Energy-Efficient Technologies for the Dismounted Soldier

Committee on Electric Power for the Dismounted Soldier

Board on Army Science and Technology

Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.
1997



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Energy-Efficient Technologies for the Dismounted Soldier Energy-Efficient Technologies for the Dismounted Soldier Committee on Electric Power for the Dismounted Soldier Board on Army Science and Technology Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1997

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Energy-Efficient Technologies for the Dismounted Soldier NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is interim president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This is a report of work supported by Contract DAAM01-96-K-0002 between the U.S. Army Chemical and Biological Defense Command, and the National Academy of Sciences. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number 0-309-05934-8 Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 97-80862 Limited copies are available from: Board on Army Science and Technology National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20418 (202) 334-3118 Additional copies are available for sale from: National Academy Press Box 285 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W. Washington, DC 20055 800-624-6242 or 202-334-3313 (in the Washington Metropolitan Area) Copyright 1997 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Cover photo: Land Warrior, courtesy of Mr. Michael Doney, U.S. Army Project Manager-Soldier, Ft. Belvoir, Virginia.

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Energy-Efficient Technologies for the Dismounted Soldier COMMITTEE ON ELECTRIC POWER FOR THE DISMOUNTED SOLDIER JOSEPH E. ROWE, Chair, University of Dayton Research Institute (retired), Dayton, Ohio JAMES D. MEINDL, Vice Chair, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta HAMILTON W. ARNOLD, Bell Communications Research, Inc., Red Bank, New Jersey ROBERT W. BRODERSEN, University of California, Berkeley ELTON J. CAIRNS, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California PAUL G. CERJAN, Lockheed Martin Corporation, Arlington, Virginia WALTER L. DAVIS, Motorola, Inc., Austin, Texas CHARLES W. GWYN, Intel Corporation, Santa Clara, California DEBORAH J. JACKSON, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California MILLARD F. ROSE, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama ALVIN J. SALKIND, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway DANIEL P. SIEWIOREK, Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania NELSON R. SOLLENBERGER, AT&T Labs-Research, Holmdel, New Jersey WILLIAM F. WELDON, University of Texas, Austin NANCY K. WELKER, National Security Agency, Fort Meade, Maryland Board on Army Science and Technology Liaison CLARENCE G. THORNTON, Army Research Laboratories (retired) Staff ROBERT J. LOVE, Study Director DUNCAN M. BROWN, Technical Writer CECELIA L. RAY, Senior Project Assistant

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Energy-Efficient Technologies for the Dismounted Soldier BOARD ON ARMY SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY CHRISTOPHER C. GREEN Chair, General Motors Corporation, Warren, Michigan WILLIAM H. FORSTER, Vice Chair, Northrop Grumman Corporation, Baltimore, Maryland ROBERT A. BEAUDET, University of Southern California, Los Angeles GARY L. BORMAN, University of Wisconsin, Madison LAWRENCE J. DELANEY, Consultant, Potomac, Maryland MARY A. FOX, University of Texas, Austin ROBERT J. HEASTON, Guidance and Control Information Analysis Center (retired), Naperville, Illinois KATHRYN V. LOGAN, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta THOMAS L. McNAUGHER, The Arroyo Center, RAND Corporation, Washington, D.C. NORMAN F. PARKER, Varian Associates (retired), Cardiff by the Sea, California STEWART D. PERSONICK, Bell Communications Research, Inc., Morristown, New Jersey MILLARD F. ROSE, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama HARVEY W. SCHADLER, General Electric Corporation, Schenectady, New York CLARENCE G. THORNTON, Army Research Laboratories (retired), Colts Neck, New Jersey JOHN D. VENABLES, Venables & Associates, Towson, Maryland ALLEN C. WARD, Ward Synthesis Inc., Ann Arbor, Michigan Staff BRUCE A. BRAUN, Director ROBERT J. LOVE, Study Director MARGO L. FRANCESCO, Administrative Associate ALVERA V. GIRCYS, Financial Associate CECELIA L. RAY, Senior Project Assistant

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Energy-Efficient Technologies for the Dismounted Soldier Preface One of the critical problems facing soldiers on the battlefields of the twenty-first century will be the availability of sufficient electric power to support their needs in an information-rich environment that will require voice, data, and image transmissions over extended distances. In many instances, soldiers will have to function for extended periods of time, days or even weeks, totally detached from any supporting platform. This will require not only the continued development of battery cells, fuel cells, fueled systems, hybrids, and chargers but also the development of technologies that require less energy. There is no single or simple solution to the problem of providing adequate electric power to the dismounted soldier. This study examines all relevant technologies that might be used on the battlefield and considers the requirements for the Land Warrior Program as a starting point for assessing the energy needs of dismounted soldiers. Two time frames are considered: 2000 to 2015 (Force XXI and Land Warrior upgrades) and 2015 to 2025 (the Army After Next). The task statement from the Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Army for Research and Technology requested that the National Research Council, through the Board of Army Science and Technology of the Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems, carry out a study addressing multidisciplinary approaches to working within the power limitations of the dismounted soldier on future battlefields. The study included the following tasks: meet with the Army and the Army research community to determine the basic requirements underlying the demand and consumption of electric power by the dismounted soldier on post-digitization battlefields identify technologies applicable to the availability and consumption of electric power, including technologies that may have been overlooked in previous studies (that considered only energy storage and delivery)

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Energy-Efficient Technologies for the Dismounted Soldier provide an integrated assessment of the state of the art in the applicable technology areas and an assessment of commercial research and development capabilities and the likelihood that they will meet Army requirements develop advanced concepts for optimizing the availability and consumption of electric power for the dismounted soldier (consider the net gains that could be realized through low power electronics, C4I systems design and application, and advances in information technology or doctrine). develop strategic research objectives and a conceptual plan to guide the Army in light of what the scientific and industrial community at large is likely to accomplish.  Participants in the study were selected from many disciplines in anticipation of the broad array of technologies that needed to be addressed. From the outset, it was noted that the National Research Council was not tasked to identify or describe the evolution of new systems; rather, it was charged to identify and assess technologies likely to affect soldier energy needs in the future. The Army was called upon to describe its requirements and the role of dismounted soldiers in both near- and far-terms, and the NRC relied upon experts in technology development to describe advanced energy concepts. A study plan was developed to respond to each element of the task statement. Meetings with the Army and other agencies were held at locations central to subject matter experts. The National Research Council in Washington, D.C. was the site of five meetings. The U.S. Army Communications-Electronics Command Research, Development and Engineering Center at Fort Monmouth, New Jersey, hosted two fact-finding sessions. The Motorola Government Systems Group in Scottsdale, Arizona, hosted a third fact-finding session. Specific presentations are listed in Appendix A. The study committee formed four panels to assess different technology areas and to develop advanced concepts for power. The Energy Sources and Systems Panel focused on the supply side; the other three panels (Networks, Protocols and Operations; Communications, Computers, Displays and Sensors; and Low Power Electronics and Design) focused on technologies with the potential to reduce demand. After each panel made its assessment, the findings were integrated into a cohesive assessment of possibilities for the time frames represented by Force XXI and the more distant Army After Next. Frequent communication among participants to resolve differences of opinion were facilitated by electronic mail and teleconferencing. Army staff members at all locations were very helpful in providing critical information. Joseph E. Rowe, Chair Committee on Electric Power for the Dismounted Soldier

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Energy-Efficient Technologies for the Dismounted Soldier Contents       EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   1 1   INTRODUCTION   13     Applicable Technology Areas   14     Study Approach   14     Report Organization   15     Assumptions   16     Superiority through Technology   17 2   REQUIREMENTS AND NEEDS   18     Impact of Digitization   20     Operational Factors   24     The Army After Next   25     Findings   26 3   ENERGY SOURCES AND SYSTEMS   28     Alternative Technologies   33     Rechargeable Batteries   33     Fueled Systems   34     Nuclear Energy Sources   38     Human-Powered Systems   39     Photovoltaic Technology   39     Thermophotovoltaics   40     Electrochemical Capacitors   41     Hybrid Systems   42     Power for Microclimate Cooling   43     Technology Forecast   44     Key Research Issues   44     Findings   45

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Energy-Efficient Technologies for the Dismounted Soldier 4   LOW POWER ELECTRONICS AND DESIGN   46     Design Requirements   47     Digital Guidelines   47     System Architecture   49     Analog and Radio Frequency Design   50     Examples of Circuit Design   51     Design Aids for Low Power Integrated Circuits   51     Behavioral and Architectural Level Design   52     Logic Level Design   52     Circuit Level Design   53     Physical Level Design   53     Meeting Unique Army Requirements   54     Industry Trends   54     Purpose   56     Challenges   57     Military and Commercial Synergy   59     Theoretical Limits on Low Power Electronics   60     Industry Consensus   61     Centers for Low Power Electronics   61     International Symposium on Low Power Electronics and Design   62     DARPA Low Power Electronics Program   62     Findings   63 5   COMMUNICATIONS, COMPUTERS, DISPLAYS, AND SENSORS   65     Trends in Designing Commercial Portable Equipment   66     Communications   77     Power Objectives   77     Transmitter Energy Consumption   78     Computers   79     Land Warrior Computer   79     General-Purpose Computing Trends   81     Customized and General-Purpose Architectures   82     User Interfaces   86     Displays   90     Requirements   90     Current and Future Technology   91     Future Research and Development   93     Sensors   95     Microelectromechanical Systems   97     Infrared Sensor Arrays   98     Temperature Stabilization   99     Ultra Low Power Electronics for the Sensor Interface   100     Laser Detectors   102     Laser Rangefinders and Infrared Pointer Technology   104

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Energy-Efficient Technologies for the Dismounted Soldier     Laser Rangefinder   104     Infrared Pointer   105     Global Positioning System   105     Wireless Communication Interfaces   108     Findings   110     Communications   110     Computing   111     Displays and Sensors   111 6   NETWORKS, PROTOCOLS, AND OPERATIONS   112     Wireless Transmission Techniques and Limitations   113     Land Warrior System   116     Networks and Protocols   118     Hybrid "Virtual" Peer-to-Peer Network Architecture   122     Multihop Network Architectures   123     Selecting a Suitable Commercial Technology   123     Network Architectures above the Soldier Level   125     Nonterrestrial Systems and Architectures   126     Mobile Satellite Systems   126     Direct Broadcast Satellite Systems and Architectures   127     Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems and Architectures   127     Operational Considerations   128     Findings   129 7   ADVANCED CONCEPTS   131     Comparing Land Warrior with Commercial Technology   132     Compact Energy Sources   132     Commercial Electronic Systems   132     The Crisis   135     Using Commercial Technology in the Land Warrior System   135     Computer   140     Displays and Sensors   140     Radio Communications   141     Designing a System for Low Energy Consumption   141     Energy Requirements for Analog Processing and Analog Devices   142     Energy Requirements for Digital Computation   143     Energy Requirements for Data Transmission   143     Paradigm Shifts   146     Energy Strategy   146     System Design   147     Use of Commercial Technology   147

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Energy-Efficient Technologies for the Dismounted Soldier         8   RESEARCH OBJECTIVES   149     Energy Sources and Systems   149     Rechargeable Batteries   149     Fuel Cells   151     Advanced Fueled Systems   151     Human-Powered Systems   153     Low Power Electronics and Design   153     Circuit Design Tools for Minimizing Power Requirements   153     Architectural Design Level Tools   154     Packaging Techniques for Minimizing Interconnects   154     Lithography   154     Optimizing Device Design   154     Design Methodologies for Army "Systems on a Chip"   155     Communications, Computers, Displays, and Sensors   155     Terminal Equipment Architectures for Optimizing Energy Consumption   155     Component and Human-Computer Interfaces   156     Ultra Low Power Displays and Sensors   157     Multimodal and Adaptive Communication Circuits   157     Evolution of Hardware and Software   157     Networks, Protocols, and Operations   158     Wireless Battlefield Communications Network   158     Extending the Range of the Dismounted Soldier   158     Sensors and Software for Power Management   159     Models for Optimizing Energy Efficiency   159     Propagation Characteristics and Antenna Design   159     Implementation Guidelines   160     Wireless Battlefield Communications Network   160     Models for Optimizing Energy Efficiency   162     Advanced Fueled Systems   162     Findings   163 9   CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS   165     REFERENCES   171     APPENDICES         A Meetings and Activities   179     B Sample Estimate of Operational Requirements for Land Warrior   184     C Energy Source Technologies   187     D Future Directions for Low Power Electronics   248     E Wearable Speech-Operated Computer   263

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Energy-Efficient Technologies for the Dismounted Soldier Figures and Tables Figures                 ES-1   Land Warrior subsystems   2 1-1   U.S. Army Land Warrior   15 1-2   Organizational structure of an infantry squad   16 1-3   Energy train   17 2-1   Requirement categories of the soldier system   19 2-2   Land Warrior subsystems   21 2-3   Model for introducing technology and digitizing the battlefield   23 3-1   Specific energy and specific power for various energy storage media   30 3-2   Graph showing the ''crossover" points for battery and fuel cell power systems as functions of available energy and system mass   35 5-1   Complexity of microprocessors by year of introduction   67 5-2   Complexity of cellular phones and pagers by year of introduction   68 5-3   Operating frequency of high-end microprocessors used in desk-top computers by year of introduction   69 5-4   Improvement in the speed-power characteristic of integrated circuit processes by year of introduction   70 5-5   Power drain versus performance for microprocessors used in desk-top computers from 1989 to 1993   71 5-6   Power drain characteristics of recent microprocessors   72 5-7   Performance of general-purpose programmable DSP by year of introduction   72 5-8   Basic complementary gate structure   73 5-9   Power savings of low-voltage logic operation   74 5-10   Power distribution used in portable products   75 5-11   Power dissipation due to system interconnections   76 5-12   Radio frequency power required for reliable communications   79 5-13   Computer system attributes   83 5-14   Functions of the multimedia terminal, including the interface to a high speed wireless link   86 5-15   I/O device interfaces   87

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Energy-Efficient Technologies for the Dismounted Soldier                         5-16   Block diagram of a display and associated electronics iinterface   92 5-17   Block diagram of a generic imaging array   99 5-18   Soldier's vest and helmet with laser detectors   103 6-1   Hierarchical wireless system architecture used by commercial PCSs and cellular systems   118 6-2   Peer-to-peer (nonhierarchical) wireless system architecture representative of Land Warrior   119 6-3   Time-slotted alerting scheme used by commercial cellular systems, PCSs, and paging systems   120 6-4   Simplified push-to talk access protocol used by SINCGARS and other military wireless systems   121 7-1   Projected MIPS/W performance of microprocessors and programmable digital signal processors over time   134 C-1   Chronological improvements in the capacity of AA size nickel batteries   188 C-2   Projected performance of 50 W hydrogen PEMFCs with a variety of fuel storage techniques   202 C-3   Graph showing the crossover points for battery and fuel cell power systems as functions of available energy and system mass   203 C-4   State of the art of hydrogen PEMFCs   205 C-5   State of the art of DMFCs   206 C-6   System mass as a function of available energy   212 C-7   Available energy as a function of power system mass for a thermoelectric power generator fueled by battlefield fuel   214 C-8   Schematic drawing of an alkali-metal thermal-to-electrical converter (AMTEC)   215 C-9   Estimated performance of an AMTEC system   216 C-10   Schematic drawing illustrating the principles of thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power systems   227 C-11   Estimated thermophotovoltaic (TPV) system mass as a function of mission energy for point designs currently funded by DARPA   229 C-12   Schematic representation of a particle bed CDL   232 C-13   Typical power-time profile for pulsed digital communications devices   241 D-1   Interconnect length distribution density function: interconnect length distribution density versus interconnect length   255 D-2   Average power transfer per binary switching position, P, versus transition time, td   256 D-3   Number of transistors per chip, Ntr, versus calendar year, Y   258 D-4   Number of interconnect elements per chip, Nint, versus calendar year, Y   259 E-1   Composite performance of speech-operated systems   263 E-2   Impact of power management on wearable computers   265

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Energy-Efficient Technologies for the Dismounted Soldier Tables   ES-1   Research Objectives   7 2-1   Power Requirements for the Land Warrior System   22 3-1   Technology Summary of Energy Systems   31 4-1   Semiconductor Product Characteristics   55 4-2   Semiconductor Product Technology   56 4-3   Semiconductor Package Characteristics   58 5-1   Power Requirements of the Land Warrior System by Function   66 5-2   Power Requirements of the Land Warrior Computer   80 5-3   Capacity and Performance of Computer Systems   82 5-4   Comparison of the Number of Steps Required to Retrieve Information Using Selection Buttons and Speech   88 5-5   Ease-of-Use Metrics   89 5-6   Computational Requirements to Support Various User Interfaces   89 5-7   Radiated Energy Captured by the Viewer   94 5-8   Land Warrior Sensor Suite Power Requirements   95 5-9   Integrated Sight Module (ISM) Power Requirements   96 5-10   Integrated Helmet Assembly Subsystem (IHAS) Power Requirements   97 5-11   GPS Power Requirements   108 5-12   Performance Characteristics of the BodyLAN   110 6-1   Required Transmission Rates   113 6-2   Transmitter Power Needed to Maintain 16-Kilobit-Per-Second Link at 75 MHz   115 6-3   Transmitter Power Needed to Maintain 16-Kilobit-Per-Second Link at 1.5 GHz   116 6-4   PCS Technologies Used in the United States   124 7-1   Estimated Power Requirements for the Land Warrior System   133 7-2   Comparison of Power Requirements for the Land Warrior System and Notional Dismounted Soldier Systems   136 7-3   Assumptions Used to Derive Power Requirements in Table 7-2   138 7-4   Number of Bits Required to Transmit a Situation Report by Different Modalities   145 8-1   Research Objectives   161 B-1   Power and Energy Requirements of the Land Warrior System   185 B-2   Attack Mission Profile for the Laser Rangefinder   186 B-3   Wartime Operational Mode Summary for the Laser Rangefinder   186 C-1   Summary of Primary Battery Data   189 C-2   Summary of Rechargeable Portable Battery Data   190 C-3   Summary of Data on Reserve, Thermal, and High Temperature Batteries   192 C-4   Nickel Metal Hydride Battery Systems   193 C-5   Rechargeable Alkaline Manganese Dioxide (RAM) Battery Systems   194

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Energy-Efficient Technologies for the Dismounted Soldier   C-6   Nickel Zinc (NiZn) Battery Systems   194 C-7   Lithium Batteries with Lithium Metal Anode Structures   195 C-8   Lithium Batteries with Lithium Intercalated Anode Structures   196 C-9   Lithium Batteries with Lithium Alloy Anode Structures   196 C-10   Lithium Batteries with Liquid Organic Electrolytes   197 C-11   Lithium Batteries with Polymer Gel Electrolytes   197 C-12   Lithium Batteries with Lithium Manganese Dioxide Spinel (LixMn2O4) Cathode Structures   198 C-13   Lithium Batteries with Lithium Nickel Dioxide (LixNiO2) Cathode Structures   198 C-14   Lithium Batteries Using Lithium Cobalt Dioxide (LixCoCO2) Cathode Structures   199 C-15   Battery Systems Not Appropriate for the Dismounted Soldier   199 C-16   Specific Energies of Various Fuels   208 C-17   Internal and External Combustion Engines   210 C-18   Weight Comparisons of 50-W Heat Engine Alternatives   211 C-19   Power Levels Required for Some Common Human Activities   220 C-20   Estimates of the Maximum Power Available for Conversion to Electricity from Several Body Sources   221 C-21   Summary of Photovoltaic Technology   223 C-22   Summary of Electrochemical Capacitor Technology   237 C-23   Most Promising Component Technologies for Hybrid Systems   238 C-24   High Specific Power Batteries for Hybrid Systems   239 C-25   Commercial and Developmental High Specific Energy-Batteries as Energy Sources in Hybrid Systems   239 C-26   Potential Fueled Systems for Hybrid Power Systems   240 C-27   Energy Storage Media That Could Be Used in Hybrid Systems   242 C-28   Technology Summary of Energy Systems   244

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Energy-Efficient Technologies for the Dismounted Soldier Acronyms and Abbreviations ACRONYMS A/D analog to digital AAN Army After Next ACTD advanced concept technology demonstrations AMC Army Materiel Command AMCLD active matrix liquid crystal display AMEL active matrix electroluminescent display AMPS advanced mobile phone system AMTEC alkali-metal-thermal-to electrical converter APS active pixel sensor APU auxiliary power unit ARL Army Research Laboratory ARO Army Research Office ASIC application-specific integrated circuits AWE advanced warfighting experiment BSF back surface fields BSR back surface reflectors C4I Command, Control, Communications, Computers, and Intelligence CAD computer-aided design CCD charge coupled device CDL chemical double layer CDMA code division multiple access CFM contamination-free manufacturing ChLCD cholestric liquid crystal display CIS copper indium diselenide CISC complete instruction set computer CMOS complementary metal-oxide semiconductor COTS commercial off-the-shelf CPU central processing unit CRT cathode ray tube

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Energy-Efficient Technologies for the Dismounted Soldier DARPA Defense Advanced Research Products Agency DBS direct broadcast satellite DC direct current DIICOE Defense Information Infrastructure Common Operating Environment DMFC direct methanol fuel cell DoD U.S. Department of Defense DoE U.S. Department of Energy DRAM dynamic random access memory DSP digital signal processor DVO direct view optic ESR equivalent series resistance EPR equivalent parallel resistance FDD frequency division duplex FET field effect transistor FM frequency modulation GPHS-RTG general-purpose heat source-radioisotope thermal generator GPS global positioning system GSI gigascale integration GSM Global System for Mobile Communications GSO geosynchronous orbit HDTV high-definition television HF high frequency I/O input/output IC integrated circuit IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers IF intermediate frequency IHAS integrated helmet assembly subsystem IR infrared IS-54, -95 Interim Standard (Telecommunications Industry Association) ISM integrated sight module LAN local area network LCD liquid crystal display LED light emitting diode LEO low earth orbit LPD low probability of detection LPI low probability of intercept MEMS microelectromechanical systems MOD-RTG modified radioisotope thermal generator

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Energy-Efficient Technologies for the Dismounted Soldier MOSFET metal-oxide semiconductor field effect transistor MOUT military operations in urban terrain MPEG2 Motion Picture Experts Group Nd:YLF neodymium: yttrium lithium fluoride NMOS N-type metal-oxide semiconductor NRC National Research Council NTRS National Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors OMS operational mode summary PACS personal access communications systems PAFC phosphoric acid fuel cell PACS-UB PACS unlicensed B version PC personal computer PCMCIA Personal Computer Memory Card International Association PCS personal communications systems PDA personal digital assistant PEMFC proton exchange membrane fuel cell PMOS P-type metal-oxide semiconductor QPSK quadrature phase shift keying R&D research and development RAM random access memory RDEC Research, Development and Engineering Center RF radio frequency RIPD remote input pointing/positioning device SIA Semiconductor Industry Association SINCGARS Single Channel Ground and Airborne Radio System SNR signal-to-noise ratio SOI silicon on insulator SRAM static random access memory SSCOM Soldier Systems Command TCAD technology computer-aided-design TCIM tactical communications interface module TDD time division duplex TDMA time division multiple access TEC thermoelectric cooler TPV thermophotovoltaics TRADOC Training and Doctrine Command TSI terascale integration

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Energy-Efficient Technologies for the Dismounted Soldier UAV unmanned aerial vehicle ULPE ultra-low power electronics VHF very high frequency VRD virtual retinal display ABBREVIATIONS µ micro µm micrometer µW microwatt A ampere Ah ampere hour C centigrade cm centimeter cm2 square centimeter cm3 cubic centimeter dB decibel F farad g gram GHz gigahertz Hz Hertz in3 cubic inches J joule K Kelvin kb kilobit kbps kilobits per second kHz kilohertz km kilometer kW kilowatt kWh kilowatt-hour l liter

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Energy-Efficient Technologies for the Dismounted Soldier m3 cubic meter Mb megabit Mbps megabits per second Mbytes megabytes mg milligram MHz megahertz MIPS million instructions per second mJ millijoule mm millimeter mm2 square millimeter ms millisecond MV megavolt MW megawatt mW milliwatt nm nanometer pF picofarad ppm parts per million psi pounds per square inch V volt W Watt Wh Watt hour

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