Potential for hydrocarbon leakage to ballast spaces. Potential for explosion.
Increased longitudinal forces.
Increased transverse free surface.
Poor accessibility for inspection and maintenance in double bottom.
Poor initial, static, and dynamic stability.
Extra maintenance costs.
Structure will not withstand forces due to collision or grounding.
Alternate design should be considered.
No return on higher cost. Most oil majors continue to embrace substandard tonnage at low freight cost.
E. DH vessels need more resources to properly manage them. Inadequate coating maintenance, structural problems if vessels built to class rules only, and stability problems may lead to problems for the industry.
More critical stability.
Higher construction cost.
Ballast tank coating critical issue.
Ballast tank ventilation difficult.
Difficult to salvage after hard grounding.
Greater beam or freeboard.
F. More equipment required to monitor void spaces.
Reduced cargo carrying capacity.
More surfaces to maintain.
For larger vessels, not much advantage in way of environmental protection.