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Introduction ..... The value of oceanographic information for planning and executing naval operations has been recognized by the Navy for decades. Consequently, the Office of Naval Research has been a leading funder of academic oceanographic research for many years. In an effort to improve the academic ocean science community's under- standing of the operational demands placed on naval units, the Ocean Studies Board (OSB), through the support of the Office of Naval Research and the Office of the Oceanographer of the Navy, convened four previous symposia on tactical oceanography (NRC 1991, 1992, 1994, 1996~. These symposia have become an important vehicle for facilitating dialogue between academic scientists and the warfighters. These exchanges constitute a valuable mechanism to facilitate more efficient use of naval research funds and to help academic scientists identify areas of research of high value to the Navy. Naval Special Warfare (NSW) encompasses some of the most unique and arduous challenges facing naval personnel in combat situations. Real-time decision making is crucial, and the need for adequate and accurate environmental data on small scales is paramount for minimizing uncertainty and reducing risk. A thorough understanding of surf conditions; the nature of the coastline; the variability of seabed stability; and even the concentration of local marine life, large predators, and natural or man-made toxins can help ensure mission success. The OSB's fifth symposium on tactical oceanography examined the present state of knowledge and predictive capability relevant to NSW. Emphasis was placed on discussion of issues of shared interest between warfighters and scientists (see Box 1-1~. A total of 104 attendees from the operational Navy, the Navy research and develop- ment community, and academia participated. The symposium included, but was not limited to, discussion of the processes (e.g., gravity and infragravity waves) that control the transport of momentum and material in the region from roughly 1 km offshore, inward to the seasonal high-tide mark (roughly, water of 40 m and shallower depths). By describing the dynamic relation of the fluid, sediment, and biota, with effects on visibility and boundary stability, the meeting reviewed existing approaches used to monitor and predict changes in physical parameters and other environmental factors important for conducting special warfare operations in nearshore settings. The effects of marine boundary-layer and water column visibility on remote sensing capabilities and operations were also included. The NRC appointed a symposium steering committee consisting of two OSB members and two additional ocean scientists. This steering committee (1) worked with appropriate Navy personnel to identify specific topics to be covered, (2) identified the most appropriate speakers to address symposium attendees, (3) identified members 3

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4 OCEANOGRAPHY AND NAVAL SPECIAL WARFARE: OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES of the academic community who should be encouraged to attend, and (4) authored this unclassified symposium summary report. SPECIAL OPERATIONS FORCES: AN OVERVIEW Making use of information about the various environments in which NSW personnel operate, will require that scientist and warfighter understand (1) the constraints faced by the operator in the field and (2) the limitations placed on the scientist's knowledge by the complexity of processes that operate in such settings. Understanding the methods of operation of a group that prides itself on being able to routinely conduct clandestine operations is a unique challenge. Consequently, an examination of the nature of special operations in general may provide some insights germane to understanding Naval Special Warfare. Special Operations Forces (SOF, sometimes referred to as Special Forces) are military personnel who receive demanding and specialized training in order to conduct a variety of unique missions for which most of the more conventional military units are not adequately suited. Many nations, including Great Britain, Australia, the Russian Federation, and the United States, have designated Special Operations Forces within their military struc- ture. Most of these units have long and distinguished histories and are descendants of a variety of unconventional forces involved in a number of conflicts. Some of the most commonly recognized units include the Special Air Service (SAS) and Special Boat Service (SBS) (Great Britain), the Green Berets (U.S. Army), Spetsnaz (Russian Federation), and the SEALs (Sea, Air, and Land teams; U.S. Navy). These SOF units have been referred to as "necessity's children" (White, 1992) and perform a wide variety of unique tasks, including reconnaissance and surveillance patrols, guerrilla and assault commando missions, and combat rescue. In addition, these forces are commonly used as instructors in each nation's efforts to train allied forces in less developed nations. Perhaps the best-trained and equipped forces within this group of elite warfighters from around the world are members of the U.S. Special Operation Forces (US S OF) under the U.S. Special Operations Command (USSOCOM). US SOF are military personnel who provide the National Command Authorities a highly-trained, rapidly- deployable joint force capable of conducting special operations anywhere in the world. US SOF may support and enhance the capabilities of conventional forces by serving as a force multiplier, or US SOF may provide an independent capability that can be applied across the full range of military operations. Political sensitivities, in some cases, may render SOF as the only available military option. US SOF are valuable instruments of national policy, because they provide an array of capabilities to meet a myriad of operational requirements (Office of the Undersecretary of Defense, 1996~.

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INTRODUCTION is U.S. SPECIAL OPERATIONAL FORCES AND USSOCOM Activated on April 16, 1987, USSOCOM is an umbrella organization intended to provide command, control, and training for all U.S. Special Operations Forces (US SOF). Some 47,000 active, National Guard and reserve personnel are included in USSOCOM. USSOCOM headquarters is located at MacDill Air Force Base, Florida. Component SOF commands within USSOCOM include the Joint Special Operations Command, Fort Bragg, North Carolina; the U.S. Army Special Operations Command, Fort Bragg, North Carolina; the Air Force Special Operations Command, Hurlbert Field, Florida; and the Naval Special Warfare Command (NAVSPECWARCOM), Coronado, California. :':':':':':':':':':':':':':':':':':':':':':':':':':':':':':':':':':':':':':':':':':':':':':':':':':':':':':':':':':':':':':' . : A:':':':' ':' ~:''':':':':':':':':':':':': :': ':' ': :' ~ : hi: :':':' .e :' . - : !' 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These actions require units with combinations of specialized personnel, equipment, training, and tactics that go beyond the routine capabilities of conventional military forces. In support of national military strategy, US SOF are currently organized and trained in nine principal mission areas. Based on their unique capabilities, US SOF are also frequently tasked to participate in other activities that are not principal US SOF missions. These collateral activities tend to shift in response to the changing international environment. US SOF may conduct several principal missions and collateral activities at the same time in a single cam paign. Whenever US SOF are tasked by the National Command Authorities, a joint force commander, a U.S. ambassador or country team, or any other government agency to perform a mission for which US SOF are best

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INTRODUCTION 7 suited among the available forces or perhaps are the only force available the focus becomes the tasked mission, even if it is not a principal US SOF mission or a collateral activity (Office of the Undersecretary of Defense, 1996). SOF units are employable where high-profile conventional forces appear to be politically, militarily, or economically inappropriate. Smalls self-reliant readily deployable units that capitalize on speeds surprises and ~ ~ ~ - - ~ - - --- - ~ , ,, ~ ,, ~ _ ~ , ~ , deception may sometimes accomplish missions in ways that minimize risks of escalation and concurrently maxi- mize returns compared to orthodox applications of military power, which normally emphasize mass (Collins, 1994~. Aircraft, artillery, or combat engineers, for example, might demolish a critical bridge at a particular time, but SOF units could magnify the physical and psychological effects considerably. Conventional land, sea, and air forces normally patrol specified sectors intermittently, whereas SOF forces may remain in hostile territory for weeks or months at a time collecting information that otherwise would be unobtainable. Severe misfortunes, of course, may accompany failure. Large enemy conventional forces can easily overwhelm small SOF units that they manage to corner during clandestine operations, and they may be tempted to treat survivors harshly. Adverse political repercussions can be far-reaching (Collins, 1994~. NAVAL SPECIAL WARFARE: "ELITE OF THE ELITE" Like many naval forces around the world, units involved in Naval Special Warfare (NSW) have evolved in response to constant changes in the tactical and strategic environment in which the U.S. Navy operates. NSW units can trace their heritage back to World War II when formal training of the Naval Combat Demolition Units (NCDUs) began in the spring of 1943 (Kelly, 1992~. These units distinguished themselves at Utah and Omaha beaches during the D-Day landing at Normandy. In the Pacific, NCDUs were consolidated into Underwater Demolition Teams (UDTs) that saw action during MacArthur's island-hopping campaign. These units drew volunteers from the Navy's Scouts and Raiders (a small group of what were then referred to as amphibious commandos), Naval Constructions Battalions (Sea-Bees), or even civilians with experience in ordnance disposal. After World War II, these units and the SEAL teams they evolved into saw action in Korea, Vietnam, Grenada, Panama, and the Persian Gulf war (Kelly, 1992~. Today's NSW units, including the SEALs, still exhibit the hallmarks of excellence that characterized their predecessors. Perhaps two aspects of NSW distinguish it from activities conducted by other US SOF assets- NSW is truly force projected from the sea, and SEALs most commonly operate in the maritime environment at squad or platoon strength. Thus, stealth and an ability to direct maximum fire power from a small force when needed characterize NSW operations. ~ ~ _ _ T ~ ~ _ _ T __ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ SETTING AND STRUCTURE OF THE SYMPOSIUM The symposium was held at the Naval Amphibious Base, Expeditionary Warfare Training Group Pacific, Coronado, California, on February 17-20,1997. Discussions and presentations also took place at the nearby Naval Special Warfare Center and the Naval Pacific Meteorology and Oceanography Facility located at North Island Naval Air Station. As mentioned earlier, the symposium series was developed, in large part, to facilitate interaction between the scientist and the warfighter. Therefore, Day 1 of the symposium emphasized interaction with SEAL team mem- bers. Small groups of attendees participated in a series of activities, including interactive demonstrations designed and led by SEAL team members, to increase awareness of the challenges involved in NSW. Day 2 introduced the attendees to the mission needs of typical NSW operations. Small groups participated in interactive mission-planning exercises and concurrent working groups to identify the types of environmental data needed and to gain an understanding of the means presently available to collect and disseminate such data. The final day focused on lessons learned and on the identification of ways to increase the ability of the ocean science community to support NSW operations. Attendees were organized into topical working groups to provide an opportunity for colleagues to participate in a dialogue directed at problem solving.

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8 OCEANOGRAPHY AND NAVAL SPECIAL WARFARE: OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES SCOPE OF THIS REPORT This report is intended to help make the nature and substance of the symposium available to a wider audience than the limited number of individuals who were able to attend. Based in large extent on declassified meeting notes, the report summarizes discussions that took place during plenary and working group meetings. This material was supplemented by discussions held during a post-meeting review at which the steering committee and members of various Navy units discussed the informational material provided to attendees, the declassified symposium notes, and attendee evaluation forms. This report, therefore, is more than a simple record of the symposium itself. It is intended (1) to help educate both the scientist and the warfighter about the unique challenges each faces and (2) to focus attention on specific aspects of the symposium that, in the opinion of the committee, are most germane to Naval Special Warfare.