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NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS · 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. · Washington, DC 20418

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

This volume has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a National Academy of Engineering report review process. The interpretations and conclusions expressed in the papers are those of the authors and are not presented as the views of the council, officers, or staff of the National Academy of Engineering.

Funding for the activity that led to this publication was provided by the Ralph M. Parsons Foundation, the AT&T Foundation, the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, and the National Academy of Engineering Technology Agenda Program.

Library of Congress Cataloging Card Number: 98-84941 
International Standard Book Number: 0-309-06355-8

Cover art: Distorted Eye. courtesy of the artist, Grace Selvanayagam, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Copyright 1998 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America



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