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iCEANOG RAPHY Naval Special Warfare O P PO RT U N I T I E S A N D C H A L L E N G E S Ocean Studies Board Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1997

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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. This report and the committee were supported by a contract with the Department of the Navy's Office of Naval Research and the Office of the Oceanographer of the Navy. The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsor. Cover art, created by Jennifer Swerda, was inspired by surf zone images captured by the ARGUS monitoring system deployed off Duck, North Carolina, in 1995. Ms. Swerda has studied fine arts for a number of years at several institutions, most notably the Corcoran School of Art in Washington, D.C. A native Washingtonian, Ms. Swerda resides in Silver Spring, Md. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 97-76485 International Standard Book Number 0-309-05930-5 Additional copies of this report are available from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Box 285 Washington, DC 20055 800-624-6242 202-334-3313 (in the Washington Metropolitan Area) http://www.nap.edu Copyright 1997 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America.

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SYMPOSIUM STEERING COMMITTEE ARTHUR NOWELL, Chair, University of Washington, Seattle ROB HOLMAN, Oregon State University, Corvallis B. GREGORY MITCHELL, University of California San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla JOAN OLTMAN-SHAY, Northwest Research Associates, Seattle, Washington Federal Agency Liaisons MELBOURNE G. BRISCOE, Office of Naval Research EDWARD C. WHITMAN, Office of the Oceanographer of the Navy Stay DAN WALKER, Study Director STEWART A. NELSON, Consultant JENNIFER SWERDA, Project Assistant . . .

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OCEAN STUDIES BOARD KENNETH BRINK, Chair, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts ALICE ALLDREDGE, University of California, Santa Barbara DAVID BRADLEY, Pennsylvania State University, State College WILLIAM CURRY, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts ELLEN DRUFFEL, University of California, Irvine RANA FINE, University of Miami, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, Florida CARL FRIEHE, University of California, Irvine ROBERT B. GAGOSIAN, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts SUSAN MANNA, Oregon State University, Corvallis JOHN E. HOBBIE, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Massachusetts EILEEN E. HOFMANN, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia JOHN KNAUSS, Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island, Narragansett ROBERT A. KNOX, University of California San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla RAY KRONE, University of California, Davis LOUIS }. LANZEROTTI, Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies, Murray Hill, New Jersey JOHN }. MAGNUSON, University of Wisconsin, Madison WILLIAM I. MERRELL, The H. John Heinz III Center for Science, Economics and the Environment, Washington, D.C. B. GREGORY MITCHELL, University of California San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla NEIL OPDYKE, University of Florida, Gainesville MICHAEL ORBACH, Duke University, Beaufort, North Carolina TERRANCE }. QUINN, Juneau Center, School of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences, University of Alaska, Fairbanks C. BARRY RALEIGH, University of Hawaii, Honolulu ,IAMES P. RAY, Shell Oil Company, Houston, Texas GEORGE SOMERO, Stanford University, Hopkins Marine Station, Pacific Grove, California PAUL STOFFA, University of Texas, Austin Stay MORGAN GOPNIK, Director M. ELIZABETH CLARKE, Associate Director EDWARD R. URBAN, JR., Program Officer DAN WALKER, Program Officer ROBIN MORRIS, Financial Associate GLENN MERRILL, Research Associate LORA TAYLOR, Senior Project Assistant ANN CARLISLE, Project Assistant SHARI MAGUIRE, Project Assistant JENNIFER SWERDA, Project Assistant V

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COMMISSION ON GEOSCIENCES, ENVIRONMENT, AND RESOURCES GEORGE M. HORNBERGER, Chair, University of Virginia, Charlottesville PATRICK R. ATKINS, Aluminum Company of America, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania ,IAMES P. BRUCE, Canadian Climate Program Board, Ottawa, Ontario WILLIAM L. FISHER, University of Texas, Austin JERRY F. FRANKLIN, University of Washington, Seattle THOMAS E. GRAEDEL, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut DEBRA KNOPMAN, Progressive Foundation, Washington, D.C. KAI N. LEE, Williams College, Williamstown, Massachusetts PERRY L. MCCARTY, Stanford University, California JUDITH E. MCDOWELL, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts RICHARD A. MESERVE, Covington & Burling, Washington, D.C. S. GEORGE PHILANDER, Princeton University, New Jersey RAYMOND A. PRICE, Queen's University at Kingston, Ontario THOMAS C. SCHELLING, University of Maryland, College Park ELLEN SILBERGELD, University of Maryland Medical School, Baltimore VICTORIA I. TSCHINKEL, Landers and Parsons, Tallahassee, Florida E-AN ZEN, University of Maryland, College Park Stay MYRON UMAN, Acting Executive Director GREGORY SYMMES, Assistant Executive Director ,IEANETTE SPOON, Administrative Officer SANDI FITZPATRICK, Administrative Associate MARQUITA SMITH, Administrative Assistant/Technology Analyst v

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility of advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its Congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communi- ties. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. vim

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Preface Sea, Air, and Land (SEAL) teams and other naval units involved in Naval Special Warfare have been associated with excellence since their creation in 1970. Almost immediately upon inception, Navy SEALs commanded the respect of members of the military community. As their training methods and military exploits have become more familiar, they have also captured the imagination of the American public. SEAL is a term associated with skill, endurance, and commitment. Yet beyond the heroism and public interest, lies an organiza- tion that strives to command and utilize the variety of environments within which it operates. Perhaps because of the unique relationship this group of warfighters has with the sea, SEAL teams, more than any other special warfare unit, depend on environmental information to obtain a tactical advantage in the field. Consequently, oceanographic and meteorological information can be as important to a SEAL team as any single piece of equipment in its arsenal. The ability to provide accurate environmental information and useful predictions will require that our understanding of the SEALs' operating environments continues to grow as their mission evolves. Scientific research will play an important role in the Navy's efforts to support these unique warfighters. Kenneth H. Brink Ocean Studies Board, Chair vat

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Acknowledgments The Symposium on Oceanography and Naval Special Warfare was a collaborative effort of many individuals within the Navy and academia. Consequently, this report reflects input from a number of individuals. In particular, the steering committee would like to acknowledge the role of those individuals who led working group discussions: Steve Elgar, Waves and Surf; Dave Aubrey, Currents and Tides; Edie Widder, Bioluminescence and Marine Toxins; Chris Fairall, Electromagnetic and Infrared "Above Surface" Signal Propagation and Winds; and Doug Todoroff, Electrooptical and Acoustic "Below Surface" Signal Propagation. The steering committee is indebted to other attendees and experts who also prepared background materials on issues discussed at the symposium, including M. Elizabeth Clarke, Juergen Richter, David Lapota, and Michael Latz. In addition to the support and contribution of the many attendees, experts, and participants listed above, the steering committee would also like to take this opportunity to acknowledge the efforts of the officers, enlisted personnel, and civilian staff of the Naval Special Warfare Command, the Naval Pacific Meteorology and Ocean- ography Facility, the Expeditionary Warfare Training Group Pacific, the Office of Naval Research, the Office of the Oceanographer of the Navy, the Naval Oceanographic Office, the Warfighting Support Center, and the Naval Reserve Meteorology and Oceanography Activity (9661. Without the support and assistance from these individu- als, this symposium and the resulting report would not have been possible. Six

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Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 INTRODUCTION Special Operation Forces: An Overview, 4 U.S. Special Operational Forces and USSOCOM, 5 Missions of Special Operations Forces, 6 Naval Special Warfare: "Elite of the Elite", 7 Setting and Structure of the Symposium, 7 Scope of This Report, 8 2 NAVAL SPECIAL WARFARE Organization and Personnel, 9 Selection and Training, 9 Clandestine Infiltration and Exfiltration, 11 Airborne Infilitration, 11 Seaborne Infilitration and Exfiltration, 13 NAVY SUPPORT OF NSW: AN OVERVIEW Supporting NSW in a Changing World, 18 ONR Support of Naval Special Warfare, 20 4 OCEANOGRAPHY AND NAVAL SPECIAL WARFARE Naval Special Warfare Mission Planning, 25 Environmental Factors and Mission Success, 26 x~ 3 9 17 25

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. . xt! Bioluminescence, 31 Mission Influence, 31 Research Issues, 31 Solutions, 33 Hazardous Marine Organisms, 35 Mission Influence, 35 Research Issues, 37 Solutions, 38 Waves and Surf, 38 Mission Influence, 39 Research Issues, 40 Solutions, 40 Currents and Tides, 42 Mission Influence, 42 Research Issues, 42 Bathymetry, 46 Mission Influence, 50 Research Issues, 50 Solutions, 51 EM-Ducting, 52 Mission Influence, 52 Research Issues, 53 Solutions, 54 Atmospheric Visibility, 54 Mission Influence, 55 Research Issues, 55 Solutions, 55 Underwater Acoustics, 56 Mission Influence, 56 Research Issues, 57 Solutions, 57 Underwater Optics, 58 Mission Influence, 58 Research Issues, 59 Solutions, 60 Water Temperature, 60 Mission Influence, 60 Research Issues, 60 SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION Important Challenges, 65 6 REFERENCES APPENDIXES Symposium Program, 75 Participants, 80 Acronyms and Units, 83 Office of Naval Research Program Contact Information, 86 CONTENTS 63 70 73