FIFTH LECTURE

INTERNATIONAL SCIENCE LECTURE SERIES

IMPLEMENTATION CHALLENGES FOR HIGH-TEMPERATURE COMPOSITES

by

Anthony G. Evans

Gordon McKay

Professor of Materials Engineering Division of Engineering and Applied Sciences Harvard University

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.
1997



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IMPLEMENTATION CHALLENGES FOR HIGH-TEMPERATURE COMPOSITES FIFTH LECTURE INTERNATIONAL SCIENCE LECTURE SERIES IMPLEMENTATION CHALLENGES FOR HIGH-TEMPERATURE COMPOSITESby Anthony G. Evans Gordon McKay Professor of Materials Engineering Division of Engineering and Applied Sciences Harvard University NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1997

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IMPLEMENTATION CHALLENGES FOR HIGH-TEMPERATURE COMPOSITES The National Research Council serves as an independent advisor to the federal government on scientific and technical questions of national importance. Established in 1916 under the congressional charter of the private, nonprofit National Academy of Sciences, the Research Council brings the resources of the entire scientific and technical community to bear on national problems through its volunteer advisory committees. Today the Research Council stands as the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering and is administered jointly by the two academies and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Engineering and the Institute of Medicine were established in 1964 and 1970, respectively, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Research Council has numerous operating units. One of these is the Naval Studies Board, which is charged with conducting and reporting upon surveys and studies in the field of scientific research and development applicable to the operation and function of the Navy. A portion of the work done to prepare this document was performed under Department of Navy Contract N00014-93-C-0089 issued by the Office of Naval Research and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under contract authority NR 201-124. However, the content does not necessarily reflect the position or the policy of the Department of the Navy or the government, and no official endorsement should be inferred. The United States Government has at least a royalty-free, nonexclusive, and irrevocable license throughout the world for government purposes to publish, translate, reproduce, deliver, perform, and dispose of all or any of this work, and to authorize others so to do. Copyright 1997 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Additional copies of this report available from: Naval Studies Board National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 Printed in the United States of America

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IMPLEMENTATION CHALLENGES FOR HIGH-TEMPERATURE COMPOSITES NAVAL STUDIES BOARD David R. Heebner, Science Applications International Corporation (retired), Chair George M. Whitesides, Harvard University, Vice Chair Albert J. Baciocco, Jr., The Baciocco Group, Inc. Alan Berman, Applied Research Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University Norman E. Betaque, Logistics Management Institute Norval L. Broome, Mitre Corporation Gerald A. Cann, Raytheon Company Seymour J. Deitchman, Chevy Chase, Maryland, Special Advisor Anthony J. DeMaria, DeMaria ElectroOptics Systems, Inc. John F. Egan, Lockheed Martin Corporation Robert Hummel, Courant Institute of Mathematics, New York University David W. McCall, Far Hills, New Jersey Robert J. Murray, Center for Naval Analyses Robert B. Oakley, National Defense University William J. Phillips, Northstar Associates, Inc. Mara G. Prentiss, Jefferson Laboratory, Harvard University Herbert Rabin, University of Maryland Julie JCH Ryan, Booz, Allen and Hamilton Harrison Shull, Monterey, California Keith A. Smith, Vienna, Virginia Robert C. Spindel, Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington David L. Stanford, Science Applications International Corporation H. Gregory Tornatore, Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University J. Pace VanDevender, Prosperity Institute Vincent Vitto, Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Bruce Wald, Center for Naval Analyses Navy Liaison Representatives RADM John W. Craine, Jr., USN, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, N81 RADM Richard A. Riddell, USN, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, N91 Paul G. Blatch, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, N911E Ronald N. Kostoff, Office of Naval Research Marine Corps Liaison Representative LtGen Paul K. Van Riper, USMC, Marine Corps Combat Development Command Staff Ronald D. Taylor, Director Peter W. Rooney, Program Officer Susan G. Campbell, Administrative Assistant Mary (Dixie) Gordon, Information Officer Christopher A. Hanna, Project Assistant

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IMPLEMENTATION CHALLENGES FOR HIGH-TEMPERATURE COMPOSITES COMMISSION ON PHYSICAL SCIENCES, MATHEMATICS, AND APPLICATIONS Robert J. Hermann, United Technologies Corporation, Co-Chair W. Carl Lineberger, University of Colorado, Co-Chair Peter M. Banks, Environmental Research Institute of Michigan Lawrence D. Brown, University of Pennsylvania Ronald G. Douglas, Texas A&M University John E. Estes, University of California at Santa Barbara L. Louis Hegedus, Elf Atochem North America, Inc. John E. Hopcroft, Cornell University Rhonda J. Hughes, Bryn Mawr College Shirley A. Jackson, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Kenneth H. Keller, University of Minnesota Kenneth I. Kellermann, National Radio Astronomy Observatory Margaret G. Kivelson, University of California at Los Angeles Daniel Kleppner, Massachusetts Institute of Technology John Kreick, Sanders, a Lockheed Martin Company Marsha I. Lester, University of Pennsylvania Thomas A. Prince, California Institute of Technology Nicholas P. Samios, Brookhaven National Laboratory L.E. Scriven, University of Minnesota Shmuel Winograd, IBM T.J. Watson Research Center Charles A. Zraket, Mitre Corporation (retired) Norman Metzger, Executive Director

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IMPLEMENTATION CHALLENGES FOR HIGH-TEMPERATURE COMPOSITES Preface The International Science Lecture Series (ISLS) operates as a special project of the National Research Council's Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications. The series was established in 1990 at the request of the Office of Naval Research (ONR) and joined in 1992 by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR). The purpose of the series is to advance communication and cooperation within the international scientific community. A search committee established by the National Research Council (NRC) selects prominent U.S. scientists to lecture in three areas of basic scientific inquiry: ocean and meteorological sciences, materials science, and information science. The countries in which the lectures are to be given are selected on the basis of consultations with the international scientific community, with the science attache in U.S. embassies, with senior representatives of ONR-Asia and ONR-Europe, and with both ONR and AFOSR representatives in Washington, D.C. When appropriate, each lecture in a host country is followed by formal and informal discussions with senior governmental, industrial, and academic representatives to expand the dialogue on research progress, problems, and areas of common interest and thereby identify opportunities for greater cooperation and collaborative efforts in research. Following each tour, the formal lecture is published for wider international distribution. Implementation Challenges for High-Temperature Composites by Anthony G. Evans, Gordon McKay Professor of Materials Engineering at Harvard University, is the fifth lecture in the International Science Lecture Series. The first lecture in the series, The Heard Island Experiment, was presented by Walter H. Munk, holder of the Secretary of the Navy Research Chair at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California at San Diego, and the second lecture, New Materials: Fountainhead for New Technologies and New Science, was presented by Rustum Roy, Evan Pugh Professor of the Solid State and professor of geochemistry, Pennsylvania State University. John E. Hopcroft, who is the Joseph C. Ford Professor of Computer Science at Cornell University, gave the third lecture, Computing, Communication, and the Information Age; the fourth lecture, Traffic Management for High-Speed Networks, was delivered by H.T. Kung, Gordon McKay Professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at Harvard University. Professor Evans' lecture tour consisted of two separate trips in the Far East; each lecture was

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IMPLEMENTATION CHALLENGES FOR HIGH-TEMPERATURE COMPOSITES followed by a small group discussion that addressed potential areas of mutual interest in structural materials. In the 1995 trip, his first presentation was given on September 4 in Beijing, China, at Tsinghua University. Following the lecture, a tour of the Materials Department of Tsinghua University was given to the ISLS group. On September 5, the ISLS delegation toured the Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, a facility that focuses on a broad range of structural and functional aerospace materials and is affiliated with Tsinghua University. On the following day the delegation met with members of the Institute of Mechanics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. At Shanghai on September 7, Professor Evans presented his lecture at the Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, which has a longstanding reputation for manufacturing world-class oxide single crystals. On the following day the ISLS group toured the Institute of Composite Materials at Shanghai Jiao Tung University. Shanghai Jiao Tung University has devised some interesting fiber coating approaches and manufacturing methods, as well as a substantial capability for interface analysis. In Osaka, Japan, on September 11, Professor Evans presented his lecture at Jurin Hall in the Senri Hankyu Hotel; in its September 12 tour of the Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, the delegation heard about some of the research being conducted there on advanced materials. The ISLS delegation traveled to Nagoya for the lecture on September 13 and toured the Japan Fine Ceramic Center, a facility that features the latest equipment dedicated to the processing, testing, analyzing, and modeling of ceramic materials. The final 1995 lecture presentation was in Toyko on September 14 at the International House of Japan. Professor Evans and the ISLS representatives visited the Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology at Tokyo University, which is doing some basic research on composite materials. The second Asian lecture tour was in 1996; the group first visited the workshops of Baoji Nonferrous Metal Works and Research Center, China. They then returned to Xi'an where Professor Evans gave his first lecture, on September 24, at the Northwest Institute for Nonferrous Metal Research (NIN), which is working to create a world-class institute in titanium metallurgy. Since the work for NIN is performed at Xi 'an and Baoji, the group discussions were held in both places. The ISLS delegation visited the Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials again on September 25; the group discussed several technical areas, such as high cycle fatigue, coatings, intermetallics, corrosion fatigue, and cast silicon carbon aluminum. On September 27, more group discussions were held at the Research Institute of Geology for Mineral Resources (CNNC) and at the Superhard Materials Center in Guilin. CNNC specializes in methods for ore and oil discovery and for ore extraction. Group discussions were held October 1 with the director of the Precious Metals Research Institute in Kunming, which focuses on many aspects of precious metals for the electronics industry. In Hong Kong from October 2 though 5, the ISLS delegation first visited at the University of Hong Kong, the Chinese University of Hong Kong, and Hong Kong University of Science and Technology on October 3 and 4. Professor Evans gave his final lecture at Hong Kong University of Science and Technology. Attended by the materials science faculty members from the three Hong Kong universities, the lecture was followed by a three-hour discussion of collaborative opportunities. The National Research Council, the Office of Naval Research, and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research express their appreciation to their gracious hosts in China and Japan: Professor Shi Changxu, director, Division of Technology and Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences; Professor Yan Dongsheng, president of the Chinese Chemical Society; Professor Shigeyuki Somiya, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Nishi Tokyo University; Professor Teruo Kishi, director general, Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Tokyo; Dr. Zhou Lian, vice president, Northwest Institute for Nonferrous Metal Research and the Academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering; Dr. Leroy L. Chang, dean of science, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology; Professor Xue-Ren Wu, technical director, Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials; and Professor Koichi Niihara, Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University.

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IMPLEMENTATION CHALLENGES FOR HIGH-TEMPERATURE COMPOSITES Contents     Abstract   1     Introduction   1     Materials Selection   2     Design Issues   4      Inelastic Strain and Toughness   4      Anisotropy   4     Manufacturing Challenges   5     Property Profiles   7      Ultimate Tensile Strength   7      Inelastic Strain and Ductility   11      Transverse Properties   15     Life-limiting Mechanisms   16      Fatigue   16      Corrosion Fatigue   19     Concluding Comments   22     References   23

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