and universities could be the development of an addendum that focuses on the role of inquiry in the NRC Standards. The addendum would help postsecondary faculty and administrators understand the standards more deeply so they could improve the design of their teacher preparation programs. Not all participants need to be engaged in every dimension. Some audiences, such as the general public, might be made aware of the standards with no further engagement. Although many audiences can be involved in many dimensions, the challenge of standards-based reform is to strategically engage the key participants in such a way as to create the most leverage for change in the system.

Although the developers of standards likely have major responsibility for dissemination, they can be assisted by state agencies, special coalitions, or cadres of leaders especially equipped to do so. Responsibility and authority for implementation do not necessarily lie with the organizations that developed standards. The organizations can provide support and expertise, as well as help in networking various implementers, but they are not always positioned to change policies and practices directly. State supervisors, curriculum developers, teacher educators, and classroom teachers assume major responsibility for implementation. Revision again becomes the responsibility of the developers, with substantial input and interaction with others in the system.

In the next section of this report, we use dimensions of the Strategic Framework to describe the strategies that the NCTM has used to support the NCTM Standards and to describe what directions the organization is now taking. The strategies planned and launched by the NRC's Center for Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Education (the Center) in light of NCTM's seven years of prior experience with national standards are described in the following section. Note that NCTM is a professional association of more than 110,000 members, with affiliated groups, an ongoing structure of conferences, and a large publication enterprise. The Center, as a unit of the NRC, works through its boards and committees of volunteers, together with staff, to advise in policy areas. The organizations are different in structure, mission, and scope of activity, and their strategies differ accordingly.

FIGURE 3.Participants in Standards-Based Education


Governors and State Legislators

State Education Departments

State and Local School Boards

School Districts



Colleges and Universities


Curriculum and Assessment Developers

School Districts

Business and Industry

Informal Educators

Professional Organizations




Political Support

Scientists and Engineers

Business and Industry

Federal, State, and Local Governments


General Public

Teacher Unions

Adapted from: Bybee, R.W. (1997). A strategy for standards-based reform of science and mathematics education. Unpublished manuscript.

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