy. The Bill of Incorporation was then read. Thirty-two (32) corporate mem- bers were present and answered to their names as follows. Agassiz, L. Dana, l. D. Henry, I. Rogers, F. Alexander, S. Davis, C. H. Hilgard, l. E. Rogers, R. E. Bache, A. D. Frazer, l. F. Hubbard, l. S. Rogers, W. B. Barnard, F. A. P. Gibbs, W. Leidy, J. Rutherfurd, L. M. Barnard, l. G. Gilliss, l. M. Lesley, I. P. Saxton, I. Bartlett, W. H. C. Gould, B. A. Newberry, I. S. Silliman, B., Jr. Caswell, A. Guyot, A. Newton, H. A. Strong, T. Coffin, J. H. C. Hall, J. Peirce, B. Winlock, J. On motion of Prof. B. Peirce it was Voted that a committee of nine be appointed by the chair to draft & report a plan of organization. The chair appointed the followng: A. Caswell, A. D. Bache, W. B. Rogers, W. Gibbs, I. F. Frazer, B. Silliman, Jr., B. A. Gould, B. Peirce and L. Agassiz. Opportunity was given for a general interchange of views upon the plan most proper to be adopted. On motion of Dr. Gould it was Voted that members having any propositions to submit to the committee be requested to present them in writing. On motion of Dr. Gibbs it was Voted that the chairman & secretary furnish for the Press such Report of the Proceedings as they may think proper. On motion of Mr. Hilgard it was Voted that the meeting for Organization be with closed doors. On motion of Mr. Hilgard, it was Voted that a committee of five members be appointed by the chairman to prepare & report upon (1) The form of a Diploma, (2 ~ The Corporate Seal, (3 ~ A stamp for Books and Property. Messrs. F. A. P. Barnard, l. E. Hilgard, J. Saxton, L. M. Rutherfurd and J. P. Lesley were appointed. It was voted that when we adjourn it be to meet at 8 o'clock this evening. Adjourned. ALEXIS CASWELL Sec'y. pro tem. o'clock P. M. April 22nd, 1863. The chairman called the meeting to order agreeably to adjournment. The Roll was called. Shortly after Roll Call the members present at the morning were believed to be present with the exception of James D. Dana, who had left N. Y. for New Haven.

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600 / Appendix B The committee on organization reported through their chairman a series of Articles forty-five (45) in number which were recommended for adop- tions as the Laws of the Academy. Prof. S. Alexander moved that the Report be printed and referred to a subsequent meeting for consideration. Motion lost. On motion of Dr. B. A. Gould it was Voted that the Report be now taken up for consideration Article by Article in order. Articles 1st, Id, 3d, 4th, 5th, & 6th were adopted without material altera- tion. Dr. Leidy moved that article 7th fixing the form of an oath of Allegiance to be taken by the members be amended by striking out the first part which refers to having borne arms against the Government or in any manner aided persons acting in hostility thereto. After a somewhat protracted debate the motion was put and lost. The article was then adopted as reported by the committee. Articles 8th & gth were adopted. On motion of Prof. Frazer Article moth referring to Elections was amended by substituting the word 'majority" for the word "plurality." Pending the consideration of the moth Article the Academy adjourned to meet at lo a. m. tomorrow. ALEXIS CASWELL Secy. pro tem. Thursday April 23(1, 10 A. M. Pursuant to adjournment the meeting was called to order by the chairman. The Roll was called and the following members answered to their names. Agassiz Henry Gilliss Newberry Bache Hilgard* Gould, B. A. Newton Barnard, F. A. P. Hubbard Guyot Peirce Bartlett Leidy Rogers, W. B. Rogers, F. Caswell Lesley Saxton Rogers, R. E. Coffin* Frazer Winlock Strong* Hall Gibbs Torrey Prof. Caswell moved a reconsideration of Article 7, fixing the form of the Oath of Allegiance with a view to offer an amendment which would limit its administration in its present form to the duration of the present Rebellion & thus obviate the main objection which had been urged against it. After a brief debate the motion was withdrawn. Prof. Peirce gave notice that he would at a later stage of the business offer a substitute for Article 7th. Article Both of the organic Laws which was under consideration at the time of adjournment last evening was resumed. *Came in after roll call.

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Appendix B I 601 On motion ot Prol. Frazer it was amended by substituting the word "majority" for the word "plurality" in the election of chairman of the classes. On motion of Prof. Peirce the paragraph on the division of the members into sections was amended by adding the words following, viz., "By a special vote of the Academy a member may inscribe his name in a section of the class to which he does not belong." Article moth as amended was then adopted. On motion of Prof. Bache the committee on Organization was reappointed and Article ~ lath was referred to them for revision. Articles ~ ~ to ~3 inclusive were adopted. On motion of Dr. Gould Article with was referred to the committee on Organization for revision. Article With was adopted. On motion of Prof. W. B. Rogers Article With fixing the requirement of memoirs and papers from the members was striker out. On motion of Dr. Gould it was Voted that the Academy adjourn at 3 / p. m. to meet at lo a. m. tomorrow. The remaining articles numbered 27 to 45 inclusive (or in the printed copy 26 to 44) were adopted. On motion of Prof. Bache, Prof. Winlock was added to the committee on . . Organlzatlon. At 4 p. m. the Academy adjourned to allow a short time for the committee on Organization to revise Articles ~ ~ & 24. At 4~/: p. m. the meeting was again called to order by the chairman. The committee reported articles ~~ & 24 revised: and they were then adopted. Prof. Peirce agreeably to previous notice moved a substitute for Article 7th (prescribing the form of the oath) in the words following viz., "All ordinary members of the Academy shall be citizens of the United States. Every member shall take the oath of Allegiance prescribed by the Senate of the United States for its own members; and in addition thereto, shall take an oath faithfully to discharge the duties of a member of the National Academy of Sciences to the best of his ability." After a brief debate the substitute was adopted. On motion of Dr. Gould Article lath fixing the time of holding the stated meetings of the Academy was so amended that one of them shall be held on the third day of January (or if that be Sunday, on the Monday next following); and the other on the third Wednesday in August. On motion of Prof. Bache the articles separately passed upon were provi- sionally adopted as a whole; and a committee of three was appointed to put them immediately in print with a view to a further revision on another day. Committee Messrs. Gibbs, Hilgard & Rutherfurd. On motion of Prof. Frazer it was Voted that a committee of three be

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602 / Appendix B appointed by the chair to revise the style and arrangement of the articles; and report at the next stated meeting of the Academy. Adjourned, ALEXIS CASWELL Sec'y. pro tem. Friday 10 a. m. April 24th man. Pursuant to adjournment the Academy was called to order by the chair- The minutes of the preceding meetings were read & corrected. On the suggestion of the chairman Mr. F. Rogers was appointed assistant secretary pro tem. On motion of Prof. Peirce it was Voted that in the minutes of the proceed- ings all titles of members shall be omitted, and the prefix "Mr." used. The committee on the Revision of the Laws was announced from the chair; viz., Mr. Frazer, Mr. Davis & Mr. Caswell. On motion of Mr. Rutherford it was Voted that all the Articles of the Laws with the exception of Article 43th, relating the "Alteration of Laws" (on page of the printed copy) be permanently adopted. On motion of Mr. Frazer it was Voted that the Secretary be directed to call the Roll; and that each member be requested when his name is called to assign the Class and Section in which he wishes his name to be enrolled. The roll was called, and the selections were as follows, viz.: CLASS A. MATHEMATICS & PHYSICS. Sec. I. Mathematics. J. G. Barnard, Peirce, Strong and Winlock. Sec. a. Physics. Bache, Bartlett, F. A. P. Barnard, Henry and W. B. Rogers. Sec. 3. Astronomy, Geography and Geodesy. Caswell, Coffin, Davis, Gilliss, Gould, Hub- bard and Rutherfurd. Sec. 4 Mechanics. Frazer, Hilgard, F. Rogers and Saxton. Sec. 5. Chemistry. Gibbs, Silliman, B., Jr., and Torrey. CLASS B. NATURAL HISTORY Sec. I. Mineralogy and Geology. Lesley and Newberry. Sec. 2. Zoology. Agassiz. Sec. 3. Botany. Sec. 4. Anatomy and Physiology. Sec. 5. Ethnology. On motion of Mr. Gibbs it was Voted that a committee of two be appointed to arrange a book for the signatures of the members. Mr. Gibbs and Mr. W. B. Rogers were appointed said committee. The Secretary then administered to the chairman the oath of allegiance to

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Appendix B / 603 the Government, and of Fidelity to the Academy in the following words. (nomine mutate) "I (A.B.) do solemnly affirm that I have never voluntarily borne arms against the United States since I have been a citizen thereof; that I have voluntarily given no aid, countenance, counsel or encouragement to persons engaged in armed hostility thereto; that I have neither sought nor expected to exercise the functions of any office whatever under any authority or pre- tended authority in hostility to the United States; that I have not yielded a voluntary support to any pretended government, authority, power or con- stitution within the United States, hostile or inimical thereto. And I do further affirm that to the best of my knowledge and ability, I will support and defend the Constitution of the United States against all enemies, foreign and domes- tic: that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the same; that I take this obligation freely, without any mental reservation, or purpose of evasion; and that I will well and faithfully discharge the duties of a member of the National Academy of Sciences. So help me God." The chairman then administered the same oath to all the members, whose names are as follows. Agassiz Davis Hubbard Rutherford Bache Frazer Lesley Saxton Barnard, F. A. P. Gibbs Newberry Silliman, B., Jr Barnard, l. G. Gilliss Peirce Strong Bartlett Gould, B. A. Rogers, F. Torrey Caswell Hilgard Rogers, W. B. Winlock Coffin On motion of Mr. Frazer it was Voted that the Academy do now proceed to the election of officers. On motion of Mr. Gibbs it was Voted that a committee of two be appointed to collect and count the votes. Messrs. Gibbs and F. A. P. Barnard were appointed the committee. The chairman after a few remarks of warning and encouragement to the members before leaving the chair called for nominations for President of the Academy. A. D. Bache was nominated. The ballot was taken and on the Report of the tellers, Alexander Dallas Bache was declared by the chairman to be elected President of the Academy. The chairman pro tem. then retired from the chair. Mr. Caswell moved that Mr. Strong be appointed a committee to conduct the President elect to the chair. Carried. The President on taking the chair returned his thanks to the Academy for the honor they had done him, and proceeded with the business. Nominations for Vice-President were called for. lames D. Dana was nominated.

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604 / Appendix B The ballot was taken and fames D. Dana was declared to be elected Vice-President. For Foreign Secretary, Louis Agassiz was nominated. The ballot was taken and Louis Agassiz was declared to be elected. For Home Secretary, Wolcott Gibbs was nominated. The ballot was taken and Wolcott Gibbs was declared to be elected. The Home Secretary requested the secretary pro tem. to retain his place till the close of the meeting. For Treasurer, Fairman Rogers and L. M. Rutherfurd were nominated. The ballot was taken and Fairman Rogers was declared to be elected. On proceeding to the election of Councillors, doubts were expressed whether it could with propriety be done at this time inasmuch as it was uncertain whether members not present would accept their appointment as Academicians under the Bill. Whereupon statements of members present showed that the following persons named in the Bill of Incorporation, but not present at this meeting, had signified their intention to accept their appoint- ments as Academicians; viz., Mr. B. Silliman, Sen., Mr. I. Wyman, Mr. A. Gray, Mr. I. L. Leconte, Mr. G. Engelmann, Mr. W. Chauvenet, Mr. M. F. Longstreth and Mr. John Rodgers. On motion of Mr. Frazer it was Voted that we proceed to the election of four members of the council. Nominations for councillors were then called for, when the following names were announced. Mr. Henry, Mr. Prazer, Mr. W. B. Rogers, Mr. Davis, Mr. Rutherfurd, Mr. Torrey, Mr. Lesley, Mr. Gilliss, Mr. Newberry and Mr. Gray. Mr. Henry expressed a wish not to be elected, and hoped he might be allowed to withdraw his name. After the first ballot, on Report of the tellers, Mr. Charles H. Davis was declared to be elected. After the second ballot, Mr..lohn Torrey was declared to be elected. After the third ballot, Mr. L. M. Rutherfurd was declared to be elected. After the fourth ballot, Mr. [. P. Lesley was declared to be elected. On motion of Mr. Frazer the committee on elections was discharged. On motion of Mr. Davis it was Voted that the address with which the Hon. Henry Wilson inaugurated the first meeting of the National Academy of Sciences be entered upon the Journal in full; and that he be requested to furnish a copy for that purpose. On motion of Mr. Frazer it was Voted that the thanks of the Academy be returned to the temporary chairman and secretary for the able manner in which they have discharged their duties. Mr. B. Silliman, lr., moved a recess for half an hour, or from ~ :45 to 2: ~5 p.m. Carried; and the meeting adjourned. At ~:~5 the meeting was called to order by the President. On motion of Mr. B. Silliman, fir., a further recess was voted for a short time in order to give Class A an opportunity to organize. At `~:45 p. m. the meeting was again called to larder by the President.

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Appendix B / 605 Reports of the organization of classes were received, from which it ap- peared that the following class officers had been elected. Viz.- Class A. Benjamin Peirce, chairman. Benjamin A. Gould, secretary. Class B. Benjamin Silliman, Sen., chairman. I. S. Newberry, secretary. The committee on the Diploma and Seal reported progress and also the following resolution which was passed, viz., Resolved that the committee on the Diploma and Seal be continued with instructions to report at the next stated meeting; and that Mr. F. Rogers and Mr. C. H. Davis be added to the committee. On motion of Mr. Frazer it was Voted that in article ~8 in the printed Laws (on pp. 6 & 7) another specification be added in the following words "~2 rough minutes read for correction." And also that in No. 3 of the same article, the word "correction" be striker out and the word "adoption" inserted in its place. On motion of Mr. Frazer it was Voted that the August stated meeting of this year be dispensed with. On motion of Mr. Gibbs it was Voted that the thanks of the Academy be tendered to Chancellor Ferris for the use of Rooms in the University. Mr. F. Rogers moved to amend Article Pith of the Printed Laws on p. 9 by adding at the beginning of the second paragraph the words "short communica- tions or," and by substituting for the word "printed" the words, "published without delay." Carried. On motion of Mr. Frazer article ~7 of the printed laws on p. 9 was amended by adding at the close of it the words following, viz., "The Academy will not hold itself responsible for the opinions expressed in such papers." Mr. B. A. Gould moved the following resolutions. Resolved that no more than ten Foreign Associates be elected at any one stated meeting. Carried. On motion of Mr. B. A. Gould article sth on page ~ of the printed Laws was amended by inserting at the beginning of the second paragraph the words, "For ordinary members." Mr. Gould also moved that a committee of three be appointed to draft and present to the committee on Revision for incorporation in their Report. A Rule prescribing the mode of electing Foreign Associates. Carried. Mr. Agassiz, Mr. Gould, and Mr. B. Silliman, Jr., were appointed said committee. On motion of Mr. Frazer it was Voted that the President be requested to place his name on the committee of weights and measures when appointed. At 4 o'clock p. m. on motion of Mr. Peirce, The Academy adjourned to meet in the city of Washington on the third day of January ~864. ALEXIS CASWEEL Sec'y. pro tem.