516.  

Lucas v. South Carolina Coastal Council, 505 U.S. 1003, 1015 (1992); see Agins v. City of Tiburon, 447 U.S. 255, 260 (1980); see also Nollan v. California Coastal Comm'n, 483 U.S. 825, 834 (1987).

517.  

Lucas, 505 U.S. at 1016; Agins, 447 U.S. at 260.

518.  

Ruckelshaus v. Monsanto Co., 467 U.S. 986, 1005 (1984); Prune Yard Shopping Center v. Robins, 447 U.S. 74, 83 (1980); Penn Central Transp. Co. v. New York City, 438 U.S. 104, 124 (1978).

519.  

357 U.S. 155 (1958).

520.  

444 U.S. 51 (1979).

521.  

Id. at 66.

522.  

See Brochu v. Ortho Pharm. Corp., 642 F.2d 652, 658 (1st Cir. 1981) (oral contraceptives); Mazur v. Merck & Co., Inc., 742 F. Supp. 239, 247 (E.D. Pa. 1990) (federal regulation of childhood vaccines); Graham v. Wyeth Laboratories, 666 F. Supp. 1483, 1491 (D. Kan. 1987) (child suffered brain damage after vaccination); Wood v. Gen. Motors Corp, 673 F. Supp. 1108, 1117 (D. Mass. 1987) (car manufacturer's failure to install passive restraint system); Shipp v. Gen. Motors, 750 F.2d 418, 421 (5th Cir. 1985) (automobile roof collapsed in single rollover accident).

523.  

See Dorsey v. Honda Motor Co., 655 F.2d 650, 656 (5th Cir. 1981) (evidence of regulatory compliance is admissible on the issue of due care but is not conclusive); see also RESTATEMENT (THIRD) OF TORTS: PRODUCTS LIABILITY § 7(b) (tent. draft No. 3, 1996) ("a product's compliance with an applicable product safety statute or regulation is properly considered in determining whether a product is defective with respect to the risks sought to be reduced by the statute or regulation, but does not necessarily preclude as a matter of law a finding of product defect").

524.  

See Stewart v. Int'l Playtex, Inc., 672 F. Supp. 907 (D.S.C. 1987) (compliance with Medical Device Amendments to Food, Drug and Cosmetics Act was sufficient showing of due care in toxic shock syndrome case).

525.  

See OWEN ET AL., supra note 296, at 382-86 (describing a number of FDA regulations); see also Martello v. Ciba Vision Corp., 42 F.3d 1167 (8th Cir. 1994) (finding FDA premarket approval (PMA) process so comprehensive that PMA determinations preempt conflicting state law); Henley v. Food and Drug Admin., 77 F.3d 616, 621(E.D.N.Y. 1995) (finding that the FDA possesses requisite know-how to conduct analyses to determine most accurate and up-to-date information regarding a particular drug; thus, the court would defer to the FDA's expertise).

526.  

Mitchell v. Lone Star Ammunition, Inc., 913 F.2d. 242, 245 (5th Cir. 1990) (citing Trevino v. Gen. Dynamics Corp. 865 F.2d 1474, 1478 (5th Cir. 1989)), cert. denied, 493 U.S. 935 (1989).

527.  

Carley v. Wheeled Coach, 991 F.2d 1117, 1124 (3d Cir.), cert. denied, 510 U.S. 868 (1993).

528.  

Id. at 1120, 1124.

529.  

487 U.S. 500 (1988).

530.  

Id. at 512.

531.  

528. Snell v. Bell Helicopter Textron, 107 F.3d 744, 748 (9th Cir. 1997) (citing Trevino, 865 F.2d at 1480).

532.  

Id.

533.  

Carley, 991 F.2d at 1119.

534.  

See, e.g., McKay v. Rockwell Int'l Corp., 704 F.2d 444, 451 (9th Cir. 1983) (military airplane ejection system); In re Hawaii Federal Asbestos Cases, 715 F. Supp. 298, 300 (D. Haw. 1988) (court applying federal and Hawaii law held that government contractor defense did not extend to nonmilitary context); see generally LOUIS R. FRUMER & MELVIN I. FRIEDMAN, PRODUCTS LIABILITY § 31.04 (1997 & Supp. April 1997).

535.  

See, e.g., Nielson v. George Diamond Vogel Paint Co., 892 F.3d 1450, 1454 (9th Cir. 1990) (inhalation by civilian worker of paint fumes while on government contract job; court noted that policy behind government contractor defense applies to all government contracts and is not limited to



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement