other government organizations engaged in the development and application of similar and complementary monitoring and control technologies. Many terrestrial-based closed or isolated environmental settings have requirements similar to those for spacecraft or planetary habitats. Dramatic advances in the monitoring and control of technologies operating in restricted environments, e.g., medical facilities, mining operations, submarines, and ''sick buildings," may be relevant to the space program and vice versa. For example, the miniaturization of monitoring technologies could lead to terrestrial applications, such as inexpensive, home-based contaminant monitors. The development of new, sensitive biomarkers of exposure and effects could be used to monitor humans in a variety of potential exposure situations on Earth.

Recommendations 3-17. NASA and the environmental monitoring and control program should continue to interact with academia and industry, as well as with other government agencies, for the transfer of useful technologies and to seek opportunities for collaborative efforts in the planning and financing of the environmental monitoring and control program. However, technology that addresses issues directly related to crew safety, and not "spin-offs," should be the primary driver of the program. NASA should also strive to work with other government agencies that fund research in related areas, such as the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, and the Environmental Protection Agency.


NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). 1996a. Advanced Environmental Monitoring and Control Program: Strategic Plan. Washington, D.C.: NASA.

NASA. 1996b. Advanced Environmental Monitoring and Control Program: Technology Development Requirements. Washington, D.C.: NASA.

National Research Council (NRC). 1996. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants. Vol. 2. Committee on Toxicology, Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology. Washington, D.C. : National Academy Press.

Stafford, Thomas P., et al., 1991. America at the Threshold: America's Space Exploration Initiative. Washington, D.C.: White House Office of Science and Technology Policy.

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