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Series on Technology and Social Priorities NATIONAL ACADEMY OF ENGINEERING Eclucation for the Manufacturing World of the Future NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1985

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National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418 The National Academy of Engineering is a private organization established in 1964. It shares in the responsibility given the National Academy of Sciences under a congressional charter granted in 1863 to advise the federal government on questions of science and technology. This collaboration is implemented through the National Research Council. The National Academy of Engineering recognizes distinguished engineers, sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, and encourages education and research. Funds for the National Academy of Engineering's Symposium Series on Technology and Social Priorities are provided by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, the Carnegie CoIporation of New York, and the Academy Industry Program. The views expressed in this volume are those of the authors and are not presented as the views of the Mellon Foundation, the Carnegie Corporation, the Academy Industry Program, or the National Academy of Engineering. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 85-61450 Copyright ~ 1985 by the National Academy of Sciences No part of this book may be reproduced by any mechanical, photographic, or electronic process, or in the form of a phonographic recording, nor may it be stored in a retrieval system, transmitted, or otherwise copied for public or private use, without written permission from the publisher, except for the purposes of official use by the U.S. government. ISBN 0-309-03584-8 Printed in the United States of America

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Preface The manufacturing world of the future is evolving piecemeal-on the factory floor, in robotics research laboratories, in computer and information systems development groups, and among manufacturing systems task groups in industry. At stake is the future industrial competitiveness of this nation. Our competitiveness will depend on increasing the productivity of manufacturing systems in all industries and on our ability to transform multifaceted manufacturing functions into cohesive, flexible systems using the new technologies spawned by the electronics and materials revolution. Competitiveness will also depend on achieving product quality and lowering production costs. Fortunately, the new technologies put these goals within grasp. The changes taking place in industry as manufacturing adopts and adapts to new processes aimed at increased productivity are paralleled by new views of the educational system and of the training received by engineers and other specialists who will plan, implement, and operate the new automated manufacturing systems. The ferment occurring in the world of manufacturing is matched by that found in engineering schools as new curricula and new approaches to engineering education are pioneered. PURPOSE OF THE SYMPOSIUM The Symposium on Education for the Manufacturing World of the Future was convened by the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) in cooperation with the Manufacturing Studies Board of the National Research Council, and it was intended to bring together the two communities essential to national success in manufacturing. These communities include, on the one hand, industrial companies affected . . .

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By PREFACE by the changing manufacturing scene and those responsible for devel- oping the technologies that underpin automated manufacturing, and, on the other hand, the university community responsible for the education and training of students who will plan and operate these manufacturing systems. The symposium provided an opportunity for both industrial planners and managers and educators to examine the issues whose resolution will greatly affect the changing world of manufacturing. We wished to hear industry's views of the requirements for educating and training engineers by our universities and about cooperative endeavors with academic groups and other mutually beneficial relations. We sought from the academic community their plans for training and educating engineers for manufacturing careers and their views of possible co- operative arrangements with industry. Symposium participants were organized into working groups that covered five related topics: 1. Structuring the Manufacturing Education System 2. Industry-University Cooperation in Education for Manufacturing 3. Industry-University Cooperation in Research for Manufacturing 4. Keeping Current in a Manufacturing Career 5. National Priorities in Manufacturing Education These working groups sought to identify issues and to recommend actions for those in the public and private sectors responsible for ensuring the match between educational institutions and those who need their products. This volume comprises the papers presented as basic documentation for symposium participants (Part 1), presentations by participants in a panel discussion on corporate attitudes toward introducing the new manufacturing technology (Part 2), reports of the discussions held by working groups (Part 3), and an excellent statement of the problem, which in part stimulated the convening of the symposium, by the Manufacturing Studies Board of the National Research Council (Ap- pendix A). The selected bibliography appearing in Appendix B will help readers locate the disparate literature that relates to issues addressed in the symposium. Finally, a register of symposium partic- ipants, who generously donated their time and energy, and a list of the working groups are provided in Appendix C. The symposium's novel form was devised by its cochairmen Dr. Robert A. Frosch, vice-president for research of General Motors Corporation, and Mr. Erich Bloch, who was at the time of planning for the symposium vice-president for technical personnel development

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PREFACE at the IBM Corporation. Mr. Bloch is currently director of the National Science Foundation. The session was organized largely by Ms. Lissa Martinez, a National Academy of Engineering fellow and engineering graduate of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology on leave from the U.S. Maritime Administration. The assistance of a large number of staff members of the National Academy of Engineering and the National Research Council was essential to the success of the symposium. Our appreciation is extended to Jesse H. Ausubel, Bruce Guile, Hugh H. Miller, and Penny Gibbs of the NAE staff; to George H. Kuper, George D. Krumbhaar, Janice E. Greene, and Donna L. Reifsnider of the Manufacturing Studies Board; and to Sabra Bissette Ledent, the report's editor. This symposium was the first in a series on technology and social priorities convened by the National Academy of Engineering. The series is supported by funding from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, the Carnegie Corporation of New York, and the Academy Industry Program. The views expressed in this volume are those of the authors and of the meeting participants. They are not presented as the views of the Mellon Foundation, the Carnegie Corporation, the Academy Industry Program, or the National Academy of Engineering. ROBERT M. WHITE President National Academy of Engineering

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SYMPOSIUM ADVISORY COMMITTEE Cochairmen ERICH BLOCH, Vice-President, IBM Corporation* ROBERT A. FROSCH, Vice-President, General Motors Corporation Members . ROBERT AYRES, Professor, Department of Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie-Mellon University DENNIS CHAMOT, Assistant Director, Department for Professional Employees, AFL-CIO JAMES F. LARDNER, Vice-President, Government Products and Component Sales, Deere and Company Louts D. SMULLIN, D. C. Jackson Professor of Electrical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Symposium Organizer L~ssA A. MART~NEz, National Academy of Engineering Fellow * Mr. Bloch served as cochairman of the advisory committee until September 1984 when he became director of the National Science Foundation.

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Contents Preface Symposium Advisory Committee Manufacturing and Education: Reflections on a C;vmnn~i,~m . 111 V1 Robert A. Frosch Part I. Papers The Changing Face of U.S. Manufacturing Joseph F. Shea The U.S. Manufacturing Engineer: Practice, Profile, and Needs ............................................ Forrest D. Brummett 21 Meshing Education and Industrial Needs: Two Views.... 48 A View From Industry 48 Edward A. Steigerwald A Response From Academia 55 Robert H. Cannon, Jr. Maintaining the Lifelong Effectiveness of Engineers in Manufacturing 62 Robert M. Anderson, Jr. . .

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. . . Part 2. Pane! Discussion Corporate Attitudes Toward Introducing the New CONTENTS Manufacturing Technology 75 Planning for Change in the Smokestack Industries James F. Lardner Engineers and the Application and Transfer of New Technologies Abroad Jack N. Behrman Manufacturing Issues in the Semiconductor Industry Michael I. Callahan Challenges to be Met. - - Wickham Skinner Part 3. Working Group Reports The Issues and Some Answers: 76 78 84 87 Recommendations of the Working Groups 93 Structuring the Manufacturing Education System Industry-University Cooperation in Education for Manufacturing .... 94 98 Industry-University Cooperation in Research for Manufacturing 104 Keeping Current in a Manufacturing Career 107 National Priorities in Manufacturing Education Appendixes A. Statement of the Manufacturing Studies Board on the Need for Industrial-Academic Cooperation for Manufacturing Technology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ 17 B. Selected Bibliography 120 C. Symposium Participants and Working Groups 128