Council. He was a member and director of the Society of Maritime Arbitrators and served on the Ocean Industry Visiting Committee of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), of which he is a life sustaining fellow. He holds a B.S. in naval architecture and marine engineering and an M.S. in shipping and shipbuilding management, both from MIT.

Henry Marcus, professor of marine systems at MIT, is chairman of the MIT Ocean Systems Management Program and the Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA) Professor of Ship Acquisition. He holds a B.S. degree in naval architecture from the Webb Institute of Naval Architecture; M.S. degrees in naval architecture, shipbuilding, and shipping management from MIT; and a doctorate in business administration from Harvard University. Dr. Marcus chaired the Committee on Tank Vessel Design, which operated under the auspices of the National Research Council Marine Board and produced the 1991 report Tanker Spills: Prevention by Design.

Keith Michel is president of Herbert Engineering Corporation. In his 20 years with the company he has worked on design, specification development, and contract negotiations of container ships, bulk carriers, and tankers. Mr. Michel has served on industry advisory groups developing guidelines for alternative tanker designs, including groups advising the International Maritime Organization and the U.S. Coast Guard. His work has included development of methodology, vessel models, and oil outflow analysis. He was a project engineer for the U.S. Coast Guard report on oil outflow analysis for double-hull and hybrid tanker arrangements, which was part of the U.S. Department of Transportation's technical report on the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA 90) to Congress. He has also worked on the development of salvage software used by the U.S. and the Canadian Coast Guards, the U.S. Navy, the National Transportation Safety Board, the Maritime Administration, the American Bureau of Shipping, Lloyd's, and numerous oil and shipping companies. Mr. Michel holds a B.S. degree in naval architecture and marine engineering from the Webb Institute of Naval Architecture.

John H. Robinson is a consultant in marine science issues related to offshore oil development and transportation. Mr. Robinson retired from federal service after serving for 30 years in positions with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). As director of the NOAA Gulf Program Office of the Office of the Chief Scientist, he directed NOAA research to assess the effects of marine oil spills and oil field fires in the aftermath of the Persian Gulf war. Previously, as manager of the NOAA Hazardous Materials (HAZMAT) Response Division, he developed and managed the NOAA spill response and hazardous waste site research program, established regional scientific support programs in U.S. coastal areas, and served as scientific coordinator for the Ixtoc I oil drilling spill, the



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