Education of Analysts and Model Builders

Interestingly, the challenge is not just to educate more naval forces officers in M&S, but also to educate more of the analysts and model builders in military operations. This has seldom been recognized as a requirement, but it seems quite important to the panel. One mechanism for doing this is to strongly support the DMSO's efforts on common models of the mission space (CMMS), something that the JSIMS and JWARS programs are currently cooperating on. Other mechanisms could be more formal. For example, the panel can imagine the Naval War College taking a lead role in arranging orientation meetings in doctrine, field visits, and relatively in-depth discussion of the emerging CMMS.



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Technology for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, 2000-2035: Becoming a 21st-Century Force Education of Analysts and Model Builders Interestingly, the challenge is not just to educate more naval forces officers in M&S, but also to educate more of the analysts and model builders in military operations. This has seldom been recognized as a requirement, but it seems quite important to the panel. One mechanism for doing this is to strongly support the DMSO's efforts on common models of the mission space (CMMS), something that the JSIMS and JWARS programs are currently cooperating on. Other mechanisms could be more formal. For example, the panel can imagine the Naval War College taking a lead role in arranging orientation meetings in doctrine, field visits, and relatively in-depth discussion of the emerging CMMS.

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Technology for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, 2000-2035: Becoming a 21st-Century Force Bibliography Allen , Patrick . 1992 . Situational Force Scoring: Accounting for Combined Arms Effects in Aggregate Combat Models , N-3423-NA, RAND , Santa Monica, Calif. Allen , Patrick . 1995 . “The Need to Represent a Wide Variety of Battle Types in Air-Ground Combat Models,” Military Operations Research , 1(3) : 19-25 . Almasi , George S. and Allan Gottlieb . 1989 . Highly Parallel Computing , Benjamin-Cummings , Redwood City, Calif. Ancker, C.J. 1995 . “A Proposed Foundation for a Theory of Combat,” Naval Research Logistics , 42(3) : 311-344 , April. Anderson , Robert and Paul K. Davis . 1993 . Proceedings of a Workshop on Methods and Tools for Verification, Validation, and Accreditation , PM-179-DMSO, RAND , Santa Monica, Calif. , October 5-6. Appleget , Jeffrey A. 1995 . “The Combat Simulation of Desert Storm with Applications for Contingency Operations,” Naval Research Logistics , 42(4) : 691-714 , June. Also in Bracken et al. (1995) , pp. 549-572 . Bankes , Steven C. 1993 . “Exploratory Modeling for Policy Analysis,” Operations Research , 41(3) , May-June, pp. 435-449 Bankes , Steven C. 1996 . “Computational Experiments for Decision Making in Complex and Uncertain Environments,” Proceedings of the Sixth Annual Conference on AI, Simulation and Planning in High Autonomy Systems , The University of Arizona , Tucson, Ariz. Bennett , Bruce W. 1995 . Observations on Verification, Validation, and Accreditation (VV&A) , PM-462-OSD , RAND , Santa Monica, Calif. Bennett , Bruce , Daniel Fox , Carl Jones , Larry Painter , John Schrader , Robert Weissler , and Barry Wilson . 1992 . RSAS 4.6 Summary N-3534-NA , RAND , Santa Monica, Calif. (There is unpublished documentation of the 1993 version of the RSAS, RSAS 5.2.) Bennett , Bruce , Arthur Bullock , Daniel Fox , Carl Jones , John Schrader , Robert Weissler , and Barry Wilson . 1994 . JICM 1.0 Summary , MR-383-NA , RAND , Santa Monica, Calif. Biddle , Steven . 1996 . “Victory Misunderstood: What the Gulf War Taught Us About the Future of Conflict,” International Security , 21(2) : 139-179 , Fall . Bitters , David L. 1995 . “Efficient Concentration of Forces, or How to Fight Outnumbered and Win,” Naval Research Logistics , 42(3) : 397-418 , April. Also in Bracken et al. (1995) .

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Technology for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, 2000-2035: Becoming a 21st-Century Force Bonder , Seth , and L.W. Farrell (eds.). 1970 . Development of Models for Defense Systems Planning , SRL 2147 TR70-2 , Systems Research Laboratory , Ann Arbor, Mich. Bonder, S. , M. Farrell , and K. Close . 1994 . An Analysis of Doctrinal and Tactical Alternatives for Information Campaigns , three volumes, VRI-G-94-108 , Vector Research, Inc. , Ann Arbor, Mich. , June. Bos , George E.P. , William G. Hunter , and J. Stuart Hunter . 1978 . Statistics for Experimenters , John Wiley & Sons , New York . Bracken , Jerome . 1995 . “Lanchester Models of the Ardennes Campaign,” Naval Research Logistics , 42(4) : 559-578 , June. Also in Bracken et al. (1995) . Bracken , Jerome , Moshe Kress , and Richard E. Rosenthal (eds.). 1995 . Warfare Modeling , published for the Military Operations Research Society , John Wiley and Sons , Danvers, Mass. Calvin , Edward , Francoise Becker , John Bentrup , and Scott Bailey . 1995 . Developing a Navy Strategy for Modeling and Simulation: Final Report , CRM 94-196 , Center for Naval Analyses , Alexandria, Va. , March. Chew , Jennifer . 1997 . “Testing and Validation of Models and Simulations,” Phalanx , 30(2) : 8 , June. Cho, T.H. , and B.P. Zeigler . 1997 . “Simulation of Intelligent Hierarchical Flexible Manufacturing,” IEEE Trans. System, Man and Cybernetics , 27(1) : 116-125 . Committee on National Statistics, National Research Council . 1995 . Statistical Methods for Testing and Evaluation of Defense Systems, Interim Report . National Academy Press , Washington, D.C. Courtois, P.J. 1985 . “On Time and Space Decomposition of Complex Structures,” Communications of the ACM , 28(6) : 590-603 . Danneberg , Klaus and Patricia Sanders . 1997 . “New Directions in Modeling and Simulation,” Aerospace America , 35(1) : 34-39 , January. Davis , Paul K. 1992 . Generalizing Concepts and Methods of Verification, Validation, and Accreditation (VV&A) for Military Simulations , R-4249-ACQ , RAND , Santa Monica, Calif. Davis , Paul K. 1993 . An Introduction to Variable-Resolution Modeling and Cross-Resolution Model Connection , R-4252-DARPA , RAND , Santa Monica, Calif. Also appears in the Naval Logistics Journal , 42(2) : 151-182 , March (1995) and in Bracken et al. (1995) , pp. 5-36 . Davis , Paul K. (ed.). 1994 . New Challenges in Defense Analysis: Rethinking How Much Is Enough , RAND , Santa Monica, Calif. Davis , Paul K. 1995a . Aggregation, Disaggregation, and the 3:1 Rule in Ground Combat , RAND , Santa Monica, Calif. Web site at http://www.rand.org . Davis , Paul K. 1995b . “Distributed Interactive Simulation in the Evolution of DOD Warfare Modeling and Simulation,” Proceedings of the IEEE , 83(8) : 1138-1155 , August. Davis , Paul K. , and James A. Winnefeld . 1983 . The RAND Strategy Assessment Center , R-2945-DNA , RAND , Santa Monica, Calif. Davis , Paul K. , and Donald Blumenthal . 1991 . The Base of Sand: A White Paper on the State of Military Combat Modeling , RAND , Santa Monica, Calif. Davis , Paul K. , and Richard Hillestad . 1992 . “Using Simulation in the Education of General Officers,” Proceedings of the 1992 Summer Computer Simulation Conference , Society for Computer Simulation , San Diego, Calif. , pp. 1071-1076 . Davis , Paul K. , and Richard Hillestad . 1993a . “Families of Models That Cross Levels of Resolution: Issues for Design, Calibration, and Management,” Proceedings of the 1993 Winter Computer Simulation Conference , Association for Computing Machinery , New York , December, pp. 1003-1012 . Davis , Paul K. , and Richard Hillestad (eds.). 1993b . Proceedings of Conference on Variable Resolution Modeling , CF-103-DARPA , RAND , Santa Monica, Calif. Davis , Paul K. , and Robert Howe . 1990 . Representing Operational Strategies and Command-Control in the RAND Strategy Assessment System (RSAS) , N-3232 , RAND , Santa Monica, Calif. Davis , Paul K. , and Reiner K. Huber . 1992 . Variable Resolution Modeling: Issues, Principles and Challenges , N-3400-DARPA , RAND , Santa Monica, Calif.

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Technology for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, 2000-2035: Becoming a 21st-Century Force Davis , Paul K. , David Gompert , and Richard Kugler . 1996 . Adaptiveness in National Defense: The Basis of a New Framework , Issue Paper IP-155 , RAND , Santa Monica, Calif. A variant of this can be found, along with additional analytical material, as chapters 4 and 6 of Khalilzad and Ochmanek (1997), an edited collection of RAND work done for the Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR) . Defense Modeling and Simulation Office . 1995a . Department of Defense Modeling and Simulation (M&S) Master Plan , Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Technology , Washington, D.C. , October. Defense Modeling and Simulation Office . 1995b . “Glossary of Modeling and Simulation (M&S) Terms,” draft, Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Technology , Washington, D.C. , October. Web site: http://www.dmso.mil/docslib/mspolicy/glossary/glossary.html. Defense Modeling and Simulation Office . 1996a . Department of Defense Verification, Validation, and Accreditation (VV&A): Recommended Practices Guide , Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Technology , Washington, D.C. , November. Defense Modeling and Simulation Office . 1996b . “DOD High Level Architecture for Modeling and Simulation,” briefing by Judith Dahmann, December . Available at Web site: www.dmso.mil , and updated from time to time . Defense Modeling and Simulation Office . 1996c . High Level Architecture Interface Specification , Version 1.0 , Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Technology , Washington, D.C. Defense Modeling and Simulation Office . 1996d . Modeling and Simulation (M&S) Master Plan , Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Technology , Washington, D.C. Available at Web site: http://www.dmso.mil/docslib/mspolicy/msmp/1095msmp/ . Defense Science Board . 1995 . Defense Science Board 1995 Summer Study Task Force on Investments for 21st Century Military Superiority , Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Technology , Washington, D.C. Defense Science Board . 1996a . “Appendix B: Simulation Technology for the 21st Century,” Task Force on Tactics and Technology for the 21st Century Military Superiority, Volume 2, Part I: Supporting Materials , Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Technology , Washington, D.C. , October, pp. 75-83 . Defense Science Board . 1996b . Understanding Distributed-Force Concepts for Rapid Deployment Options , Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Technology , Washington, D.C. , November. Defense Science Board . 1996c . Tactics and Technology for 21st-Century Military Superiority , Department of Defense , Washington, D.C. Deitchman , Seymour . 1962 . “A Lanchester Model of Guerrilla Warfare,” Operations Research , 10 : 818-827 . Dewar , James , Steven Bankes , James Hodges , Thomas Lucas , D.K. Saunders-Newton , and Patrick Vye . 1996 . Credible Uses of the Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS) System , MR-607-A , RAND , Santa Monica, Calif. Director, Defense Research and Engineering . 1996a . The High Level Architecture for Modeling and Simulation , Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Technology , Washington, D.C. Director, Defense Research and Engineering . 1996b . Joint Warfighting Science and Technology Plan , Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Technology and the Joint Chiefs of Staff , Washington, D.C. Dupuy , Trevor . 1987 . Understanding War , Paragon House Publishers , New York . Epstein , Joshua M. 1988 . “Dynamic Analysis and the Conventional Balance in Europe,” International Security , 12(4) : 154-165 , Spring . Farrell , Robert L. 1989 . Remarks on Ground Combat Attrition Modeling , paper presented at Army Research Office Workshop on Attrition Modeling in Large-Scale Simulations, February 2-4 , Washington, D.C.

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