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Subject Inde'` Many committees of the National Academy of Sciences and the National Research Council have been referred to informally in the text, but have been formalized in the index citation. No attempt has been made to identify or associate committees with divisions, nor have the sequence and evolution of certain committees been cross- referenced. AAAS (see American Association for the Advancement of Science) AASW (see American Association of Scien- tific Workers) ABCC (see NRC, Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission) A-bomb (see atom bomb) AD-X2, 541-544 AEC (see Atomic Energy Commission) AGU (see American Geophysical Union) AID (see Agency for International De- velopment) AMS (see American Metrological Society) AMSOC (see American Miscellaneous Soci- ety) ARPA (see Advanced Research Projects Agency) 671 ASWORG (see Antisubmarine Warfare Op- eration Research Group) Accademia dei Lincei, Italy, 2 Accademia del Cimento, Italy, 2 Academic Royale des Sciences, France, 3, 7, 254n, 283n, 305 Prix Cuvier, 45 Transactions, 7 Academy of Engineering (see National Academy of Engineering) Academy of Philadelphia (see University of Pennsylvania) Advanced Research Projects Agency, 555 Advisory Committee on Uranium, 386, 418, 419 Agency for International Development, 581

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672 I Subject Index Agricultural Adjustment Administration, 365 Agricultural Research Institute, 529 Air Force (see U.S. Air Force) Akron, dirigible, 354 Alaska (see also Pribilof Islands) fur seals, 203-204 Albany Academy, N.Y., 23, 24 Albany Institute, N.Y., Transactions, 24, 24n Allison Commission, 142, 145, 147, 147n, 148-150, 152, 161, 181, l91n ALSOS, 426428 amateurs of science, 34, 34n Ambassador of Light, 520 American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 45, 52, 107, 358 Memoirs, 7, 8 Origin of Species debates, 45 Rumford Medal, 358 American Academy of Sciences, On, 59 American Association for the Advance- ment of Science, 16, 39, 40n, 41-45, 52,330,358,447, 448, 465 Committee of One Hundred on Scien- tific Research, 213n American Association for the Promotion of Science (see American Associa- tion for the Advancement of Science) American Association of-Scientific Work- ers, 447 American Association of University Pro- fessors, 220 American Cancer Society, 472 American Chemical Journal, 179 American Chemical Society, 116n American Committee to Aid Russian Sci- entists with Scientific Literature, 264n, 265, 265n American Council of Learned Societies, 244, 264n, 486, 529 American Council on Education, 528 American Federation of Labor, 256 American Geographical Society, 293,325 American Geological Institute, Mission 66 Committee, 293n American Geophysical Union, 267, 314, 328, 329, 329n American Historical Association, 188n American Indians, 299, 299n American Institute of Nutrition, 259n American Journal of Science and Arts, 24,35, 45, 69, 120, 157, 177n American Metrological Society, 117n American Miscellaneous Society, 558, 560-561 American Naturalist, 141 n, 177n, 78n American Oriental Society, 244 American Philosophical Society, 6, 7, 11, 14, 21, 25-26, 40n, 45, 52, 66-68, 107, 286 American Relief Administration, 264 American Shore and Beach Preservation Association, 293 American Society Held at Philadelphia for Promoting Useful Knowledge, 6 American Society of Biological Scientists, 576 American Society of Civil Engineers, 355 American Telephone and Telegraph Co., 384 American University (see also universities), 336 America's Resources of Specialized Tal- ent, 530 Annual of Scientific Discovery, 35, 35n Annual Tables of Constants and Numerical Data, 268 Antisubmarine Warfare Operation Re- search Group, 417 anthropological sciences, 140, 158 Anthropological Society, 116n Anthropometric Society, 140n Applied Physics Laboratory (see Johns Hopkins University) Applied Science and Technological Progress, 577-578 Arctic expedition, 111-114 Army (see U.S. Army; Department of the Army) Association of American Geologists and Naturalists (see also American Asso- ciation for the Advancement of Science), 14, 15, 22, 24, 39 Astronomical Journal, 45 Astronomical Society of France, 305 astronomy (see physical sciences) atom bomb (see also radiation), 404, 418- 425, 451-454, 490, 509, 516 disease, 493-495

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fission bomb, 419, 420, 423 leukemia, 494 survivor studies, 491-497 testing, 533n atomic energy, 478, 479, 534, 535 laboratories, 451, 455 legislation, 451, 454 157, 478 loyalty issues, 478-479, 481n Atomic Energy Commission, 435, 456, 478, 491, 504-505, 507, 532, 537, 537n, 540, 564, 584 Subjectlndex / 673 Bulgaria, 545 Bureau of Ethnology (see Smithsonian In- stitution) Bureau of Fisheries (see Department of the Interior) Bureau of Indian Affairs (see Department of the Interior) Bureau of Mines (see Department of the Interior) Bureau of Navigation (see Department of the Navy) Advisory Committee for Biology and Bureau of Ordnance (see Department of Medicine, 519 fellowship program, 457, 481 n, 530, 531 General Advisory Committee, 456, 457 atomic wastes, ocean disposal, 53~538, 538n, 53~540 Atoms for Peace Awards, 540n, 546n aviation research (see research) Bache bequest (see NAS) Bache estate (see also NAS, Bache Fund), 98, 98n, 101n bacillus bomb (see Japan) bacteriological agents, 544 gaily's Beads, 8 battery additives (see AD-X2) BEAR Committees (see NAS, Committees on Biological Effects of Atomic Radia- tion) Bell Telephone Company, 384 Bell Telephone Laboratories, 384 Bellevue Hospital Medical College, 202 Bikini, hydrogen bomb test accident, 496 biochemistry (see physical sciences) B~olog~calAbstracts, 268, 330, 331n, 375 Biological Century, 302 biological sciences, 186, 187 embryology, 371 BiologicalSociety, 116n biophysics (see physical sciences) borderlands in science (see also NRC), 322n, 323, 32~334 British-American cooperation, science in- formation, 388 British Association for the Advancement of Science, 4, 33, 39, 39n, 41, 143, 348 British Medical Research Council, 532 Brookhaven National Laboratory, 519 the Army) Bureau of Public Roads (see Department of Commerce) Bureau of Social Hygiene, 263, 310 Bureau of Steam Engineering (see De- partment of the Navy) Bureau of the Budget, 443, 560 Burma Biological Station for Research, 501n Bush report (see Science, the Endless Fron- tier) CIG (see ~csu, International Committee on Geophysics) CMR (see OSRD, Committee on Medical Research) CND (see Council of National Defense) COPEP (see NAE, Committee on Public En- gineering Policy) COSPAR (see ~csu, Committee for Space Research) eosPuP (see NAS, Committee on Science and Public Policy) cws (see Chemical Warfare Service) calendar reform, 305-306, 306n, 307- 308, 308n Gregorian Calendar, 305 World Calendar, 305, 307-308 California Institute of Technology, 283, 283n, 301 Carnegie Corporation, 228, 234, 244, 248n, 252, 271, 285, 287, 288n, 407, 500 NAS building fund, 252, 272 NASNRC grant, 237 NRC funding, 256, 374n, 442 Physical and Chemical Constants de- velopment support, 268 Carnegie Geophysical Laboratory, 313

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674 I Subject Index Carnegie Institution of Washington, 170, 243, 283n, 293, 385, 394, 403 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 337 Case School of Applied Science, 282 Castle on the Mall (see Smithsonian In- stitution) Census Office, 115-116 Centennial (see U.S. Centennial) Central High School, Pa., 22 Charter for Science, 323 chemical research (see research) chemical warfare chemical and biological warfare, 411, 412, 475, 509 government academics industrial co- operation, 412 Chemical Warfare Service (see U.S. Army) chemistry (see physical sciences) chemists, 402 Chenango (see also NAS, Committee on Ex- plosions of Steam Boilers), 8~89 Chr~s~n Sconce Monitor, 575 Civil Aeronautics Administration, 416 Civil Aeronautics Authority, 389 Civil Service Commission, 406 Civil War, 47, 48, 51, 85, 104, 207, 552 climate (see U.S. Weather Bureau; wea- ther forecasting) Coast Survey, 11, 22n, 38, 40, 45, 58, 59, 61,65,89,96, 115, 125, 171,356 reorganization, 22 Superintendent of the Survey, 11, 20, 22 Coast and Geodetic Survey (see also Coast Survey), 129, 131, 145, 148, 149, 149n, 150 Coast Guard (see U.S. Coast Guard) Cold War, 480, 544, 563, 564 College of Physicians of Philadelphia, 8-9 Transactions, 9 Colonial Fellows (see Royal Society) Columbia Historical Society, 116n Columbia River Basin, development, 357 Columbian Institute for the Promotion of Arts and Sciences, 11-13 Commission on Human Resources and Advanced Training, 530 Committee for a National Science Foun- dation, 458, 465 Committee for Hungarian Refugee Re- lief, 545 Committee on Aeronautics, 461n Committee on Atomic Energy, 461n Committee on Discovery and Develop- ment of Scientific Talent, 449 Committee on Electronics, 461n Committee on Geographical Exploration, 461n Committee on Geophysical Sciences,461n Committee on Guided Missiles, 461n Committee on International Exchange of Persons, 529-530 Committee on Isthmian Canal, 97n Committee on Postwar Research, 436 Committee on Publication of Scientific Information, 449 Committee on Science and Public Wel- fare, 449 Committee Supporting the Bush Report, 457 Commonwealth Fund (see also General Education Board), 330 Communist activities (see also U.S.S.R.) congressional investigations, 478-479 Mao Tse-tung, 480 Republic of South Korea, 40 Comptroller-General, 390, 445 computers, Bush Analyzer, 388n Conference Board of Associated Re- search Councils, 52~530 Congress (see U.S. Congress) Congressional Record, 153, 246 consumer standards, establishment, 357 Continental Shelf Convention, 504 Corps of Artillerists and Engineers (see U.S. Army) Corps of Engineers (see U.S. Army) Cosmos Club, 116, 558 Council of National Defense, 213, 214, 214n, 217, 222n, 223, 225, 227, 228, 235, 248n, 393, 400, 401, 409, 528 Board of Inventions, 222n Council of the Academy (see NAS, Council) Crater Lake National Park, 292 Crop Protection Institute, 289 cyclotron, 419, 495 Czechoslovakia, 382, 545, 581 DMS (See NRC, Division of Medical Sciences)

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SubjectInd-ex I 675 Declaration of Independence, 137-138, 138n Department of Agriculture, 32, 115, 167 Forest Service, 161, 243, 291, 293 Meteorological Service, 148 Department of Commerce (see also U.S. Weather Bureau), 341, 356, 543 Assistant Secretary for Science and Technology, 543-544 Bureau of Public Roads, 259, 543 Bureau of Statistics, 115 Maritime Administration, 543 Minerals Division transfer, 356 National Bureau of Standards, 81, 171, 172, 182, 186, 336, 338, 355-356, 375, 393, 403, 478, 541-544, 564 metric system advocacy, 172 Visiting Committee, 355, 542 Office of Technical Services, 543 Patent Office, 10, 40, 48, 89, 115, 225, 543 ; Department of Commerce and Labor, 182n Department of Defense, 461, 527, 528, 542, 549, 551, 564 Joint Chiefs of Staff, 461 Joint Committee on New Weapons and Equipment, 461 Department of Science, 146, 146n, 147, 147n, 151, 151n, 174, 175n, 183n, 251 Department of State, 63, 510, 511, 513, 514 International Science Policy Survey Group, 511 International Science Steering Commit- tee, 511 science community liaison, 512 Superintendent of Patents, 10 Department of the Army, 402, 403, 438, 439, 445, 549 Bureau of Ordnance, 228 Medical Department, 115 Department of the Interior,131,146,490 Bureau of Fisheries, 501, 507 Bureau of Indian Affairs, 299, 300n Bureau of Mines, 232, 243, 356 General Land Of rice, 11, 40, 12~129, 131 topographical maps and charts, 127- 133 U.S. Geological Survey, 11, 12~127, 131-133, 14~147, 147n, 148, 160, 160n, 167n, 168, 282, 356, 583 Department of the Navy, 40, 51, 81, 86, 364, 375, 392, 397, 402, 435, 437, 438, 440, 441, 445, 461-462, 487- 488, 490, 498, 527, 549 Bureau of Aeronautics, 510 Bureau of Navigation, 50, 81, 84-86, 115 Bureau of Steam Engineering, 115 Hydrographic Office, 50, 115, 14 147, 501 Medical Department, 115 Nautical Almanac Office, 50 Nautical Almanac, 106, 115 Naval Observatory, 40, 50, 78, 89, 90, 106, 145 Office of Naval Research, 445, 462, 464, 480, 488, 502, 504, 507, 527, 531, 558, 564 Advisory Committee, 440n Naval Research Advisory Committee, 463, 567 Department of the Treasury, 148 Depression (see Great Depression) Depths of the Ocean, 499 Deutsche Akademie der Wissenchaften, 3-4 dirigibles, construction studies, 231, 375 Discoverer 13 (see space exploration) Draper's Academy, 107, 107n drugs and narcotics, 311, 312, 585-586 Dudley Observatory, 43, 64 Dumbarton Oaks, 394 EJC (see Engineers Joint Council) earth's crust investigation (see NRC, Project Mohole) Ecological Society of America, 261, 293 Economy Act of June 1932, 348 Engineering Foundation, 212, 214, 228, 266, 277, 28(}290, 338, 341, 359, 569, 572 engineering research (see research) engineers, 402, 569, 570 Engineers Joint Council, 569-570 Entomological Society, 116n Equitable Life Assurance Society, 525 Esperanto, 265

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676 I Subject Index Essex, British ship, 208 Ethnogeographic Board (see NRC) Executive Orders, 235, 235n, 236, 359- 361, 376, 399, 401n, 644-647 Explorer I (see space exploration) extraterrestrial life, 556 FB! (see Federal Bureau of Investigation) FDA (see Food and Drug Administration) FEA (see Foreign Economic Administra- tion) Federal Bureau of Investigation, 481 loyalty investigations, 531 NSF investigations, 482 Federal Civil Defense Administration, 527, 528 Federal Communications Commission, 395 Federal Council for Science and Technology, 554, 555, 574 Federal Radiation Council, 510 Federal Security Agency, 408, 409, 413, 416 Federation of Atomic Scientists, 455, 456 fellows and fellowships (see Atomic En- ergy Commission; NRC; Rockefeller Foundation) Fish and Wildlife Service, 504, 536 fission bomb (see atom bomb) Flood bill (see science, legislation) Germany Florentine Academy, 44 Food and Drug Administration, 484 186 Ford Foundation, 244, 528, 545, 576, 581 Foreign Economic Administration Tech- nical Industrial Disarmament Com- mittee, 428 Forest Service (see Department of Agricul- ture) forestry (see also Department of Agricul- ture; Department of the Interior; NAS, Committee on Forestry), 150-161, 291, 292, 298 conservation, 159, 173 legislation, 161n preserves, 159n Formosa, Chiang Kai-shek headquarters, 480 Fort Adams, R.I., 21 Fortunate Dragon trawler, 496 Foucault pendulum, 210, 275 Franklin Institute, 36, 68 Franklin's Society (see American Philo- sophical Society) Freedom 7 (see space exploration) French Academy (see Academie Royale des Sciences) French Institute, 41 Friendship Fund, 401 Friendship 7 (see space exploration) Fulbright Act (see also science, legislation), 529 GPO (see U.S. Government Printing Of- fice) General Education Board, 291, 303, 330 General Land Office (see Department of the Interior) genetics, 300-302, 330 controversy, 53~536 geological sciences (see physical sciences) Geological Society, 116n Geological Survey, California, 120 Geological Survey, New Jersey, 39 Geological Survey, New York State, 36 Geological Survey, U.S. (see Department of the Interior) geological time measurements,313,313n, 457n George Washington Memorial Associa- tion, 188 education, 142 engineering and research, 428 postwar science, 428, 428n scientists, 427, 428 U-boats, 208, 217, 229, 427 uranium research, 422 V-1, V-2 rockets, 413, 426n, 427 World War I, 217, 241 Girard College, Pa., 22, 26 global plate tectonics (see physical sciences) Grand Canyon, Yarspai Station, 292 grants-in-aid, 366, 451, 468, 531 Great Britain (see also NAS, Committees on Biological Effects of Atomic Radia- tion) information exchange, 397, 424n, 430 MAUD Committee, 422, 422n, 424n science programs, 397-398, 398n World War II, 382, 388, 397, 398, 403, 404,412,413,417

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Subject Index 1 677 Great Depression, 296, 315, 317, 335, 338, 339, 348, 349n, 358, 369, 374n, 378, 381 Great Western steamship, 22n Gregorian Calendar (see calendar reform) guided missiles, Bat, 246 Harvard University (see also universities), 8 Museum of Comparative Zoology, 192 Hawthorne Studies, 267 hibakusha (see also atom bomb, survivors), 496 high-energy accelerators, 585 Horological Institute, 289 human reproduction research (see re- search) Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 544 Hungarian Revolution, 545 hydrogen bomb (see Bikini) Hydrographic Office (see Department of the Navy) lA~ (see International Atomic Energy Agency), 540n csu (see International Council of Scien- tific Unions) IGY (see International Geophysical Year) IRB (see Industrial Recovery Board) IRC (see International Research Council) incendiary weapons, 404 105 Indian mythology, 186 industrial chemistry, 405 industrial nuclear wastes, 539 Industrial Recovery Board, 349 industrial research (see research) Industrial Research Institute, 345, 345n industry-government-academic labora- tories interrelationships, 233, 341, 464 insecticides, 411 Inter-Allied Conference on International Scientific Organizations, 240 _ ~ interferometry, 282 International Association of Academies, 163, 178-179, 185, 195, 241, 314 International Association of Physical Oceanography, 505n International Atomic Energy Agency, 540 International Boundary Commission, 356 International Bureau of Weights and Measures, 116, 172 International Chamber of Commerce, 305, 306 International Commission on Radiologi- cal Protection, 540 International Commission on Radiologi- cal Units and Measurements, 540 International Committee on the Oceanography of the Pacific, 505n International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, 540n International Congress of Electricians, 153 International Council for the Exploration of the Seas, 505n International Council of Scientific Unions (see also International Unions),315, 316 504, 508n, 509n, 545, 546n, 547 Committee for Space Research, 556 International Committee on Geophysics, 556, 583 Special Committee for Antarctic Re- search, 556 Special Committee for Oceanic Re- search, 505n, 556 International Electrical Congress, 26n International Fixed Calendar, 305, 306 International Fixed Calendar League, 307 International Geophysical Cooperation, 557 International Geophysical Year, 505n, 513, 543, 545-558, 563 Blue Glacier Project, 550 NSF funding, 547 programs and objectives, 547 satellite program, 550-552 Second Polar Year, 548-549 U.S. National Committee, 546-547, 547n, 557 U.S.S.R. participation, 550n World Data Center, 557, 583 International Mathematical Union, 545 International Polar Years, 546, 548, 549 International Red Cross, 544 International Research Council (see also csu; International Unions), 240, 258, 265, 268, 315 reorganization, 315

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678 I Subject Index international science policy, 314, 315n, 507-516 International Union for Cooperation in Solar Research, 178 International Union of Astronomy, 315 International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics, 267, 315, 328, 559, 583 International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, 315 interoceanic Canal Commission, 97n Inter-Society Committee on Science Foundation Legislation, 46~467 Invisible College, 2 JEW (see Department of Defense, Joint Committee on New Weapons and Equipment) JRDB (see Joint Research and Development Board) Japan bacillus bomb, 414 Hiroshima, 451, 490, 490n, 492, 493 Kure, 492 Nagasaki, 490, 490n, 492, 493 Sasebo, 492 science rehabilitation, 477 World War I, 485 World War II, 382, 427, 427n, 429, 486, 491 Japanese National Institute of Health, 497 Johns Hopkins University (see also univer- sities) Applied Physics Laboratory, 403, 463 Medical School, 202, 217-218 Operations Research Office, 463 Joint Chiefs of Staff (see Department of Defense) Joint Committee on New Weapons and Equipment (see Department of De- fense) Joint Research and Development Board, 461, 461n Jupiter-C rocket (see rockets and satellites; space exploration) Kilgore bill (see science, legislation) Kilgore-Magnuson bill (see science, legis- lation) King's College (see universities) Korean War, 496, 503, 514, 524, 525, 527, 544 LOIN (see NDRC, long-range navigation) Lazzaroni (see Scientific Lazzaroni) Lea bill (see science, legislation) League of Nations, 306, 307, 485 Lend-Lease Act, 398 leukemia (see atom bomb) Library of Congress, 162 Lick Observatory, 31~319 life sciences-exact sciences relationship, 329 Lighthouse Board, 115, 121 liquor tax laws, 357 Los Alamos atomic laboratories, 404, 424, 455 Lusitan~a, British ship, 208 McMahon bill (see science, legislation) MAUD Committee (see Great Britain) magnetron, invention of resonant cavity, 398, 404 Magnuson bill (see science, legislation) Manhattan District (see also atom bomb), 414, 424, 425n, 426, 491, 516, 537, 567 Marine Biological Laboratory (see also Woods Hole Oceanographic In- stitution), 370, 498, 500-501 Marine Hospital Service, 137 marine sciences (see physical sciences) Mariner 2 (see space exploration) Maritime Administration (see Department of Commerce) Markle Foundation, 408 Mars studies, 319, 556, 582 Marshall Plan, 479-480 Massachusetts Institute of Technology establishment, 56n, 64 Radiation Laboratory, 404, 407 Massachusetts Medical Society, 8 May-Johnson bill (see science legislation) Mediator, clipper ship, 18 Medical Advisory Committee, 449 medical research (see research) medical societies, ~9, 116n Medical Society of Boston, 8 Medical Society of the District of Colum- bia, 116n medicine, 202

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Subject Index I 679 Medico and Chirurgical Faculty of the State of Maryland, 8 Merchants of Light, 4 meteorological service (see Department of Agriculture) metallurgy (see physical sciences; re- search) Metropolitan Society, 11 Micronesia, 485, 486 science research, 483, 487-489, 489n military research (see research) military service (see also World War I; World War II), 22~221 Military Assistance Program, 511 Military Policy Committee, 425 Mohole (see NRC, Project Mohole) Mohorovicic Discontinuity, 559 NACA (see National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics) NAE (see National Academy of Engineer- ing) NAS (see National Academy of Sciences) NASA (see National Aeronautics and Space Administration) NASCO (see NAS, Committee on Oceanog- raphy) NATO (see North Atlantic Treaty Organi- zation) NCRP (see National Committee on Radia- tion Protection) NDRC (see National Defense Research Committee) Nit (see National Industrial Recovery Act) NRA (see National Recovery Administra- tion) NRC (see National Research Council) NRPB (see National Resources Planning Board) napalm development, 405 narcotics (see drugs and narcotics) National Academy of Arts and Sciences, 61 National Academy of Engineering, 568- 573 Articles of Organization, 570, 572 Committee on Public Engineering Pol- icy, 575n Executive Committee, 572 National Academy of Humanistic Re- search, proposed, 244, 244n National Academy of Sciences ABC Committee, 413 Act of Incorporation, 52-56, 71, 243, 271, 376, 389, 390, 408, 472, 473, 570, 592, 595, 597 Advisory Committee on Extra-Sectional Memberships, 334 Advisory Committee on International Science Policy, 507-516 Advisory Committee on Membership, 334 Advisory Committee on Scientific Pub- lications, 387 Annual, 101, 101n, 105n Annual Report, 101, 101n, 105n, 115, 117, 139, 139n, 153, 189, 192,223, 225n, 233, 236, 285, 572n, 585n Articles of Organization, 73-74 atom bomb research (see NAS, Commit- tee on Atomic Fission; atom bomb; research) Bache Fund (bequest), 101, 10 In, 103, 110, 126n Barnard Medal, 169 BEAR Committees (see NAS, Committees on Biological Effects of Atomic Radiation) BiographicalMemoirs, 56n,64n,86n,101, 101n, Hen, 136n, 139n building, 188, 272, 394, 514, 524, 525, 587 auditorium, 587 construction, 271-276 dedication, 276-277, 277n, 278 East Wing, 587 funds, 187, 188n, 237, 272, 272n, 525 newspaper accounts, 278 space allotments, 276n, 514, 525 West Wing, 525 Business Manager, 288n Centennial Celebration, 587, 587n, 588-591 committee, 588 Convocation, 588, 590 Medal, 590 postage stamp commemorative, 589n President l. F. Kennedy address, 59~591

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680 I Subject Index Charter (see NAS, Act of Incorporation) co-membership in NRC, 288 Committee Advisory to Health, Educa- tion, and Welfare on the Food and Drug Administration, 585, 585n, 586n Committee Advisory to Navy Depart- ment on Research, Subcommittee on Submarine Detection, 397, 397n Committee of Twenty-Five on a Na- tional Academy of Engineering, 570 Committee on Atmospheric Sciences, 556 Committee on Atomic Fission, 419-423 Committee on Battery Additives (see also AD-X2), 542 Committee on Calendar Reform, 306 Committee on Civil Liberties, 479n Committee on Classification of the Academy into Sections, 155 Committee on Coast Survey Triangula- tion, 129n Committee on Conduct of Scientific Work under the U.S. Government, 182n, 193, 347 Committee on Cooperation in Solar Re- search, 178 Committee on Disposal of Radioactive Wastes from Nuclear-Powered Ships, 538 Committee on Economic Importance of Oceanography, 501 Committee on Effects of Atomic Radia- tion on Oceanography and Fish- eries, 498 Committee on Elective Offices, 568 Committee on Experiments on the Ex- pansion of Steam, 88 Committee on Explosions of Steam Boilers, 89n U.S.S. Chenango, 88-89 Committee on Forestry (see also Com- mittee on Inauguration of a Ra- tional Policy for the Forested Lands of the United States), 291- 292, 294, 298, 302 Committee on Funds for the Publica- tion of Research, 297n Committee on Fur Seal Herd in Pribilof Islands, 203-204 Committee on Galvanic Action of Zinc-Coated Iron, 104 Committee on Gauging Distilled Spirits, 87 Committee on Government Relations, Ad Hoc (1961- 1962), 574 Committee on Government Relations, 298, 360, 362, 372, 375-376 Committee on Government's Problems, 298 Committee on Improvement of San Juan River, Nicaragua, 97 Committee on Inauguration of a Ra- tional Policy for the Forested Lands of the United States (see also NAS, Committee on Forestry), 159, 160 Committee on Increasing Membership of Academy, 96n Committee on International Aspects of Oceanography, 501 Committee on International Coopera- tion in Research, 178 Committee on International Paleon- tologic Correlation, 179 Committee on International Science Policy, 507-514 Committee on Kilauea Volcano In- vestigation, 245 Committee on Letterheads, 223n Committee on Long-Range Weather Forecasting, 304 Committee on Loyalty in Relation to Government Support of Unclas- sif~ed Research, 531-532 Committee on Magnetic Deviation, 84, 87n Committee on Mathematical Aspects of Reapportionment, 246 Committee on Materials for the Man- ufacture of Cent Coins, 88 Committee on Meteor Crater, 293n Committee on Meteorology, 556, 556n Committee on Metric Standards, 97, 246 Committee on National Board of Health, 137, 137n Committee on National Research Foundation, 294n

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SubjectInde~c 1 681 Committee on Natural Resources, 579 Committee on Nominations and Elec- tions, 301, 515, 566 Committee on Oceanography (see also NRC. (:r~mmittee on Oceanog- _, Committee on Role of Department of Commerce in Science and Technology, 543 Committee on Saxton's Alcoholometer, 84 raphy), 302, 371, 537, 579 Committee on Science and Public Pol- Panel on Radioactivity in the Oceans, icy, 573-578 536 Committee on Oceanography and Fisheries, 537, 538 Committee on Organization, 71, 73 Committee on Organization of Na- tional Surveys and Signal Service, 144-150, 347 Committee on Organization of the Sci- entif~c Resources of the Country for National Service, 208, 209 Committee on Organizing NRC, 209, 209n, 21~216 Committee on Panama Canal Slides, 204 Committee on Parc National Albert, 292, 292n Committee on Plan for Surveying and Mapping the Territories of the United States, 130, 136 Committee on Polaris Expedition,111 n, 114n Committee on Post-War Treatment of German Research and Engineer- ing, 428n Committee on Prevention of Counter- feiting, 87, 97 Committee on Protecting the Bottoms of Iron Vessels, 104 Committee on Questions of Meteorolog- ical Science, 138 Committee on Relations of the Academy to the Government, 141, 506 Committee on Relationship between the NAS and NRC, 285n, 287n, 522, 524, 524n Committee on Relationship of Academy to Philosophical, Economic, and Philological Sciences, 177 Committee on Restoration of the De- claration of Independence, 137- 138 Committee on Revision of the Constitu- tion, 525n cosPuP reports, 478, 575-578 Committee on Scientific Problems of National Parks, 292 Committee on Scientific Surveys of Philippine Islands, 174, 174n, 175n Committee on Standards for Electrical Measures, 153, 154, 154n Committee on Submarine Detection Systems, 397 Committee on Tests for the Purity of Whiskey, 87, 97 Committee on Underwater Radio, 245 Committee on Weights, Measures, and Coinage, 77, 80, 82, 87n, 115, 117, 171, 172, 246 Committee on Wind and Current Charts and Sailing Directions, 84 Committee to Consider Establishing a National Standardizing Bureau, 17 In Committee to Consider Report of In- ternational Scientific Commission on Biological Warfare in Korea and China, 544n Committee to Cooperate with National Board of Health, 137, 137n Committee to Represent the Academy before Congress, 141 Committee to Select Chief of Weather Bureau, 203 Committees on Biological Effects of Atomic Radiation, 532-536, 538, 540 congressional appropriations, 222n, 366 Constitution and Bylaws, 73, 75n, 76n, 77n, 90, 90n, 91, 109, 118, 119, 121, 156, 187, 287, 568, 606-613 corporate seal, 71 Council, 120, 142, 158n, 186, 189, 202, 207,208,211, 234, 244, 245n, 246, 334, 372, 375, 375n, 481n, 52 522, 527, 568, 570, 587

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684 I Subject Index "National Program" (see also NRC, SAB, Recovery Program of Science Progress), 364-367, 374 National Recovery Administration, 365 National Register of Historic Places, 387 National Register of Scientific and Tech- nical Personnel, 482 National Research Administration, pro- posal, 364 National Research Council AAAS cooperation, 213n Advisory Committee for the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (see also NRC, Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission), 497 Advisory Committee on Behavioral Re- search, 528 Advisory Committee on Drug Addic- tion, 312 Advisory Committee on Quartermaster Corps, 526 Advisory Committee on Scientific Pub- lications, 387 Advisory Committee on Service Insti- tute for Biological Physics, 336 Advisory Committee on Veterans Ad- ministration, 460 AEC fellowship program (see NRC, fel- lowship programs) Agricultural Board, 529 AMSOC Committee (see NRC, Project Mohole) Annual Report, 254 antisubmarine research (see research) Armed Forces-NRc Vision Committee, 519, 527 Articles of Organization and Bylaws, 246, 246n, 249,324,344, 345,470, 521 Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission, 483, 49~493, 493n, 494-497, 536, 584 Board for Coordination of Malarial Studies, 411 n Building Research Advisory Board, 472n, 529 Building Research Institute, 529 Bulletin, 262n, 265, 313, 329, 340n, 522n Carnegie Corporation funding, 256 centrifugal gun design, 231n Chairmen, roster, 648-649 Chemical-Biological Coordination Cen- ter, 460n, 472 CND relationship, 222-223, 247, 248n Committee for Investigation of Waste Disposal, 536-537 Committee for Publication of Critical Tables of Physical and Chemical Constants, 268 Committee for Research on Problems of Sex,263, 371 Committee for Study of Paricutin Vol- cano, 507n Committee on Animal Nutrition, 259n Committee on Application of Mathe- matics to Chemistry, 333 Committee on Application of X-Rays to Chemistry and Chemical Technol- ogy, 333 Committee on Applied Mathematics, 416 Committee on Applied Psychology, 416, 418 Committee on Atomic Casualties (see also NRC, Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission), 472, 491, 496 Committee on Atomic Structure, 262 Committee on Biological Processes of Aging, 302n Committee on Biophysics, 335, 336 Committee on B`orderland Fields, 328, 332 Committee on Borderland Research, 262, 332 Committee on Borderlands in Science, 332 Committee on Chicago World's Fair, 30~310 Committee on Concilium Biblio- graphicum, 267-268 Committee on Conservation of Natural Resources, Joint with NAS and AAAS, 260, 265 Committee on Continental Shelf, Ad Hoc, 504 Committee on Disaster Studies, 527- 528 Committee on Drugs and Medical Supplies, 411n Committee on Drug Addiction, 31 313

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Subject Index I 685 Committee on Drug Addiction and Narcotics, 312 Committee on Ecology of the Grass- lands, 293 Committee on Economic Survey of the Sea, 499n Committee on Effects of Radiation on Living Organisms, 314, 330, 337n Committee on Electrical Insulation, 339, 341 Committee on Food and Nutrition, 258, 261n Committee on Food Habits, 416n Committee on General Policy, 255 Committee on Geophysics, 267 Committee on Growth, 472n Committee on Heat Transmission, 339, 341 Committee on Highway Research, 259, 339, 341 Committee on Industrial Lighting, 266, 339 Committee on Insect and Rodent Con- trol, 460 Committee on International Auxiliary Language, 265 Committee on International Critical Tables of Numerical Data, 268 Committee on International Scientific Unions, 512 Committee on Land Classification, 294n Committee on Land-Use, 293 Committee on Marine Biological Labo- ratory, 50~501 Committee on Measurement of Geolog- ical Time by Atomic Disintegra- tion, 313, 457n Committee on Metals and Minerals, 414-415 Committee on Nitric Acid Supply, 211 Committee on Noxious Gases, 232 Committee on Nuclear Science, 457n, 472n, 485 Committee on Oceanography (see also NAS, Committee on Oceanog- raphy)? 498n, 499, 505, 506, 538, 556, 558n Committee on Operations Research, 463 Committee on Pacific Exploration, 484, 485, 485n Committee on Pacific Investigations, 485 Committee on Passive Protection Against Bombing, 396 Committee on Physics, 230 Committee on Physiological Optics, 335 Committee on Pioneer Belts, 293 Committee on Polar Research, 556 Committee on Policies, 321, 326, 344, 436 Committee on Present Status of Indus- trial Research Personnel, 266 Committee on Problems of Drug Safety, 586 Committee on Prosthetic Devices, 411 Committee on Psychology of the High- way, 259 Committee on Publications, 265 Committee on Quantum Theory, 262 Committee on Race Characters, 264n Committee on Racial Problems, 264n Committee on Radiation Biology, 494n Committee on Radiation Cataracts, 494n Committee on Radioactivity, 472n Committee on Reconstruction Prob- lems, 258 Committee on Relation between At- mosphere and Man, 261 Committee on Relation between Physics and the Medical Sciences, 262, 329 Committee on Research in the Earth Sciences, 333 Committee on Research Methods and Techniques, 262 Committee on Science Policy, 513 Committee on Scientific Aids to Learn- ing, 333n, 385, 395 Committee on Scientific Problems of Human Migration, 264 Committee on Selection and Training of Aircraft Pilots, 389 Committee on Service Personnel- Selection and Training, 418 Committee on Sewage Disposal, 261 Committee on Shore-line Investiga- tions, 293 Committee on Spectroscopy as Applied to Chemistry, 333 Committee on Standards of Radioactiv- ity, 457n

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686 I Subject Index Committee on Treatment of Gas Casualties, 412 Committee on Undersea Warfare, 460, 472n, 497, 502, 504, 526 Committee on UNESCO, 472, 509, 510 Committee on Veterans' Medical Prob- lems, 460 Committee on Welding Research, 339 Committee on Work in Industry, 267 Committee to Consider Various Phases of Industrial Research, 266 Conference Board of Associated Re- search Councils, participation, 519, 529 conservation, 291-294 Constitution and Bylaws (see NRC, Ar- ticles of Organization and Bylaws) contracts approval, 287n Corrosion Committee, 289 Disaster Research Group, 528 Division of Anthropology and Psychol- ogy, 249, 252, 259, 263, 416, 418, 527 Division of Biology and Agriculture, 249, 258, 293, 499, 500, 529 Division of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, 227, 248, 335, 477 Division of Earth Sciences, 537n, 548n, 558n, 583 Division of Educational Relations, 248, 323 Division of Engineering, 207, 248, 250, 252, 266, 289, 290, 384, 529, 569, 573 Division of Engineering and Industrial Research, 324, 338' 341~343, 346, 415, 569, 572 Division of Federal Relations, 250, 251, 252n, 378n Division of Foreign Relations, 248, 323, 513 Division of General Relations, 227, 248, 249, 289n Division of Geology and Geography, 249, 329n, 333, 548n Division of Government Relations, 248, 250 Division of Industrial Relations, 249, biology, 333 250 .. .. Division of International Relations, 513, 514 Division of Medical Sciences, 249, 252, 261,335,408~10,41 In, 433, 477, 491, 586, 587 Division of Physical Sciences, 248, 252, 314, 326, 328, 334, 335, 358, 543, 585 Division of Research Extension, 248, 250, 28~290, 338 Division of States Relations, 248, 249, 289, 323 Divisions of Science and Technology, 248, 249, 289 Drug Efficacy Study' 587 Drug Research Board, 58~587 Earth Sciences, 329, 333, 334 Ethnogeographic Board, 486-487 Executive Board, 227, 251n, 255, 265, 287, 288, 324, 358, 470, 520, 521 Executive Committee, 223 Executive Orders, 235, 235n, 237-239, 247, 251, 351 n, 272, 453, 464n, 490, 522n, 644-647 Executive Secretaries and Executive Offices, roster, 65~651 federal government relationship, 235n, 347-349 fellowship programs, 238-239, 239n, 257, 258n, 293, 425n, 466, 472n, 481n, 518, 530, 541 AEC programs, 457, 466, 481n, 530 Food and Nutrition Board, 528 Food Protection Committee, 52~529 formation, 20~210, 214, 215 functions, 51~515 funding needs (see also HAS, finances), 320, 322, 326 Governing Board, 521 grants-in-aid distribution, 366 Highway Advisory Board, 259 Highway Research Board, 259, 341, 584, 584n national road test program, 584, 584n Industrial Research Section, 227, 228, 228n information exchange, 226 Interdivisional Committee on Aero- Interdivisional Committee on Border- land Problems in the Life Sciences, 333

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Subject Index 1 687 Interim Committee, 227, 269, 269n, 270 International Committee on the Oceanography of the Pacific, 505n International Scientific Exchanges, 229 International Science Policy Survey for State Department, 511, 512 mobilization of science in World War I, 396 national research fellowships (see NRC, fellowships) Navy submarine studies, 230 Office of Critical Tables, 268n Office of International Relations, 514, 581 Office of Scientific Personnel (see also NRC, fellowships), 406, 457, 530 operation, 255-256, 269, 269n organization, 211n, 212, 215, 215n, 225-227, 233-236, 252, 253n, 258 Pacific Science Board, 472n, 483-490, 498, 581 Coordinated Investigation of Mi- cronesian Anthropology, 488 Invertebrate Consultants Committee for the Pacific, 488 Scientific Investigations in Micro- nesia, 488-489 Scientific Investigations in the Ry- ukyu Islands, 489 patent policy, 255n Project Committee, 255, 270 Project Mohole, 558-563, 584 Advisory Committee on Scientific Objectives for the Mohole Project, 561, 562 Advisory Committee on Site Selec- tion, 561, 562 AMSOC Committee, 56(}562 NSF funding, 55~560 psychological studies, 232-233 publications, 314, 329, 329n, 340, 340n, 355n purpose, 254 Reference Committee, 387 relationship to NAS (see NAS) reorganization, 225, 227, 228, 247n, 24~249, 32(~324, 340, 344-345, 470 Repent and Circular Series, 265, 522n Research Fellowship Board, 239 Research Information Service, 226, 227, 229n, 24(}241, 24~250, 250n, 324 Rockefeller Foundation funding, 256- 257 Science Advisory Board, 203n, 246, 300, 304, 326, 330-332, 340, 341, 341n, 347-351, 351n, 352-353, 353n, 354-378, 378n, 37~381, 383, 389 appointments, 352, 354, 356 Committee on Cooperation with So- cial Science Groups, 352 Committee on Design and Construc- tion of Dirigibles, 375 Committee on Geological Survey and Bureau of Mines, 352 Committee on National Bureau of Standards, 352 Committee on Policy of the Govern- ment in Relation to Scientific Re- search, 352 Committee on Problems of Ar- chaeology, Land Classification, and Homesteading, in the TVA, 352 Committee on War and Navy De- partments, 352 Committee on Weather Bureau, 352 conflict, 363, 372 creation, 351, 353n. Executive Orders, 340351, 351 n, 352, 35~361, 652-655 expiration, 372, 374n extension, 373 funding, 354, 435 organization and activities, 352-357 publications, 522n Recovery Program of Science Prog- ress (see also "National Program"), 352, 357-359, 362, 367 NAS relationships, 351, 363-365, 372-375 termination, 368, 372-374, 374n, 375-381 science research promotion, 254-255, 255n scientific literary aid to Russians, 264- 265 staff (see NAS, staff) volcano Par~cutin study, 507n War Metallurgy Committee, 415

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688 I Subject Index White House approval, 211-212, 235 National Research Endowment (see NAS) National Research Foundation, 294n, 441,44~)-150 National Resources Board, 351, 356,361, 364, 365 Committee on Science, 365, 375, 380 National Resources Committee, 361, 362, 375, 380 National Resources Planning Board, 362, 405, 406, 529 National Roster of Scientific and Spe- cialized Personnel, 405-406, 458, 482, 530 National Science Board, 482, 560 National Science Foundation, 434, 435, 446, 448, 449, 451, 464-466, 478, 480-483, 507, 530-531, 547, 560, 564, 581, 585 creation, 297, 449 150 Earth Science Panel, 558 fellowships, 531 FB] investigation of members, 482 funding, 482 IGY funding, 547 legislation, 448, 450 patents, 451, 482 national security (see NAS, RBNS) National University, 10, 11, 18 natural history and science, 36-39, 45, 76, 76n of the Navy) natural resources conservation, 292, 293 Nature, 385 Nautical Almanac (see Department of the Navy) Nautical Almanac Office (see Department of the Navy) Naval Affairs Committee, 450 Naval Consulting Board, 214n, 222n Naval Observatory (see Department of the Navy) Navy (see Department of the Navy; U.S. Navy) New Atlantis, 4, 33 New Deal, 237-381, 389, 529 New Jersey Medical Society, 8 Nobel Prize, 282, 282n, 301 North American Conservation Confer- ence, 184 North American Review, 124 North Atlantic Treaty Organization, 480, 511 North Pole expedition (see Arctic expedi- tion) nuclear fission, 385-388, 393, 418, 423 nuclear physicists, 402 nutrition studies, 528 OEM (see Office for Emergency Manage- ment) OFS (see OSRD, Office of Field Service) ONR (see Department of the Navy, Office of Naval Research) ORO (see Johns Hopkins University, Oper- ations Research Office) osP (see NRC, Office of Scientific Person- nel) OSRD (see Office of Scientific Research and Development) Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 424, 455, 567 Oceania (see Micronesia) Oceanography, 483, 497-507 oceanography research (see research) Office for Emergency Management, 400, 527 Office of Defense Mobilization, 464n, 526, 527, 552 Science Advisory Committee, 464n, 552 Office of Naval Research (see Department Office of Science and Technology, 574- 575 Office of Scientific Research and De- veiopment (see also research), 390, 39~} 100, 402, 402n, 405 atomic bomb liaison, 425 Committee on Medical Research, 394, 401-402, 408, 410, 416, 433, 460, 471, 476, 477 contracts, 415, 429n, 434 demobilization, 433 Division of Absorbants and Aerosols, 411 Division of Chemical Engineering, 411 Division of Chemistry, 411 Division of Explosives, 411 established 399-408, 430-431 metallurgical studies, 415 NAS~NRC cooperation, 405

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Subject Index I 689 Office of Field Service, 425-426, 426n, 427-432 reorganization, 402 termination, 429, 434, 435 toxic warfare projects, 411 Office of Weights and Measures, 22, 84, 115, 147, 148 operations research, 417, 464n Optical Society of America Section on Physiological Optics, 335 Ordnance Department, 115, 211 07ig2n of Species, 45 PSAC (see President's Science Advisory Committee) PWA (see Public Works Administration) Pacific Science Association, 486, 489-490 Pacific Science Board (see NRC) Pacific Science Conference, 487 Pacific Science Congress, 484, 486 Panama Canal, 97n, 18,0, 206 Culebra Cut, 205-206 landslides, 204-206 Pan-Pacific Scientific Conference, 484, 485 Passamaquoddy Bay, tidal power, 357 Patent Office (see Department of Com- merce) Patman bill (see science, legislation) penicillin, 411 Penikese Island, Mass., seaside labora- tory, 37, 498 Permanent Commission, 5(~52, 84, 89, 92, 92n Personnel Research Federation, 266 Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Associa- tion, 586 Philippines (see also NAS committees) Commission, 174, 175n scientific exploration, 173, 174, 191 n, 192 Philosophical College (see also Invisible College), 2 Philosophical Society of Washington, 115-116, 116n phonograph, demonstration by Edison, 283-284 physical sciences astronomy, 318-319 solar eclipse, 8 transit of Mercury, 127 transit of Venus, 6 atomic physics, 313, 420 atomic weights, 282n gaily's Beads, 8 biochemistry, 476 biophysics, 326, 326n, 333, 335 chemistry, 326, 326n, 331, 333, 336 electricity, 35, 153n, 282 electromagnetics, 24-27, 35 geology, 36 geomagnetics, 21 geophysics, 328, 329n, 333, 547-548, 548n global plate tectonics, 584 marine sciences, 85-86 metallurgy, 414 meteorology, 21, 32, 42, 147, 547 nuclear physics, 385, 457n oceanography, 487, 498-499, 501, 502, 504, 505n, 507 physics breakthrough, 180~181 physiology, 476 plutonium studies, 422, 423 publications, 329n quantum physics, 302, 326, 329 radiation research, 169, 313, 314, 329, 330, 337 rheology, 334 solar sciences, 178 spectroscopy, 282 tectonics, 584n visual science, 335 X rays, 169, 313, 329, 330 physicians (see medicine; medical soci- eties) Pilot Charts, 87 plant sciences, diseases, 289, 578 Poland, 545, 581 Polaris, steamship, 112-113 Popular Science Monthly, 177n, 178n Post Office Department, 81 President's science advisor (see Special As- sistant to the President for Science and Technology) President's Science Advisory Committee, 522, 553n, 555, 567n President's Scientif~c Research Board, 464 Pribilof Islands, 203, 204 Priest bill (see science, legislation) Project Mohole (see NRC) Project Vanguard (see space exploration)

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690 I Subject Index proximity fuze (see also NDRC), 398, 402- 403, 426, 463, 541 Public Health Service, 460 Public Welfare Medal (see NAS) Public Works Administration, 359, 361, 365, 379 Pure Food and Drug Act, 182 Quartermaster Corps (see U.S. Army) RBNS (see NAS, Research Board for Na- tional Security) radar, 398, 399, 403, 404, 417, 425 . . rat .latlon biological effects of atomic radiation, UN survey, 532-536 earth, 583 hazards, 533-534, 536 Van Allen belts, 549n, 582-583 X-ray studies, 313 Radiation Laboratory (see MIT) radio buoy, 502 radioactive wastes, 537-540 Radio Detection and Ranging (see radar) radiosonde, 304, 541 RAND Corporation, 463 Reclamation Service, 243 Recommended Dietary Allowances, report series, 528 refugee scientists, 545 research (see also OSRD; Rockefeller Foun- dation) antisubmarine, 230, 387, 417 applied, 337, 342 atomic bomb, 420-424 aviation, 388, 416 basic, 145, 294-298,358,434,451,464, 483, 503, 542 borderlands, 332, 333 chemical, 407 classified and unclassified, 531 contracts, 394, 399, 406, 415, 416, 444-445, 460 engineering, 207, 338, 343 expenditures, federal, 348-349, 355- 356, 364 facilities, federal, 356, 395, 401 federal support, 434, 435, 458, 468, 531, 576, 589 fellows and fellowships (see AEC;.NRC; Rockefeller Foundation) fields, 367 fundamental, 342, 358, 362, 421, 462, 480, 534 funds (see also finances), 167, 359, 435, 458, 480 Germany, 385, 427-429 human reproduction, 575 industrial, 229, 28~291, 333,339, 340, 340n, 341, 342, 342n medical, 202, 301, 312, 585 metallurgy, 411 415, 433 military, 229, 387, 398, 436, 451 NAS expenditures, 348 nuclear, 419 oceanography, 303, 371, 487, 505, 505n, 506 organization in NRC, 396 physical science, 337 postwar, 435, 443, 460 radiation, 330, 457n, 492-497, 532-535 science, 327, 337, 342, 359, 366, 393, 402, 451, 458, 464, 576 space, 549, 549n, 582 underwater, 460 university-federal government proj- ects, 462 uranium, 386-387, 398, 420-424 warfare projects, 230-231, 402, 411, 418, 425 Research and Development Board, 461- 462, 480, 527 Research Board for National Security (see NAS) Research Corporation, 395 Rockefeller Foundation, 228, 244, 263, 285, 303, 312, 330, 336, 354, 500, 532, 545 Concilium Bibliographicum grant, 268 General Education Board, 257 National Research Council, funding, 25~257, 354, 374n oceanography projects, 501n, 502 research fellowships, 238-239, 256, 256n, 257, 257n Rockefeller Institute for Medical Re- search, 170, 238, 239 rockets and satellites, 413, 54~551, 554 Aerobee rocket, 549 Explorer I, 552, 553 Jupiter-C rocket, 552 NIKEASP rockets, 551

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SubjectIrute7c / 691 Redstone rocket, 552 Viking rocket, 551, 552, 553 Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh, 18 Royal College of Physicians of London, 8 Royal College of Surgeons, Edinburgh, 8 Royal Institute, 210n Royal Prussian Academy, 163 Royal Society, England, 2, 4, 6, 19, 27, 35n, 39n, 41, 46, 53, 67, 109, 163, 177n, 210n, 265, 314, 361, 589, 590n colonial Fellows, 5 Copley Medal, 46, 46n Transactions, 77n Royal Society of Canada, 305 Russia (see U.S.S.R.) Russian Academy of Sciences, 545 Russian scientists aid, 264, 265 SAC (see Science Advisory Committee) SCAR (see Use, Special Committee for Ant- arctic Research) Sailing Directions, 84, 85, 87 San Juan River, Nicaragua (see NAS com- mittees) satellites (see rockets and satellites) Saturday Club, 115 schooner Cramp'=, 500 science (see also research), 231, 362, 379, 435, 531, 563, 564, 573, 584-587, 589, 593 applied, 207, 463n evolvement, 33-36 legislation, 44~441, 443-446, 451- 459, 463, 465-468,47~181, 555n, 584-587 Flood bill, 481 Fulbright bill, 452 Kilgore bill, 446~452 Kilgore-Magnuson bill, 458-459 Lea bill, 380 McMahon bill, 456 Magnuson bill, 450-452, 454-455, 457, 458, 467 May bill, 452 May-lohnson bill, 454-455 Mills bill, 466 Patman bill, 447-448 Priest bill, 48~481 Smith bill, 465, 46~468 Wolverton bill, 467, 468 mobilization, 389, 392-394, 400, 406 national resource, 358 postwar planning, 429 132 public policy, 463~68, 50~510, 564 space, 582 science academies, 4 France, 3, 7, 53, 225 Germany, 3 Great Britain, 1, 225 Italy, 2, 44, 225 U.S.S.R., 255 Science Advisory Board (see NRC) Science Advisory Committee, 464n, 508, 526, 532 Science and Foreign Relations, 512-513 Science and Public Policy, 463-465, 50 510 Science magazine, 142, 142n, 143, 143n, 149, 150, 177n, 195, 330 Science News Service, 260 science objectivity, 36~369, 435, 469 Science, the Endless Frontier, 392n, 431 441, 44~451, 483, 564 SaentificAmerzcan, 68, 170, 177n Saentzfic Endeavor, 591n, 593 scientific information exchange, 388, 397-398, 482, 509, 545 scientific institutions establishment, 243 Scientific Investigations in Micronesia, 48~489 Scientific Investigations in the Ryukyu Is- lands, 489 Scientific Lazzaroni, 44, 46, 47, 52, 63, 85~6, 157, 194n scientific manpower, 405, 530 Scientific Monthly, 178n scientific personnel roster, 405 scientific publications, 177n, 178n, 260, 505n, 506n, 509, 539, 580 scientific services, government, 354 scientists-engineers relationships, 569 security clearance, 531 Selective Service System, OSRD coopera- tion (see also military service), 405 Signal Corps (see U.S. Army) Silliman's Journal (see American Journal of Science and Arts) Silliman-Whitney controversy, 120 Smith bill (see science, legislation) Smith-Mundt Act, 529 1.

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692 I Subject Index Smithson bequest, 13-16, 18, 19, 22 Smithsonian Fund, 18 Smithsonian Institution,11,16-20,26,28, 30-32, 32n, 33, 38, 40, 45, 47, 49n, 51, 69, 86, 89, 109, 116, 486 archives, 27n Astrophysical Observatory, 148, 149n Board of Ethnology, 145 Board of Regents, 19,22, 27, 29-32, 52, 109 building, 30-31 Bureau of American Ethnology, 174 funding, 18-19 laboratory facilities, 81 library, 32, 32n National Museum, 111, 193 publications, 32, 35 Social Science Academy, 245n Social Science Research Council, 264, 264n, 268, 269n, 293, 379, 380, 486, 529 Societas Regia Scientiarum (see Deutsche Akademie der Wissenschaften) Soil Erosion Service, 356 solar sciences (see physical sciences) sonar, 425, 502 South Pacific Commission, 489 space exploration, 554, 582-584 Cape Canaveral (Kennedy) launches, 550 Discoverer 13, 583 Explorer I, 552, 582 Freedom 7, 583 Friendship 7, 583 manned flights, 582 Mariner 2, 583 planets, 556, 583 Project Vanguard, 552 Sputnik, 543, 552, 554n, 573 Spanish-American War, 142 Spanish Civil War, 343, 382 Special Assistant to the President for Science and Technology, 552, 553, 573, 574 Sputnik (see space exploration) standards, weights, and measures, 42, 153-154 steam engine~experiments, 88 steel production, 414 Steelman report (see Science and Public Policy) strontium-90, 533 Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers, 492 Supreme Court, abolishes NRA, 365 Surgeon-General (see U.S. Army) Sussex, British ship, 208 Tanner's Council, 289 telegraph, 25, 27, 28, 38 Tennessee Valley, archaeological surveys, 357 topographical surveys (see Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Sur- vey) thalidomide, 586 Truman Doctrine, 479 Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, 484 UNESCO (see United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organiza- tion) UNSCEAR (see United Nations) United Nations, 490, 510, 525 Law of the Sea Conference, 504 Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, 540, 540n United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, 315n, 508-509 international health studies, 508n science and peace promotions, 509 science for underdeveloped countries, 510 U.S. Air Force, 549 U.S. Army Chemical Warfare Service, 231, 323, 323n, 401 105, 412-414 Corps of Artillerists and Engineers, 11 Corps of Engineers, 11, 20, 89, 128, 131, 396, 397, 424 G-2 Intelligence, 412 Medical Department, 232 meteorology, 138, 148 Quartermaster Corps, 415-416 Signal Corps, 115, 206, 22 In, 225, 228 Meteorology Division, 230 Signal Service, 138, 145-147 Surgeon-General, 409, 411, 412, 460, 491 U.S. Centennial, 124, 124n, 125 U.S. Coast Guard, 501

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Subject Index 1 693 U.S. Congress (see also science, legislation) House Armed Services Committee, 462 Committee on Coinage, Weights and Measures, 172 Committee on Foreign Affairs, 307 Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, 466 Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries Committee on Naval Affairs, 450 Committee on Science and Astronau- tics, 577 Committee on Smithson Bequest, 18 Special Committee on Post-War Mili- tary Policy, 450 Special Subcommittee on Oceanog- raphy, 507 Subcommittee on National Security, 478, 479 Subcommittee on Public Health Science and Commerce, 480 Joint Commission to Study Science- Government Relationships, 144 NSF debates, 451 - 452, 467 Senate Committee on Forest Reservations, 173 Small Business Committee, 541 Smithsonian Institution funding, 119 Thirty-Seventh (1861-1863), legisla- tion, 56n, 59 U.S. Forest Service (see Department of Agriculture) U.S. Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories, 128- 129 U.S. Geological Survey (see Department of the Interior) U.S. Government Printing Office, 139 United States Lake Survey, 356 U.S. Military Academy, 11 U.S. Mint, establishment, 10 U.S. National Commission for UNESCO, 508 U.S. National Committee for Interna- tional Geophysical Year, 555, 557 volcanoes U.S. Naval Academy, 11, 2~21, 281 U.S. Post Office, 48 U.S. Public Health Service, 310, 336 U.S. Weather Bureau, 145-146, 203, 206, 350, 354, 355, 375, 543 U.S.-U.S.S.R. scientists exchange, 545, 581 U.S.S.R., 452, 479 180, 543, 544, 545, 552, 582 . . . universities California Institute of Technology, 383 Clark, 142, 370 Columbia, 65, 162 George Washington, 407 Harvard, 8, 29, 38, 47, 313, 407 Indiana, 263 Johns Hopkins, 142, 403, 407, 519 King's College, 27 Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 136, 313, 407 New York, 62, 63 Northwestern, 407 Princeton, 21, 23, 25, 26, 26n, 27, 29 Rutgers, 65 Stanford, 142, 259 Throop Institute, 383 Tulane, 142 University of California, 318, 319 University of Chicago, 142, 281, 370, 384 University of Colorado, 318 University of Edinburgh, Scotland, 45 University of Illinois, 407 University of London, England, 518 University of Michigan, 312, 318, 332 University of Pennsylvania, 9, 21, 22, 26, 64, 517 University of Virginia, 26, 312 University of Washington Oceanographic Laboratories, 501 n Vanderbilt, 142 Yale, 11, 34, 36, 62, 64 Upper Mantle Project, 583, 584n uranium research (see research) Van Allen radiation belts (see radiation) Venus studies, 556, 583 Veterans Administration, 411, 460, 584 Viking Fund (see Wenner-Gren Founda- tion for Anthropological Research) Kilauea, Hawaii, 245 Paricutin, Mexico, 507n WB! (see Washington Biophysical Institute) WPA (see Works Projects Administration)

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694 I Subject Index WRS (see War Research Service) War Committee of Technical Societies, 214 War Department, 40, 51, 211, 228, 364, 375,392, 412, 428n, 435, 437,439, 445, 455, 463 Research and Development Division, 463 War Food Administration, 416n War Manpower Commission, 406, 447 War Production Board, 415, 416 War Research Service, 413 warfare research projects (see research) Washington Academy of Sciences, 116n, 187-188, 188n, 243 Washington Biophysical Institute, 262, 336, 337 Washington Biophysical Laboratory, 334, 336 Watson Fund (see NAS) Weather Bureau (see U.S. Weather Bureau) weather forecasting, 303-304 airmass-analysis method, 355 climate, 304 Weed report, 46~470 Weekly Society of Gentlemen, New York, Wenner~ren Foundation for An- thropological Research, 488 West Point (see U.S. Military Academy) Western Electric Company, 266, 384 White House Committee on Organization of Government Scientific Work, 181 Wind and Current Charts, 84, 85, 87 Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, 140n, 141n Wolverton bill (see science, legislation) Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 303, 371, 498-500, 502, 536, 537 Works Projects Administration, 367, 379 allocations for science, 367-368 World Calendar (see calendar reform) World Calendar Association, 307 World Conservation Conference, 184 World's Fair, Chicago, 308-310 World Data Center (see NAS) World War I, 178, 208, 217, 220-221, 224, 241, 387, 524 gas warfare, 232 warfare studies, 231 World War II, 259, 268, 381, 382, 392, 417, 426n, 509, 510, 524 Pearl Harbor, 399, 486 Yellowstone National Park, 114, 159