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ENG - BERING EDUCATION AND PRACTICE IN THE UNITED STATES Continuing Education of Er~neers Panel on Continuing Education Committee on the Education and Utilization of the Engineer Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1985

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NATIONALACADEMY PRESS 2101 ConstitutionAve., NW . Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Goveming Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Insti- tute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government. The Council operates in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy under the authority of its congressional charter of 1863, which establishes the Academy as a private, nonprofit, self-governing membership corporation. The Council has become the princi- pal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in the conduct of their services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. It is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Engineering and the Institute of Medicine were established in 1964 and 1970, respectively, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences. Support for this work has been provided by the National Science Foundation, the Department of the Air Force, the Department of the Army, the Department of Energy, the Department of the Navy, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Addi- tionally, assistance has been provided through grants from the Eastman Kodak Company, Exxon Corporation, the General Electric Company, the IBM Corporation, the Lockheed Corporation, the Monsanto Company, and the Sloan Foundation. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 85-62019 ISBN 0-309-03593-7 Printed in the United States of America

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Preface This report of the Panel on Continuing Education was prepared as part of the study of engineering education and practice in the United States that was conducted under the guidance of the National Research Council Committee on the Education and Utilization of the Engineer. A summary of the material from this report is included in the report of the committee; * the various topics are addressed in more detail here. It was a great pleasure to work with the Panel on Continuing Educa- tion in the generation of this report and in support of the major study of the Committee on the Education and Utilization of the Engineer. I would like to thank the members of the panel for their help in the preparation of this report which reviews the total spectrum of activities in continuing education and highlights the needs for continuing educa- tion in the utilization of engineers in our society. Finally, I want to thank terrier Haddad and lordan Baruch for their valuable and helpful support and guidance in the studies that were undertaken. Also, I par- ticularly want to thank the staff who so diligently supported our activi- ties during the course of this study and the production of the report. Morris A. Steinberg Chairman *Engineering Education and Practice in the United States: Foundations of Our Techno-Economic Future (Washington, D. C .: National Academy Press, 1985 ~ . . . .

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Panel on Continuing Education MORRIS A. STEINBERG, Chairman, Vice-President, Science, Lockheed Corporation RALPH T. DOSHER, OR., Manager, Corporate Training and Education, Texas Instruments, Inc. ROD HANKS, Assistant Director, Human Resources Development Lockheed Corporation ROBERT A. HOFSTADER, Manager, Education and Development Unit, Exxon Research and Engineering Company HAROLD G. KAUFMAN, Associate Professor of Management and Director of Research Programs in Science, Technology, and Human Resources, Polytechnic Institute of New York RUSSELL R. O'NEILL, Professor, School of Engineering and Applied Science, University of California at Los Angeles BERNARD M. SALLOT, President, Advanced Technologies Group Services ROBERT F. BORUCH, Consultant, Department of Psychology, Northwestern University 1V

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Committee on the Education and Utilization of the Engineer ER~ERA.~DAD, Chairman;IBM,Ret.J GEORGE S. ANSELL, Dean of Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechni Institute inow President, Colorado School of Mines) TORDAN T. BARUCH, President, Jordan T. Baruch Associates ERICH BLOCH, Vice-President, IBM Corporation Now Director, National Science FoundationJ DENNIS CHAMOT, Associate Director, Department for Professional Employees, AFL/CID EDMUND T. CRANCH, President, Worcester Polytechnic Institute DANIEL C. DRUCKER, Dean of Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana Now Graduate Research Professor of Engineering Sciences, University of Florida at Gainesville) FRED W. GARRY, Vice-President, Corporate Engineering and Manufacturing, General Electric Company JOHN W. GEILS, Director of AAES/ASEE Faculty Shortage Project (ATTEST, Ret.l AARON T. GELLMAN, President, Gellman Research Associates, Inc. HELEN GOULDNER, Dean, College of Arts and Science, Professor of Sociology, University of Delaware JOHN D. KEMPER, Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California at Davis EDWARD T. KIRKPATRICK, President, Wentworth Institute of Technology IC v

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V1 COMMITTEE MEMBERS ERNEST S. KUH, Professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of California at Berkeley W. EDWARD LEAR, Executive Director, American Society for Engineering Education LAWRENCE If. MEAD, OR., Senior Management Consultant [Senior Vice-President, Ret. I, Grumman Aerospace Corporation M. EUGENE MERCHANT, Principal Scientist, Manufacturing Research, Cincinnati Milacron, Inc. [now Director, Advanced Manufacturing Research, Metcut Research Associates, Inc. J RICHARD J. REDPATH, Vice-President, Ralston Purina Company FRANCIS E. REESE, Senior Vice-President, Monsanto (now retired) ROBERT M. SAUNDERS, Professor, School of Engineering, University of California at Irvine {Chairman, Board of Governors, AAES, 1983J CHARLES E. SCHAFFNER, Executive Vice-President, Syska Hennessy JUDITH A. SCHWA, Assistant Director, Research Labs, Eastman Kodak Company HAROLD T. SHAPIRO, President, University of Michigan MORRIS A. STEINBERG, Vice-President, Science, Lockheed Corporation DONALD G. WEINERT, Executive Director, National Society of Professional Engineers SHEILA E. WIDNALL, Professor of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Staff WILLIAM H. MICHAEL, JR., Executive Director VERNON H. MILES, Staff Officer AMY TANIK, Administrative Assistant COURTLAND S. LEWIS, Consultant Government Liaison LEWIS G. MAYFIELD, Head, Office of Interdisciplinary Research, National Science Foundation

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Contents Executive Summary. Findings, 1 Conclusions, 2 Recommendation, 3 I. Introduction....... 2. Participation In Continuing Education-The Engmeer's Perspective . Motivation for Participation, 9 Barriers to Participation, 11 Motivation and Barriers Among Older Engineers, 15 Factors That Determine Participation, 17 Outcomes of Continuing Education, 28 Findings, 36 Recommendations, 37 4 3. TheRoleoftndustry................. Industrial Continuing Education Programs, 40 University/Industry Interfaces, 43 Effectiveness of Continuing Education, 44 The Pilot Study, 46 Findings, 47 Recommendations, 48 . . V11 ..... 38

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. . . V111 4. The Role of the University Types of Programs, 49 Goals and Characteristics of Programs, 51 Incentives and Disincentives, 53 Future Trends, 54 Findings, 54 Recommendations, 54 The Role of Professional Societies Current Programs, 57 Development of Statistics, 59 Professional Societies Today, 60 Finding, 61 Recommendation, 61 6. The Role of Proprietary Schools 7. The Role of Govemment ..... Mandatory Requalification, 64 Comparative Policies, 66 Federal Programs in Continuing Education, 67 Findings, 67 References and Bibliography . . Appendix A: Pilot Study for a Survey of Policymakers' Attitudes Toward Continuing Education ...... Appendix B: 1984 Continuing Education Programs of Technical Societies ..................... Appendix C: Professional Society Survey CONTENTS ... 49 .. 56 .. 62 .. 64 68 .. 75 .. 87 .. 88

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ENG - EE~G F13UC~N ~ P':~A.CMCE ~ : ~D SIPS

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