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NOAA's Arctic Research Initiative: Proceedings of a Workshop 3 Background Information

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NOAA's Arctic Research Initiative: Proceedings of a Workshop This page in the original is blank.

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NOAA's Arctic Research Initiative: Proceedings of a Workshop   NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL     POLAR RESEARCH BOARD     2101 Constitution Avenue Washington, D.C. 20418   U.S. National Committee for SCAR U S. Committee for IASC 202/334-3479 202/334-1477 FAX http://www2.nas.edu/prb/   Revised Workshop Agenda     NOAA's Arctic Contaminants Research1 Friday, July 11, 1997     Polar Research Board NOAA Building 2, Room 2358 1325 East-West Highway Silver Spring, MD   Closed Session:   8:00 a.m. Review workshop tasks and strategy; PRB members and staff only. Open Session:   8:30 a.m. Introduction   • Welcome, David Clark, PRB chair   • Workshop structure and goals, Walter Oechel, PRB workshop chair   • Questions to guide workshop discussions, Walter Oechel 8:45 a.m. Welcome, Joe Friday, OAR 8:50 a.m. NOAA and Arctic Contaminants Research, Alan Thomas, OAR   • NOAA's role and potential   • The Arctic Research Initiative   • Expectations for this workshop 9:15 a.m. The Big Picture: A CENR Perspective on Contaminant Research Priorities , Dr. James Baker 9:35 a.m. The View from the Line and Program Offices   Walter Oechel, moderator (5 minutes each)   • Jawed Hameedi, National Ocean Service   • Robert Reeves, National Weather Service   • Teri Rowles, National Marine Fisheries Service   • Walter Planet, National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service   • David Johnson, Coastal Ocean Program 1   Most Academy activities are conducted in open sessions and information about all meetings is available on the NAS World Wide Web site. Closed sessions can be held to enable study groups to work free from external influences and protect the integrity and independence of the study or where classified or proprietary information is involved. Discussions of personal information, personnel matters, and deliberations on the contents of reports are conducted in closed sessions. The chair is responsible for the conduct of all activities and may close a meeting, if necessary, to remove disruptive persons. The National Research Council is the principal operating agency of the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering to serve government and other organizations. The Polar Research Board is responsible to the National Research Council through the Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources.

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NOAA's Arctic Research Initiative: Proceedings of a Workshop 10:15 a.m. Break 10:30 a.m. Other Perspectives   Bernard Hallet, moderator   • Bob Senseney, Department of State   • Garry Brass, Arctic Research Commission   • Ted DeLaca, University of Alaska-Fairbanks   • Other participants   Discussion 11:15 a.m. Key Research Issues (brainstorming)   Walter Oechel, moderator   • natural variability of the western Arctic ecosystem   • anthropogenic influences on the western Arctic ecosystem   - contaminant sources, transport and dispersion, effects on humans and ecosystems   - arctic haze, ozone, UV flux 12:00 noon Charge to the Small Groups 12:15 p.m. Working Lunch (buffet, take food to break-out rooms. Introductions and informal discussions will begin over lunch)   Group 1: Room 2358 (Oechel and Elfring)   Group 2: Room 3208 (Hallet and Burch)   Group 3: Room 2222 (Clark and Cox) 1:15 p.m. Small Group Assignments 2:30 p.m. Break 2:45 p.m. Plenary Discussion, Walter Oechel   • Reports from the small groups   • Questions and discussion   • Strategies for reorienting the Arctic Research Initiative 3:55 p.m. Summary, David Clark 4:00 p.m. Open session adjourns Closed Session   4:00 p.m. PRB members remain for closing discussions 5:00 p.m. Closed session adjourns

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NOAA's Arctic Research Initiative: Proceedings of a Workshop NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES/NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL COMMISSION ON GEOSCIENCES, ENVIRONMENT, AND RESOURCES POLAR RESEARCH BOARD WORKSHOP ON NOAA'S ARCTIC CONTAMINANTS RESEARCH THE PURPOSE OF THIS WORKSHOP At the request of NOAA's Office of Oceanic & Atmospheric Research, the Polar Research Board has planned this workshop to help NOAA develop a vision to guide the Arctic Research Initiative (ARI). The ARI focuses on the health of the Western Arctic and Bering Sea Ecosystem, and within that geographic scope the research focus is on two themes: (1) natural variability and (2) anthropogenic influences. The anthropogenic influences theme contains two categories: (a) arctic haze, ozone, and UV flux and (b) contaminant inputs, fate, and effects. While this workshop will address natural variability to some extent, emphasis will be given to anthropogenic influences, and in particular activities related to Arctic contaminant inputs, fate, and ecosystem effects. Through presentations, brainstorming, and small group discussions we hope to develop a broad list of key research issues, propose a range of more specific research questions, and identify some subset of those as potential priority research questions. This input will help NOAA reorient the ARI so that it better supports the NOAA mission while at the same contributes to a coordinated national and international strategy for addressing the health of the Arctic environment. This workshop follows a number of contaminant-related activities, including for instance a multi-agency activity, "U.S. Arctic Contaminant Research Planning Workshop," held August 10-13, 1996 in Fairbanks, Alaska, which examined the state of the art of U.S. agency research on arctic contamination issues and suggested overall national research priorities. Today's more focused workshop is designed as a follow-up activity to look specifically on how NOAA — given its mission, capabilities, staff, and resources — could be an effective component of a coordinated national research effort on Arctic contaminants and help NOAA managers ensure that such work supports NOAA's overall mission. In particular, this workshop seeks to identify key research issues to be addressed with funds granted by the Arctic Research Initiative and, if possible, suggest how to reorient that program so it better targets unmet needs. Participants include members of the Polar Research Board, appropriate NOAA staff, representatives of other key federal agencies, and selected other guests. We expect active participation from all present, especially during the brainstorming and small group assignments. The workshop participants will: explore the range of Arctic contaminants research being conducted under the auspices of current NOAA programs and how such research can contribute to NOAA's mission and goals; discuss other contaminant-related research activities such as the August 1996 workshop and the priorities developed there as well as the recently released report of the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program and plans for AMAP phase two, and how the Arctic Research Initiative might build on and contribute to other federal and international activities; suggest key research areas and research questions to better understand natural variability and anthropogenic influences, with emphasis on contaminant sources, transport and dispersion, effects and arctic haze, ozone, and UV flux; and discuss the relative strengths of NOAA's research capabilities and partnerships and suggest how NOAA should orient its Arctic Research Initiative in the future.

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NOAA's Arctic Research Initiative: Proceedings of a Workshop Participant List Dr. Ronald Baird NOAA/OAR/National Sea Grant College Program 11716, SSMC-3 1315 East West Hwy Silver Spring, MD 20910-3226 (301) 713-2448 ext. 163 fax (301) 713-0799 ronald.baird@noaa.gov Dr. D. James Baker Under Secretary NOAA 14th and Constitution Ave, NW Washington, D.C. 20230-0001 (202) 482-3436 fax (202) 408-9674 Dr. Alfred M. Beeton DOC/NOAA/CS HCHB 5128 14th and Constitution Ave, NW Washington, DC 20230 (202) 482-2977 fax (202) 482-5231 al.beeton.noaa.gov Dr. Eddie N. Bernard NOAA/ERL/Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory 7600 Sandpt. Way NE Bin C15700 Seattle, WA 98115-0070 (206) 526-6800 eddie.n.bernard@noaa.gov Dr. Suzanne Bolton NOAA/NMFS/Office of Science and Technology SSMC-3, F, Room 14348 1315 East West Hwy. Silver Spring, MD 20910-3226 (301) 713-2367 ext. 163 fax (301) 713-2313 suzanne.bolton@noaa.gov Garry Brass Arctic Research Commission 4350 North Fairfax Drive Arlington, VA 22203 (703) 525-0111 fax (703) 525-0114 gbrass@arctic.gov Ron Britton DOI/FWS 330 ARLSQ 1849 C Street NW Washington, DC 20240 (703) 358-2148 ron_britton@mail.fws.gov Dr. Ernest S. Burch, PRB 3507 Market St., Suite 303 Camp Hill, PA 17011-4322 (717) 975-3590 fax (717) 975-3592 103134.3321@compuserve.com John Calder NOAA/ERL 1315 East West Hwy. 11461 SSMC-3 Silver Spring, MD 20910-3226 (301) 713-2474 fax (301) 713-4023 john.calder@noaa.gov Dr. Philip S. Chen, Jr. National Institutes of Health Intramural Affairs 1 Center Drive 0151 Shannon Bldg. Room 140 Bethesda, ME) 20892-0151 (301) 496-3561 fax (301) 402-0027 pc17w@NIH.gov Dr. David L. Clark, Chair PRB Dept. of Geology and Geophysics Univ. of Wisconsin 1215 W. Dayton St., (Weeks Hall) Madison, Wl 53706 (608) 262-4972 fax (608) 262-0693 DLC@geology.wisc.edu Dr. Gordon F.N. Cox, PRB Amoco Eurasia Petroleum Comp. c/o Amoco Production Comp. 501 Westlake Park Blvd. Rm 3.330 PO Box 3092 Houston, TX 77253-3092 (281) 366-2965 fax (281) 366-2746 gcox@amoco.com Dr. Edward C. DeFabo The George Washington Univ. Medical Center Dept. of Dermatology, 2300 I. St. NW, Room 113 Washington, DC 20037 (202) 994-3975 fax (202) 994-0409 edefabo@erols.com Ted DeLaca University of Alaska, Fairbanks Office of Arctic Research 305 Signer's Hall Fairbanks, AK 99775-7560 (907) 474-7314 fax (907) 474-7225 fnted@aurora.alaska.edu Jane Dionne NSF 4201 Wilson Blvd, Room 755S Arlington, VA 22230 (703) 306-1033 fax (703) 306-0109 jdionne@nsf.gov

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NOAA's Arctic Research Initiative: Proceedings of a Workshop Michael J. Dowgiallo NOAA/Coastal Ocean Program 1315 East West Highway 9716 SSMC-3 Silver Spring, MD 20910-3226 Dr. Sidney Draggan US EPA Off. of Research & Development 401 M Street, SW Mail Code 1103 Washington, DC 20460 (202) 260-4724 fax (202) 260-4852 draggan.sidney@epamail.epa.gov Dr. Elbert Friday NOAA/AA/OAR SSMC-2, W, Room 18130 1325 East-West Hwy. Silver Spring, MD 20910 (301) 713-2458 elbert.friday@noaa.gov Prasad Gogineni NASA Headquarters MTPE-YS 300 E. Street SW Washington, DC 20546 (202) 358-074 fax (202) 358-2770 sgoginen@uq.nasa.gov Robed Grumbine NOAA/NWS 5200 Auth Rd. 209 WWBG Camp Springs, MD 20746-4304 (301) 763-8133 ext. 7214 robert.grumbine@noaa.gov Dr. Bernard Hallet, PRB Univ. of Washington Quaternary Research Center Box 351360 Seattle, WA 98195 (206) 685-2409 fax (206) 543-3836 hallet@u.washington.edu Joh Haugh DOI/BLM (WO-210) 1849 C Street NW Washington, DC 20240 (202) 452-5071 fax (202) 208-5242 Dr. Jawed Hameedi NOAA/NOS/Office of Resources Conservation and Assessment SSMC-4, N, Room 10225 1305 East West Hwy. Silver Spring, MD 20910-3281 (301) 713-3034 ext. 170 fax (301) 713-4388 jawed.hameedi@noaa.gov Carl Hild Rural Alaska Community Action Program, Inc. PO Box 200908 Anchorage, AK 99520 (907) 279-2511 Fax: (907) 279-6343 Dr. Bob Hofmann Marine Mammal Commission 4340 East-West Highway Bethesda, MD 20814 (301) 504-0087 Dr. David Hofmann NOAA/ERL/Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory 325 Broadway A334 RL3 Boulder, CO 80303-3328 (303) 497-6966 fax (303) 494-6975 david.j.hofmann@noaa.gov Randy Jacobson Office of Naval Research 800 North Quincy Street Code 322HL Arlington, VA 22217-5000 (703) 696-4121 jacobsr@onr.navy.mil Dr. Leonard Johnson University of Alaska 7708 Lake Glen Dr. Glen Dale, MD 20769-2027 (703) 525-7201 Gljgerg1@aol.com Leslie King ARCUS Chair of Environmental Studies Univ of Northern British Columbia 3333 University Way Prince George, British Columbia V2N 4Z9 CANADA (250) 960-5836 Tom L. Laughlin NOAA/IA 14th and Constitution Ave, NW 6228 HCHB Washington, DC 20230-0001 (202) 482-6196 tom.laughlin@noaa.gov Charles E. Myers National Science Foundation Polar Programs 4201 Wilson Blvd. Arlington, VA 22230 (703) 306-1029 fax (703) 306-0648 cmyers@nsf.gov Dr. Edward Myers NOAA/OAR/National Undersea Research Program 11872, SSMC-3 1315 East West Hwy. Silver Spring, MD 20910 (301) 713-2427 ext. 171 fax (301) 713-0799 ed.myers@noaa.gov

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NOAA's Arctic Research Initiative: Proceedings of a Workshop Dr. Walter Oechel, PRB Global Change Research Group Dept. of Biology San Diego State Univ. San Diego, CA 92182-0057 (619) 594-6613 fax (619) 594-7831 oechel@sunstroke.sdsu.edu Walter Planet National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service Office of Research & Applications NOAA E/RA3, WWB/810 4700 Silver Hill Rd., Stop 9910 Washington, DC 20233-9910 (301) 763-8136 fax (301) 763-8127 wplanet@nesdis.noaa.gov Dr. Robert Reeves NOAA/NWS/Office of Meterology 13228, SSMC-2 1325 East West Hwy. Silver Spring, MD 20910-3283 (301) 713-1970 ext. 119 fax (301) 589-1321 robert.reeves@noaa.gov Dr. Teri Rowles NOAA/NMFS/Office of Protected Resources SSMC-3, F, Room 14564 1315 East West Hwy. Silver Spring, MD 20910 teri.rowles@noaa.gov Bob Senseney U.S. Department of State Office of Ocean Affairs 2201 C Street NW, Room 5801 Washington, DC 20520 (202) 647-3262 fax (202) 647-1106 Dr. Donald B. Siniff Dept of Ecology, Evolution & Behavior University of Minnesota 100 Buford Circle, Ecology Bldg. St. Paul, MN 55108 (612) 625-5732 fax (612) 624-6777 Renee Tatusko Office of Oceanic & Atmospheric Research NOAA 1335 East-West Highway Suite 4330 Silver Spring, MD 20910 (301) 713-2465 fax (301) 713-1459 renee.tatusko@noaa.gov Alan R. Thomas NOAA Office of Oceanic & Atmospheric Research 1315 East-West Highway Silver Spring, MD 20910 (301) 713-2458 fax (301) 713-0163 alan.thomas@noaa.gov Ray Vander Hoist TEES/UAF (703) 525-7200 Dr. Elizabeth Weatherhead Univ. of Colorado, Boulder Air Resources Laboratory NOAA R/E/ARx1 325 Broadway Boulder, CO 80303 (303) 497-6653 fax (303) 497-6546 betsy@srrb.noaa.gov

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NOAA's Arctic Research Initiative: Proceedings of a Workshop THE ARCTIC RESEARCH INITIATIVE: SCOPE, DESCRIPTION, AND FUNDED PROPOSALS

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NOAA's Arctic Research Initiative: Proceedings of a Workshop The Arctic Research Initiative The scope of the Arctic Research Initiative program is broad. The initial focus will be on Health of the Western Arctic/Bering Sea Ecosystem, in particular, on two major scientific areas: Study of the natural variability of the Western Arctic/Bering Sea Ecosystem. Study of anthropogenic influences on the Western Arctic/Bering Sea Ecosystem. The Arctic Research Initiative includes five major sub-topics: Natural variability of the Western Arctic/Bering Sea ecosystem The Bering Sea Qreen Belt: processes and ecosystem production. Atmosphere-ice processes that influence ecosystem variability. Atmospheric, cloud and boundary layer processes. Anthropogenic influences on the Western Arctic/Bering Sea ecosystem Arctic haze, ozone and UV flux. Contaminant inputs, fate and effects on the ecosystem. 1. The Bering Sea Green Belt: Processes And Ecosystem Production The Green Belt is a region of sustained high primary production located over the outer shelf and slope of the Bering Sea. Ecosystem production is also focused here as evidenced by large numbers of fish, marine mammals, and birds. This abundance must be the result of primary production. The physical and biological processes accounting for this abundance, however, are poorly defined or unknown. The goal of this research component is to define and understand the physical and biological processes that lead to sustained ecosystem production. Objectives: Determine the distribution of nutrients and production in the Green Belt region. Determine the biological and physical processes that result in the distributions observed in (1). Ascertain the potential impacts of fishing practices and climate change on distributions and processes and how these changes will likely affect humans. 2. Atmosphere-Ice Processes That Influence Ecosystem Variability Climate-scale atmospheric phenomena and attendant changes in ice cover are critical elements of the regional ecosystem. It has been determined that the variations in the Northwest Pacific atmosphere influence intra-annual, inter-annual and decadal shifts in wind patterns over the Bering Sea. The impact of these shifts can be enhanced and transferred to the biological domain. Sea ice plays a prominent role in the Bering Sea ecosystem; its variability influences the physical mechanisms of advection and stratification, as well as the extent and timing of biological processes. Objectives: Quantify the influence of the atmospheric arctic front on basin-scale climate variability. Determine the influence of sea ice on local and large scale oceanographic processes. Ascertain the potential impacts of climate change on atmosphere-ice processes that are critical to ecosystem health. 3. Atmospheric, Cloud And Boundary Layer Processes An understanding of atmospheric processes in the Arctic, including both large-scale circulations as well

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NOAA's Arctic Research Initiative: Proceedings of a Workshop An understanding of atmospheric processes in the Arctic, including both large-scale circulations as well as boundary layer dynamics, will be important to developing integrated models of both horizontal and vertical contaminant transport and exposure pathways. In addition, it is generally accepted that there is a poleward amplification of climate change effects and that the Arctic is likely to be a sensitive indicator region of global change processes. Atmospheric processes constitute important a biotic controls on arctic sea ecosystems and their evolution. Objectives: Develop and deploy instrumentation suitable for measuring atmospheric processes in the Arctic. Analyze existing data sets to identify the essential physical indicator of climate change. Apply scientific techniques of satellite remote sensing to the region. Advance modeling arctic boundary layer processes (sea-land-ice interface) for numerical model predictions of contaminant transport. Coordinate this work with NOAA, NSF (SHEBA), NASA, and DOE (ARM) activities. 4. Arctic Haze, Ozone And Uv Flux Key components of climate and global change in the Arctic include the observed changes in arctic haze, stratospheric ozone and UV flux. These are important to climate forcing, human health and the arctic ecosystem. Objectives: 1. Arctic Haze: Assess the meaning of the long-term trends, for example downward trends as observed at Barrow through the following: Establish a climatology and chemical fingerprinting of aerosols in the Western Arctic. Enhance NOAA/University of Alaska collaboration within existing chemical sampling networks. Assess transport from source regions such as Eurasia and the Orient and general changes in meteorological patterns. Expand measurements of chemical and physical properties of aerosols and their precursors at the NOAA Barrow Baseline Observatory to augment present aerosol climate-forcing studies. Investigate residence times and gas-to-particle conversion rates of Arctic aerosols. Determine arctic pollution source attribution g. Determine the ultimate fate of arctic haze 2. Stratospheric Ozone and UV Flux Expand chemical and meteorological stratospheric ozone-related measurements obtained in the POLARIS program. Improve ozone-measuring capabilities by augmenting the data retrieval of the NOAA/University of Alaska Dobson spectrophotometer. Utilize spectral UV data being collected at the NOAA Barrow Observatory and upgrade broadband measurements of UV in order to study the relationship of UV, ozone, and arctic aerosols. 5. Contaminant Inputs, Fate And Effects On The Ecosystem The Arctic is not a pristine environment. Various contaminants have been and continue to be introduced into the region by a variety of pathways. One essential step in understanding the fate and effects of contaminants is measuring contaminant levels in subsistence or commercial species eaten by top consumers (i.e., humans, marine mammals, birds) that are most likely to be adversely affected by food web biomagnification of contaminants. Contaminants include: radionuclides, metals, organochlorine compounds, and petroleum hydrocarbons.

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NOAA's Arctic Research Initiative: Proceedings of a Workshop bowhead whale, ringed seal and beluga whale having the highest numbers. Many of these tissues have been analyzed for metals and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Analytical results from these samples have been published and are being used by management. Future activities will be focussed on understanding fate, transport and biomedical and population effects of marine contaminants and other human activities. The MMHSRP will continue to be a multi-disciplinary and integrated program. The National Marine Analytical Quality Assurance Program was established in 1995 as an outgrowth of the MMHSRP, involving the collaboration of NMFS with the National Institute of Standards and Technology. The goals of the program are to assess and improve the quality of analytical measurements in the marine environment through interlaboratory comparisons and reference material development and to improve the capabilities to assess trends in marine environmental quality by expanding environmental specimen banking activities. The activities of this program are: 1) collaboration / consultation to identity quality assurance, reference materials and specimen banking related needs in marine environmental research, 2) establishment of cryogenic specimen bank facility in Charleston, 3) production of control material, proficiency testing materials and reference material that are representative of marine matrices for evaluation of the quality of analytical measurements, 4) cooperation in the preparation and certification of NIST standard reference materials for marine environmental measurements, and 5) education and training of scientists on quality assurance and specimen banking procedures. The specimen bank includes fish and sediment samples (National Status and Trends Program) and marine mammal samples (from AMMTAP-1987 and MMHSRP since 1992). Banking and quality assurance will continue to be an integral part of NMFS contaminant studies in the Arctic and nationwide. The Environmental Conservation Division (ECD) of the Northwest Fisheries Science Center conducts research to define the nature and extent of chemical pollution and natural toxins (marine biotoxins) in the marine environment; their effects upon the health of living marine resources (LMRs), including protected species, and their implications for the safety and quality of seafood products. The ECD is the lead NMFS lab in the National Marine Analytical Quality Assurance Program and the MMHSRP. Because chemical pollution can affect the health and survival of LMRs as well as contaminate fisheries products, its potential impacts are of growing concern for NMFS. Studies undertaken within the ECD to address this complex problem typically follow an interdisciplinary approach. Among the scientific disciplines utilized are analytical chemistry, biochemistry, toxicology, reproductive biology, pathology, fisheries biology and immunology. One of the goals of the fishery contaminants program is to link effects observed in individual fish to potential changes at the population level. The ECD is also involved in long term studies of the effects of environmental contaminant on the survival and fecundity of protected species. Through association with the MMHSRP, the ECD has analyzed tissues from more than 20 marine mammal species for chlorinated hydrocarbons and toxic metals. These analyses are from bowhead whales, ringed seals, beluga whales, Northern fur seals, Steller sea lions and harbor seals of the Alaskan Arctic and Bering Sea. Other studies are focussed on evaluating the biological effects of contaminant exposures. For example, the ECD is collaborating with the University of Alaska, Fairbanks on the potential correlation of contaminants with health indices of Northern fur seals in the Bering Sea.

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NOAA's Arctic Research Initiative: Proceedings of a Workshop The Alaska Fisheries Science Center has several programs which are either directly or indirectly involved in research related to contaminants and contaminant effects on ecosystems and special-species and in research evaluating pathways, food webs and productivity. This latter information is of importance as baseline data from which we can evaluate and model the potential impacts of Arctic haze, ozone and UV flux may have on ecosystem productivity. In addition, a better understanding of food webs and productivity will allow us to better evaluate and assess the transport and impacts of contaminants on the ecosystem. The Resource Ecology and Fisheries Management Division conducts research and data collection to support management of eastern Bering Sea fish and crab resources. The Resource Assessment and Conservation Engineering Division conducts fishery surveys to measure the distribution and abundance of important fish and crab stocks in the eastern Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska. This research has expanded into the Fisheries Oceanography Coordinated Investigation (FOCI) program, a joint project between NMFS and the Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory to study the biological and physical processes that control the survival and growth of fish in the Gulf of Alaska and the Bering Sea. Studies targeting groundfish, seabirds and marine mammals to understand the food chain links in production and trophic interactions are underway. Additionally, studies to understand primary production and the links to lower trophic levels and food chains are important to contaminant and arctic atmospheric research. The National Marine Mammal Laboratory of the Alaska Fisheries Science Center has two programs which are related to the issues of contaminants and their impacts on populations. The Alaska Ecosystems Program is primarily responsible for advising managers on the status of Steller sea lions, northern fur seals and harbor seals. The program is charged with performing biological studies and assessments on seals and sea lions taken incidentally from fisheries interactions or directly from subsistence hunts. Information gained includes stock structure, abundance, human induced mortalities, net productivity, and life history data. The Cetacean Assessment and Ecology program has primary responsibility in monitoring the status of several Alaskan cetacean and pinniped species including bowhead, beluga, gray, killer and humpback whales, harbor porpoise and the four species of ice seals. Both of these programs are designed to monitor populations to detect trends in growth and to investigate causes for declines in populations and provide valuable biological data for assessment of the impacts of contaminants on marine mammal populations in the Arctic. Some specific studies have focussed on the levels of contaminants in declining marine mammal populations. In summary, all of the described NMFS programs are designed to assure the quality of contaminant analyses and to increase our ability to interpret the results from a biological standpoint. In order to adequately understand the fate and impacts of these contaminants, an understanding of their biological as well as physical and environmental context and the possibilities of interactions with other stressors must be addressed. Through NMFS programs, baseline data on contaminant loads and effects and on the biology of specific species and of ecosystems will continue to contribute to studies of contaminant and atmospheric impacts in the Arctic.

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NOAA's Arctic Research Initiative: Proceedings of a Workshop U.S. Arctic Contaminant Research Planning Workshop August 10-13, 1996 Fairbanks, Alaska The question of what research the United States should be doing related to contaminants in the Arctic is one of considerable importance, and it has received attention in many forums. in August 1996, the Environmental Protection Agency and the Office of Naval Research sponsored a workshop, the U.S. Arctic Contaminant Research Planning Workshop, to "understand, assess, integrate, and identify critical research that significantly reduces uncertainty in future risk assessment." The workshop agenda was organized around stressors to the environment and what is know about them in the context of ecological risk assessment. The workshop included presentations on the risk assessment paradigm, radionuclides, hydrocarbons, trace metals, organics, UVB, and acidification. EPA hoped to use the outcome of the workshop to prioritize research funding. The workshop involved approximately 40 people for three days of presentations and discussions. That EPA/ONR workshop was a broad look at Arctic contaminants, including the full range of problems and looking at the research being done by many agencies, and it attempted to suggest national research priorities. This effort was considered a good starting point from which to proceed for the July 11 workshop on NOAA's Arctic Research Initiative (i.e., can we take the priorities suggested in 1996 and identify those best suited for NOAA's Arctic Research Initiative?) One problem hindering such a refinement is that although various background materials exist from the 1996 EPA/ONR workshop, no final document or proceedings was produced from that event. Thus there are no official conclusions or recommendations. A copy of the 1996 agenda and one item of particular importance, a series of suggested Priority Research Areas generated by the workshop participants, are included here as reference materials. Please note that the lists of priority research areas are provided here as background information only, with permission from the organizers, to give participants in today's workshop some sense of the purpose and output of the 1996 meeting.

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NOAA's Arctic Research Initiative: Proceedings of a Workshop U.S. Arctic Contaminant Research Planning Workshop To understand, assess, integrate, and identify critical research that significantly reduces uncertainity in future risk assessment   AGENDA Wedgewood Resort, Fairbanks. Alaska The Boardroom August 10-13   Saturday, August 10, 1996 8:00-10:00PM Ice Breaker/Reception All participants invited Sunday, August 11, 1996 9:00 am Welcome Dr. Robert Huggett, EPA     Dr. Robert Edson, ONR 9:10 Agenda, Process, Outcomes Dr. Robert Huggett 9:30 Introductions All participants 9:45 Logistics Ron Slotkin, EPA 10:50   Break MAIN SESSION Session 1 11:00 Ecological Risk Assessment Presentation Dr. Robert Huggett 11:45 Questions/Discussion   12:00 Lunch   Session 2 1:00 pm Radionuclides Presentation Dr. John knezovich, LLNL 1:30 Questions/Moderated Discussion       • Problem Formulation     • Current Level of Knowledge     • Data Caps in Assessment     • Assess Risk Assessment Issues     • Other Related Issues     • Critical Research Needed to Reduce Uncertainity 3:00 Break   Session 3 3:20 Hydrocarbons Presentation Dr. Jawed Hameedi, NOAA 3:50 Questions/Moderated Discussion       • Problem Formulation     • Current Level of Knowledge     • Data Gaps in Assessment     • Assess Risk Assessment Issues     • Other Related issues     • Critical Research Needed to Reduce Uncertainity 5:20 Open Forum/Announcements   5:45 pm Adjourn  

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NOAA's Arctic Research Initiative: Proceedings of a Workshop Day 2 US Arctic Planning Workshop Agenda Monday, August 12, 1996 9:00 am Opening & Announcements   Session 4 9:15 Trace Metals Presentation Dr. Kate Mahaffey, EPA, et al 10:00 Questions/Moderated Discussion       • Problem Formulation     • Current Level of Knowledge     • Data Gaps in Assessment     • Assess Risk Assessment Issues     • Other Related Issues     • Critical Research Needed to Reduce Uncertainity, 10:30 Break   11:00 Discussion continued   12:00 Lunch   Session 5 1:00 pm Organics Presentation Dr. Paul Becker, NIST 1:30 Questions/Moderated Discussion       • Problem Formulation     • Current Level of Knowledge     • Data Gaps in Assessment     • Assess Risk Assessment Issues     • Other Related Issues     • Critical Research Needed to Reduce Uncertainity 3:00 Break   Session 6 3:30 UVB Presentation Dr: Elizabeth Weatherhead, UCB     Dr, Ed Defabo, GWU 4:15 Questions/Moderated Discussion       • Problem Formulation     • Current Level of Knowledge     • Data Caps in Assessment     • Assess Risk Assessment Issues     • Other Related Issues     • Critical Research Needed to Reduce Uncertainity 5:15 Open Forum/Announcements   5:45 pm Adjourn  

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NOAA's Arctic Research Initiative: Proceedings of a Workshop Day 3 US Arctic Planning Workshop Agenda Tuesday, August 1:3, 1996 9:00 am Opening & Announcement   Session 7 9:15 Acidification Presentation Dr. Dan Jaffe, UAF g:45 Questions/Moderated Discussion       • Problem Formulation     • Current Level of Knowledge     • Data Gaps in Assessment     • Assess Risk Assessment Issues     • Other Related Issues     • Critical Research Needed to Reduce Uncertainity, 10:30 Break   11:00 Discussion continued   12:00 Lunch   CLOSING SESSION 1:15 pm Review Session Summaries (typed/copied) Break out/group 2:30 Develop and Review All participants   Critical Research Needs       • Additions     • Modifications 4:00 Open Forum/Announcements   4:15 pm Adjourn  

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NOAA's Arctic Research Initiative: Proceedings of a Workshop Radionuclide Priority. Research Areas Exposure Issue Ranking.     I II G 1 Diet: Quantitative and qualitative assessment of Alaska Native and arctic indigenous diets with respect to quantity and duration of food consumed, including effects of food preparation, transport and handling methods on concentrations of contaminants. X   X 2 Source identification: Determine past, present and future sources of radionuclides and uncertainties in source terms (e.g., location, magnitude and release rate. Local sources examined should include Amchitka Island nuclear test site, Fort Greeley and Adak. X     3 Transport: Consider the effects of the entire transport system (including atmospheric deposition. sediments, rivers, sea ice, coastal currents, and biological vectors) on exposure. Studies should include model development and verification, with field and laboratory studies that include chemistry and biology. X   X 4 Exposure and dose to different tissue types. Describe physiological redistribution of contaminants at target tissues (e.g., compare bone and gonad calculations with those of muscle and liver). Use contaminant measurements in human tissue (e.g.. hair, blood) as biomarkers of exposure and effect in human populations. targeting sensitive subgroups. X   X 5 Uptake and effect by primary, and secondary. producers. X     6 More accurate estimates bio-accumulation factors. X     7 Timing of residue measurement vs. life history considerations.   X     Effects Issue I II G 1 Low level chronic exposure vs acute effects and endpoints (genetic? other?) X     2 Information on effects for arctic species. (There is a lack of information on these species.) X     3 Data rescue: Are there clearly defined biological impacts/effects from prior studies? There is a lot of data from the 1950s and 1960s on low level effects on human with no follow-up. Follow up previous 90Sr and 137Cs studies. X     4 Strategies for sampling. especially large animals and physical conditions of animals. X   X 5 Differential effect/exposure on 1/2 lives in different systems (e.g., lichens vs forests). X     6 Mechanisms for end points (cellular, etc.), e.g., studies on DNA repair mechanisms.   X   7 Synergistic effects. particularly with UVB   X  

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NOAA's Arctic Research Initiative: Proceedings of a Workshop Hydrocarbon Priority. Research Areas Exposure Issue Ranking     I II G 1 Effect of food preparation, transport and handling (e.g., engine exhaust) on contaminants. X   X 2 Source identification: For example, PAHs in sediment from petroleum combustion, and sources of non-petroleum PAHs. X     3 Exposure of humans to petroleum byproducts, especially benzene. X     4 Effects of oil on prolonging and concentrating exposure of ice algae and epontic communities. (Understand the ecosystem.) X   X 5 Develop and test bio-markers for exposure in the Arctic. X     6 Effect of temperature on body burdens. Routes and pathways of exposure to top-level carnivores. X     7 Effects of salinity on PAH concentration and transport (sea ice formation and melting).   X   8 Transport models: biological, physical. and chemical effects.   X     Effects Issue I II G 1 Effects of oil and gas development on (psychological) stress in individuals and society. X   X 2 Chronic discharges of oil. Effects of lease development (spills) on subsistence living (# of spills over time). X     3 Effects of hydrocarbons on metabolism, osmoregulation, thermoregulation, waxy esters (oil formation), chitin (and enzymes for digestion and rates of passage of chitin). Formation of harmful metabolic byproducts. Bio accumulation/bio-magnification (sub lethal impacts, including immune responses). Chronic effects of exposure (low levels), and ecological consequences other than mortality or fecundity. X     4 Effects of wood burning on human health at turn of century. (epidemiolology).   X  

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NOAA's Arctic Research Initiative: Proceedings of a Workshop Persistent Organic Pollutant Priority Research Areas Exposure Issue Ranking     I II G 1 Source identification. Need further investigation of emission sources. including military bases and refineries as local sources, and byproducts of combustion such as heterocyclic compounds.. X     2 Transport: Consider effects of the entire transport system on exposure, e.g., transport by sea ice. X   X 3 Differences in accumulation pathways for various arctic species. For example: measure stable isotopes to determine trophic level exposures, increase food web sampling in studies, and make measurements on individual fish rather than pooled samples. X     4 Analyze existing data on lichens and mosses as indicators of semi-volatiles. X     5 Examine and apply emerging (economical) techniques for dioxins, furans, toxaphenes, and coptanar PCBs. X     6 Temporal dynamics: seasonal change.   X X   Effects Issue I II G 1 Risk perception and risk communication. Educate populations about risks of eating certain organs relative to specific contaminants, e.g., liver and kidneys. X   X 2 Effects (including synergistic effects) of PCBs and other persistent organic pollutants on endocrine and genetic systems of arctic mammals. (See article in 6/7/96 issue of Science.) X     3 Pathways for turnover/metabolism in different pathways develop models of transport and accumulation X     4 Effects of PCB's and byproducts on DNA damage.   X  

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NOAA's Arctic Research Initiative: Proceedings of a Workshop Acidification Priority Research Areas Exposure Issue Ranking     I II G 1 Source identification: Evaluate local sources and deposition (Pb/Zn mines). X     2 Geographic distribution (deposition/local and long range mapping): acid/non acid tundra deposition; deposition of arctic haze; fail-out to open water (effects on surface layer productivity). X     3 Investigate exposure from sea ice release and transfer to surface water, especially in Bering Sea. X       Effects Issue I II G 1 Effects on plants of acid, NOx, etc. — important effects of herbivore consumption/deposition. For example, decline of caribou herds around Prodhoe, Cook Inlet, etc. over past 16 years is likely caused by nutrition deficits. X     2 Primary productivity studies — plankton and tundra. X     3 Human health. X   X 4 Effects of acidification on treeline position. Is treeline moving?   X   5 Nitrogen metabolism in sensitive ecosystems (target aquatic ecosystems).     X

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NOAA's Arctic Research Initiative: Proceedings of a Workshop Generic Priority Research Areas Exposure Issue Ranking     I II G 1 Diet: Quantitative and qualitative assessment of Alaska Native and arctic indigenous diets with respect to quantity. and duration of food consumed, including effects of food preparation, transport and handling methods on concentrations of contaminants. Explore more recent approaches to dietary changes. Many other countries have developed different techniques. X   X 2 Transport: Consider the entire transport system (including atmospheric deposition, sediments, rivers, sea ice, coastal currents, and biological vectors) on exposure. Studies should include model development and verification, with field and laboratory studies that include chemistry and biology. X   X 3 Exposure and dose to different tissue types: Describe physiological redistribution of contaminants at target tissues (e.g., compare bone and gonad calculations with those of muscle and liver). Use contaminant measurements in human tissue (e.g., hair, blood) as biomarkers of exposure and effect in human populations. targeting sensitive subgroups. X   X 4 Exposure effects need to be determined for humans and other arctic species.   X X   Effects Issue I II G 1 Examine synergistic effects, particularly with UVB radiation. X   X 2 Data rescue: Are there clearly defined biological impacts/effects from prior studies?. X   X 3 Effects psychological stress in individuals and society. X   X 4 Investigate epidemiological methods used for small populations in the Arctic. X   X 5 Strategies for sampling, especially large animals and physical conditions of animals. X   X