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Developing a Digital National Library for Undergraduate Science, Mathematics, Engineering, and, Technology Education

Report of a Workshop

National Research Council

Center for Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Education

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.
1998



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--> Developing a Digital National Library for Undergraduate Science, Mathematics, Engineering, and, Technology Education Report of a Workshop National Research Council Center for Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Education NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1998

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--> NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 CONSTITUTION AVENUE, NW WASHINGTON DC 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council (NRC) is the operating arm of the National Academies Complex, which includes the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized in 1916 by the National Academy of Sciences to associate the broad community of science and technology, with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and providing impartial advice to the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts, President of the National Academy of Sciences, and Dr. William Wulf, President of the National Academy of Engineering, also serve as chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Center for Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Education (CSMEE) was established in 1995 to provide coordination of all the National Research Council's education activities and reform efforts for students at all levels, specifically those in kindergarten through twelfth grade, undergraduate institutions, school-to-work programs, and continuing education. The Center reports directly to the Governing Board of the National Research Council. This study by CSMEE was conducted under a grant from the National Science Foundation to the National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council (DUE-9727710). Any opinions, findings, or recommendations expressed in this report are those of the participants in the workshop and the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation. Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW, Lock Box 285, Washington, DC 20055. (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington Metropolitan Area) Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Developing a digital national library for undergraduate science, mathematics, engineering, and technology education : report of a workshop / National Research Council, Center for Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Education, Computer Science and Telecommunications Board. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references. ISBN 0-309-05977-1 (pbk.) 1. Education libraries—United States—Congresses. 2. Scientific libraries—United States—Congresses. 3. Science—Study and teaching—United States—Computer network resources—Congresses. 4. Digital libraries—United States—Congresses. I. Center for Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Education. II. National Research Council (U.S.). Computer Science and Telecommunications Board. Z675.P3D48 1998 026.5—dc21 97-45304 CIP This report is also available online at http://www.nap.edu. Printed in the United States of America. Copyright 1998 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

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--> DEVELOPING A DIGITAL NATIONAL LIBRARY FOR UNDERGRADUATE SCIENCE, MATHEMATICS, ENGINEERING, AND TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION STEERING COMMITTEE JACK M. WILSON, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Chair DENICE D. DENTON, University of Washington HARVEY KEYNES, University of Minnesota JAMES W. SERUM, Hewlett-Packard Company Staff JAY B. LABOV, Co-Study Director, Center for Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Education HERBERT S. LIN, Co-Study Director, Computer Science and Telecommunications Board NANCY L. DEVINO, Senior Staff Officer, Center for Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Education GAIL E. PRITCHARD, Research Assistant, Center for Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Education KATHLEEN JOHNSTON, Editorial Associate, Center for Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Education TERRY K. HOLMER, Project Assistant, Center for Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Education CATHERINE Y. BELL, Administrative Assistant, Center for Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Education

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--> CENTER FOR SCIENCE, MATHEMATICS, AND ENGINEERING EDUCATION ADVISORY BOARD DONALD KENNEDY, Stanford University, Chair MARTHA DARLING, Boeing Commercial Airplane Group, Vice Chair NEAL ABRAHAM, Bryn Mawr College HYMAN BASS, Columbia University ELEANOR BAUM, The Cooper Union IRIS CARL, Houston Independent School District (retired) DENICE DENTON, University of Washington JOHN DOWLING, Harvard University ARTHUR EISENKRAFT, Fox Lane High School DANINE EZELL, Dana Center MARYE ANNE FOX, University of Texas TIMOTHY GOLDSMITH, Yale University PHILLIP GRIFFITHS, Institute for Advanced Study JEROME GROSSMAN, Health Quality, Inc. ANA "CHA" GUZMAN, Austin Community College DUDLEY HERSCHBACH, Harvard University FREEMAN HRABOWSKI, University of Maryland-Baltimore County RICHARD JAEGER, University of North Carolina-Greensboro JANE BUTLER KAHLE, Miami University MICHAEL MARTINEZ, University of California-Irvine JOSEPH A. MILLER, JR., E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company JERRY MOHRIG, Carleton College CLIFTON A. POODRY, National Institutes of Health SENTA RAIZEN, WestEd WILLIAM J. RUTTER, Chiron Corporation MARY JANE SCHOTT, University of Texas-Austin BARBARA SCHULZ, Lakeside School MAXINE SINGER, Carnegie Institution of Washington JOHN SNOW, University of Oklahoma MARILYN J. SUITER, American Geological Institute URI TREISMAN, University of Texas-Austin JOHN TRUXAL, State University of New York at Stony Brook (retired) BONNIE VAN DORN, Association of Science-Technology Centers JO ANNE VASQUEZ, Mesa Public Schools ROBERT WATERMAN, JR., The Waterman Group, Inc. IRIS R. WEISS, Horizon Research, Inc.

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--> Table of Contents     Executive Summary   1     Issues Considered   2     Curricular, Pedagogical, and User Issues   2     Logistic and Technology Issues   2     Economic and Legal Issues   3     Overview of Conclusions   3     Users and Needs   3     Content   4     Economic and Legal Issues   7     Steering Committee Recommendations   9     Introduction   15     Background   15     Process   17     Project Foci   18     Curricular, Pedagogical, and User Issues   18     Logistic and Technology Issues   19     Economic and Legal Issues   19     Organization of the Project   19     Organization of Commissioned Papers and Workshop Discussions   19     Organization of the Report   19     Summary of the Workshop   21     Introductory Remarks   21     Plenary Sessions, Day 1   21     General Discussion, Day 1   27     Straw Poll and Results   33     Reports from Break-out Sessions, Day 1   34     Curricular, Pedagogical, and User Issues   34     Logistics and Technology Issues   36     Economic and Legal Issues   37     Introductory Remarks and Discussion, Day 2   39     General Discussion   40     Reports from Break-out Sessions, Day 2   41     Economic and Legal Issues   41     Logistic and Technology Issues   42     User and Pedagogical Issues, Group 1   43     User and Pedagogical Issues, Group 2   43

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-->     Synthesis and Conclusions   47     Key Observations   47     Critical Issues   47     Implementation: Economic, Legal, and Technology Issues   50     Economic Issues   50     Legal Issues   51     Technology Issues   52     Steering Committee Recommendations   53     Literature Cited   57 Appendix A:   Commissioned Papers   59     A National Library for Undergraduate Science, Mathematics, Engineering, and Technology Education: A Learning Laboratory, by Prudence S. Adler and Mary M. Case   59     The Digital Library as "Road and Load": Partnerships in Carrier and Content for a National Library for Undergraduate Science, Mathematics, Engineering and Technology Education, by Harold Billings   62     A National Library for Undergraduate Science, Mathematics, Engineering, and Technology Education: Needs, Options, and Feasibility (Technical Considerations), by William Y. Arms   67     A Digital Library of Undergraduate SME Education Materials: The Need and Technical Issues, by Su-Shing Chen   73     Digital National Library for Undergraduate Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Education: Comments and Another Option, by Stephen C. Ehrmann   76     Digital Libraries for Educational Reform: Instantiation, Ignorance, and Information. by John R. Jungck   78     Issues in Developing a National Digital Library for Undergraduate Math, Science, and Engineering Education, by James H. Keller   84     Some Technical and Economic Issues in the Design of a National Library for Undergraduate Science, Mathematics, Engineering, and Technology Education, by Clifford Lynch   90     Basic Issues Regarding the Establishment of a National SME&T Digital Library, by Francis Miksa   94     The Case for Creating a Systematic Indexing System for the National SME&T Digital Library, by Francis Miksa, Joan Mitchell, and Diane Vizine-Goetz   101 Appendix B:   Workshop Agenda   109 Appendix C:   List of Workshop Participants and NSF Observers   111 Appendix D:   Biographical Sketches of Steering Committee and Workshop Participants   113