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Advanced Technology for Human Support in Space Committee on Advanced Technology for Human Support in Space Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1997
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NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice-chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This study was supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under contract number NASW-4938 Task Order 112. Any opinions, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 97-68305 International Standard Book Number 0-309-05744-2 Available in limited supply from: Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20418. 202-334-2855 Additional copies are available for sale from National Academy Press , 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Box 285, Washington, D.C. 20055. 1-800-624-6242 or 202-334-3313. http://www.nap.edu Copyright 1997 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America
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COMMITTEE ON ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY FOR HUMAN SUPPORT IN SPACE JAMES BAGIAN (committee chair), Environmental Protection Agency, Ann Arbor, Michigan NORMAN BADLER (chair, Space Human Factors Subcommittee), University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia BRUCE BUGBEE, Utah State University, Logan HARRIET BURGE, Harvard University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts ELIZABETH CANTWELL (chair, Environmental Monitoring and Control Subcommittee), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California SUSAN DOLL (chair, Advanced Life Support Subcommittee), Boeing Defense and Space, Huntsville, Alabama DONALD GARDNER, Inhalation Toxicology Associates, Raleigh, North Carolina ANDREW HOFFMAN, East Windsor Associates, Broad Brook, Connecticut JOSEPH KERWIN (chair, Extravehicular Activities Subcommittee), Krug Life Sciences, Inc., Houston, Texas ROBERT MOSER, Canyon Consulting Corporation, Chama, New Mexico MARY MUSGRAVE, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge DAVA NEWMAN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge FREDERICK G. POHLAND, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania GAVRIEL SALVENDY, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana ROBERT E. SMYLIE, Smylie Associates, Reston, Virginia Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board Staff JOANN CLAYTON-TOWNSEND, Director NOEL ELDRIDGE, Study Director (November 1995–December 1996) TED MORRISON, Senior Project Assistant and Report Manager
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AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ENGINEERING BOARD JOHN D. WARNER (chair), The Boeing Company, Seattle, Washington STEVEN AFTERGOOD, Federation of American Scientists, Washington, D.C. GEORGE A. BEKEY, University of Southern California, Los Angeles GUION S. BLUFORD, JR., NYMA Incorporated, Brook Park, Ohio RAYMOND S. COLLADAY, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, Colorado BARBARA C. CORN, B C Consulting Incorporated, Searcy, Arkansas STEVEN D. DORFMAN, Hughes Telecommunications and Space, Los Angeles, California DONALD C. FRASER, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts DANIEL HASTINGS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge FREDERICK HAUCK, International Technology Underwriters, Bethesda, Maryland WILLIAM H. HEISER, United States Air Force Academy, Colorado Springs, Colorado WILLIAM HOOVER, U.S. Air Force (retired), Williamsburg, Virginia BENJAMIN HUBERMAN, Huberman Consulting Group, Washington, D.C. FRANK E. MARBLE, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena C. JULIAN MAY, Tech/Ops International Incorporated, Kennesaw, Georgia GRACE M. ROBERTSON, Douglas Aircraft Company, Long Beach, California GEORGE SPRINGER, Stanford University, Stanford, California Staff JOANN CLAYTON-TOWNSEND, Director
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Preface This report was prepared in response to a NASA request for an evaluation of programs of the Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications that will apply to NASA's long-term goals and the eventual human exploration of space. The study committee first met on March 27 and 28, 1996, in Washington, D.C. For the next five months, the committee met at all relevant NASA centers to gather information. The last meeting was held in September 1996, but subsequent substantive organizational changes in NASA that became known to the committee during the final drafting and editing process are noted herein. The committee would have been unable to produce this report without the cooperation and assistance of those individuals at NASA who are the heart of these programs. Their dedication and responsiveness were invaluable. I would also like to recognize the dedication of the committee members, who made time in their already busy schedules to carry out this study and to arrive at consensus on the contents of the report. They did this in the best tradition of voluntarism and tirelessly looked for ways to enhance the content and value of the report. Lastly, I would like to recognize Noel Eldridge and Ted Morrison of the National Research Council (NRC) for their outstanding work during all aspects of the study and report preparation. Without the tireless and superb efforts of the committee and the NRC staff this report could never have been completed. For me, it has been an extreme pleasure to have had the opportunity to work with these individuals during the preparation of this report. Above all, it is my hope that the information contained herein will be of use to NASA and the nation as it contemplates the future human exploration of the solar system. JAMES BAGIAN, M.D., P.E. CHAIR, COMMITTEE ON ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY FOR HUMAN SUPPORT IN SPACE
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Table of Contents Executive Summary 1 1 Introduction 10 Background 11 Approach 12 Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications Advanced Human Support Technology Program 14 Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications Work at NASA Centers 15 Long-Term Plans for Human Exploration 17 References 21 2 Advanced Life Support Systems 22 Introduction 22 Technical and Scientific Topics Related to Advanced Life Support 24 Programmatic Topics Related to Advanced Life Support Systems 40 High Priority Areas for Advanced Life Support Technology Research and Development 47 Relationship between the Advanced Life Support Program and the Success of Future NASA Missions 49 Program Objectives and Milestones 49 Overall Scientific and Technical Quality 51 Program Requirements 52 Program Direction and Organization 53 Synergism with Other Programs 56 Dual-Use Technologies 58 References 60
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3 Environmental Monitoring and Control 61 Introduction 61 Technical and Scientific Topics Related to Environmental Monitoring and Control 62 Current Status of the Environmental Monitoring and Control Program 68 High Priority Areas for Environmental Monitoring and Control Technology Research and Development 71 Relationship between the Environmental Monitoring and Control Program and the Success of Future NASA Missions 73 Program Objectives and Milestones 73 Overall Scientific and Technical Quality 75 Program Requirements 76 Program Direction and Organization 77 Synergism with Other Programs 79 Dual-Use Technologies 80 References 81 4 Extravehicular Activity Systems 82 Introduction 82 Technical and Scientific Topics Related to Extravehicular Activity Systems 84 Programmatic Topics Related to Extravehicular Activity 87 High Priority Areas for Extravehicular Activity Technology Research and Development 90 Relationship between the Extravehicular Activity Program and the Success of Future NASA Missions 92 Program Objectives and Milestones 92 Overall Scientific and Technical Quality 93 Program Requirements 93 Program Direction and Organization 94 Synergism with Other Programs 95 Dual-Use Technologies 96 References 96 5 Space Human Factors 97 Introduction 97 Technical and Scientific Topics Related to Space Human Factors 98 Programmatic Topics Related to Space Human Factors 101 High Priority Areas for Space Human Factors Technology Research and Development 102 Relationship between the Space Human Factors Program and the Success of Future NASA Missions 103
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Program Objectives and Milestones 104 Overall Scientific and Technical Quality 105 Program Requirements 106 Program Direction and Organization 108 Synergism with Other Programs 110 Dual-Use Technologies 111 References 112 6 General Findings and Recommendations 113 Acronyms and Abbreviations 116 Appendices A Statement of Task 121 B Memorandum of Understanding Consolidating Human Support Research in the Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications 123 C Subcommittee Members and Meetings 127 D Letter Requesting Comments from Industry 129 E Analysis of Advanced Life Support Technology Development Projects 131 F Biographical Sketches of Committee Members 133
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Figures and Tables Figures 1-1 Budgets for the advanced human support programs 13 1-2 Long-term goals for the human exploration of space 19 2-1 Principal relationships in a bioregenerative life support system 31 2-2 Fully closed food loop 33 2-3 Partially closed food loop 34 2-4 FY96 NASA funding for advanced life support 41 2-5 NASA headquarters technology development road map, 1995 to 2015 43 2-6a JSC technology development and validation road map, 1995 to 2010 44 2-6b JSC ALS road map, post-2010 45 4-1 NASA EVA Project Office organization chart 87 4-2 NASA funding for advanced EVA systems, 1985 to 1996 89 Tables 1-1 OLMSA-Sponsored Research in Human Support at NASA Centers 16 2-1 Metabolic Values for Normal Spacecraft Operation of One Astronaut 23 2-2 Summary of Advanced Life Support System Functions 26 2-3 Comparison of Design Factors for the Development of Life Support Systems 38 3-1 Major Categories of Contaminants 62 3-2 Potential Sources for Some Major Contaminants 63 3-3 Microbiological Monitoring and Control Prioritization 65 3-4 Goals and Objectives of the EMC Program 69 3-5 EMC Schedule and Program Deliverables 70 3-6 Funded Technical Development Projects (1995–1996) 70
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4-1 Current Evolutionary (or Zero-G EMU) Technology Projects 90 4-2 Current Revolutionary (or Lunar/Mars) Technology Projects 91 5-1 Topics of Interest to the SHF Program 99 E-1 Compilation of the Advanced Life Support Technology Development Projects 132