A

Cooperative U.S.-European Space Projects

Tables A.1 through A.3, although fairly comprehensive, substantially understate the amount of cooperation in space projects that has taken place between Europe and the United States.1 This is because the tables do the following:

  • Indicate none of the many principal investigator (PI)–coinvestigator collaborations that have been established in both directions across the Atlantic;
  • Include no sounding rocket, balloon-borne, or aircraft-based experiments, which have been extensive with some countries;
  • Present no data sharing arrangements, for example, between two principal investigators flying scientific instruments on the same or different spacecraft;
  • Include no ground-based activity, such as the prearranged readout of scientific data by one country or institution of another's satellite data or the acceptance by one country of principal investigator/research investigations from another country to use data provided by the first Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS, now Landsat);
  • Present no cooperation in technology or applications development, for example, on heat pipes (Shuttle Palette Satellite [SPAS]-01), spacecraft electrostatic charging and discharging (EOIM—Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Materials), Search and Rescue Satellites (COSPAS-SARSAT), or tether satellite experiments;
  • Indicate none of the cooperative strategic-level planning and more detailed coordination that goes on between and among research organizations in all three discipline areas—for example, to indicate only one of many, through CEOS (Committee on Earth Observation Satellites); or
  • Include no observing time on one another's astronomy satellites (U.S. responses to the European Space Agency [ESA] Announcements of Opportunity [AOs]; European responses to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration [NASA] Aos).

NOTE: The following abbreviations are used for European countries:

A

Austria

B

Belgium

CH

Switzerland

D

Germany

DK

Denmark

E

Spain

F

France

FI

Finland

GB

United Kingdom

GR

Greece

I

Italy

IRL

Ireland

L

Luxembourg

N

Norway

NL

Netherlands

P

Portugal

S

Sweden



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--> A Cooperative U.S.-European Space Projects Tables A.1 through A.3, although fairly comprehensive, substantially understate the amount of cooperation in space projects that has taken place between Europe and the United States.1 This is because the tables do the following: Indicate none of the many principal investigator (PI)–coinvestigator collaborations that have been established in both directions across the Atlantic; Include no sounding rocket, balloon-borne, or aircraft-based experiments, which have been extensive with some countries; Present no data sharing arrangements, for example, between two principal investigators flying scientific instruments on the same or different spacecraft; Include no ground-based activity, such as the prearranged readout of scientific data by one country or institution of another's satellite data or the acceptance by one country of principal investigator/research investigations from another country to use data provided by the first Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS, now Landsat); Present no cooperation in technology or applications development, for example, on heat pipes (Shuttle Palette Satellite [SPAS]-01), spacecraft electrostatic charging and discharging (EOIM—Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Materials), Search and Rescue Satellites (COSPAS-SARSAT), or tether satellite experiments; Indicate none of the cooperative strategic-level planning and more detailed coordination that goes on between and among research organizations in all three discipline areas—for example, to indicate only one of many, through CEOS (Committee on Earth Observation Satellites); or Include no observing time on one another's astronomy satellites (U.S. responses to the European Space Agency [ESA] Announcements of Opportunity [AOs]; European responses to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration [NASA] Aos). NOTE: The following abbreviations are used for European countries: A Austria B Belgium CH Switzerland D Germany DK Denmark E Spain F France FI Finland GB United Kingdom GR Greece I Italy IRL Ireland L Luxembourg N Norway NL Netherlands P Portugal S Sweden

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--> TABLE A.1 U.S.-European International Cooperative Spacecraft Experiments in Earth Science from Space Launch Year Mission Name Cooperating Countries Experiment or Space Science Objectives 1964 Ariel-II GBa-US Measuring atmospheric ozone 1965 OGO-2 Fb Photometer to measure airglow 1966 OGO-3 (POGO) Fb See OGO-2 1967 Ariel-III GBa-US Measure vertical distribution of molecular oxygen in Earth atmosphere 1967 OGO-4 Fb See OGO-2 1968 GEOS Db Determine size and shape of Earth and conduct gravitational field studies 1969 OGO-6 Fb Measure altitude distribution and width of atomic oxygen line in airglow and aurora 1970 Nimbus-4 GBb Selective chopper radiometric temperature probe 1971 EOLE Fa-US French satellite to study meteorological data in the Southern Hemisphere 1971 BIC Da-US Electric and magnetic cloud probe field studies 1972 NIMBUS-5 GBb See NIMBUS-4 1975 NIMBUS-6 GBc-Fc Upper atmospheric sounding; random-access measurement system 1975 Atmospheric Explorer GBb Airglow photometer 1978 TIROS-N GBb-Fb Atmospheric sounding radiometer; Advanced Research and Global Observations Satellite flew on eight satellites in the TIROS-N series 1978 NIMBUS-7 GBb-Fb Radiometer for atmospheric and mesospheric sounding; ARGOSc 1983 STS-9/Spacelab-1 ESAd-Db-US Microwave remote sensing experiment and metric camera for Earth observations (2) 1990 CRRES Db Study of Earth's magnetic fields 1991 STS-40/UARS UKb-US Upper atmospheric observations 1992 TOPEX-POSEIDON F-US Joint Centre National d'Études Spatiales-National Aeronautics and Space Administration mission to study relationship between Earth's oceans and climate 1992 LAGEOS-2 I-US Improve geodetic reference datum (geoid) and Earth orientation, and measure crustal deformation, secular variation in Earth's gravity field, and wandering of Earth's polar axis and Earth rotation variations 1992 Eureca-1 ESA-US Several Earth science experiments 1992 STS-45/ATLAS-1 Bb-Fb-Db-US ATLAS 1-3: three missions to study the middle atmosphere and its variations 1993 STS-55/Spacelab D2 ESA-Db-US Modular optoelectric multispectral scanner used to study atmospheric variations; also flown on two SPAS flights 1993 STS-56/ATLAS-2 Bb-Fb-Db-US ATLAS 1-3: three missions to study the middle 1994 STS-66/ATLAS-3 Bb-Fb-Db-US atmosphere and its variations 1994 STS-66/CRISTA-SPAS D-US Combined experiment with ATLAS-3 to study atmospheric variability 1994 STS-59/SRL-1 US-Db-Ib X-SAR as part of SIR-C 1994 STS-68/SRL-2 US-Db-Ib X-SAR as part of SIR-C 1997 STS-85/CRISTA-SPAS II D-US Experiments using CRISTA and MAHRSI instruments to study middle atmosphere and lower thermosphere

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--> NOTE: Where countries are listed without a superscript notation (e.g., D-US), the mission was fully cooperative with many joint experiments and mission elements. a Launch on a U.S. vehicle. b European experiment on a NASA mission. c Subsequent satellites in the NLMBUS series. d In 1975, ESRO became ESA. ARGOS French satellite data collection system (Advanced Research and Global Observations Satellite) ATLAS Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science CRISTA Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere CRRES Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite GEOS Geostationary satellite LAGEOS Laser Geodynamics Satellite MAHRSI Middle Atmosphere High-Resolution Spectrograph Investigation NIMBUS NASA environmental research satellite series OGO Orbiting Geophysical Observatory POGO Polar Orbiting Geophysical Observatory SIR Shuttle Imaging Radar SPAS Shuttle Pallet Satellite (Germany) SRL Space Radar Laboratory STS Space Transportation System (U.S.) TIROS Television Infrared Observing Satellite TOPEX (Ocean) Topography Experiment UARS Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite X-SAR X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar  

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--> TABLE A.2 U.S.-European International Cooperative Space Flight Experiments in Microgravity Research and Life Sciences Launch Year Mission Name Cooperating Countries Experiment or Space Science Objectives 1972 Apollo 16 Da, Fa Effect of exposure to heavy nuclei cosmic radiation on biological specimens on Biostack facility 1972 Apollo 17 Fa, Da Effect of exposure to heavy nuclei cosmic radiation on biological specimens on Biostack facility 1973 Skylab Ba Space Manufacturing Experiment 1975 ASP Fa Effect of exposure to heavy nuclei cosmic radiation on biological specimens on Biostack facility 1983 STS-7/OSTA-2 Da Formation of metal alloys in space on SPAS-01; materials science experiments on MEA-MAUS; social behavior of an ant colony in microgravity on GAS 1983 STS-9/Spacelab-1 ESA-Da-US Multiple microgravity research (39) and life sciences (16) experiments 1984 STS 41-B Da SPAS-01A (Not deployed due to an RMS malfunction) 1984 STS-41C/LDEF Da-IRLa-ESAa- CHa-GBa Multiple experiments to determine the effects of space environment on materials 1985 STS-51B/Spacelab 3 Fa-Da Life science experiments in RAHF 1985 STS-51-G Fa-Da Biomedical experiments plus two French life sciences experiments; three German GASs 1985 STS-61A/Spacelab-D-1 D-USb-ESA 76 microgravity research and life science experiments, including MEA and vestibular sled 1991 STS-40/SLS-1 CHa Study of lymphocyte proliferation in weightlessness 1992 STS-42/Spacelab IML-1 ESAa-Da Numerous life and materials science experiments using Biorack, Biostack, Cryostat, GPPF, and CPF to study cellular behavior, plant and human physiology, crystal growth, radiation environment, and critical point physics (also 10 GASs) 1992 STS-50/USML-1 ESAa Protein and combustion experiments 1992 STS-46/Eureca-1 (launch) ESAc-US Mainly materials science, solar, and Earth science experiments 1992 STS-52/USMP-1 Fa Study of role of gravity-driven convection during solidification of materials on MEPHISTO facility 1993 STS-55/Spacelab D-2 D-USb-ESA Multiple microgravity and life science experiments, including MAUS 1994 STS-62/USMP-2 Fa Study of the role of gravity-driven convection during the solidification of materials on the MEPHISTO facility 1994 STS-65/IML-2 ESAa Numerous international life and materials science experiments using Biorack, Biostack, CPF, BDPU, TEMPUS, FFEU, APCF, and CPCG facilities (among others) to study cellular behavior, radiation environment, human physiology, surface forces materials processing, critical point physics, and crystal growth 1995 STS-73/USML-2 ESA-Da Protein crystal growth experiments on APCF 1996 STS-75/USMP-3 Fa Study of role of gravity-driven convection during solidification of materials on MEPHISTO facility 1996 STS-76 (MIR 3) ESA-US Biology experiments on Biorack 1996 STS-77 Da CFZF experiment 1996 STS-78/LMS ESAa-Fa 18 international microgravity experiments using AGHF, APCF, BDPU, and MMA facilities to study protein crystallization, materials processing, fluid dynamics, and microgravity environment; 16 life science experiments in musculoskeletal, cardiopulmonary, metabolic, behavior and performance, neuroscience, and space biology disciplines

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--> 1997 STS-83/MSL-1 STS-94 (MSL-1 reflight) Da, ESAa Experiments in materials processing, combustion, mixing, and diffusion using TEMPUS, Combustion Module-1, DCE, CSLM, and Large Isothermal Furnace facilities 1998 STS-90 (Neurolab) F-ESA-D-Canada-Japan 26 experiments in life sciences that focus on the nervous system, including neurobiology, sensory motor and performance functions, sleep, the vestibular system, and the autonomic nervous system, among other activities NOTE: Where countries are listed without a superscript notation (e.g., D-US), the mission was fully cooperative with many joint experiments and mission elements. a European experiment on a U.S. mission. b U.S. experiment on a European mission. c U.S.-cooperative mission launched on a U.S. vehicle. AGHF Advanced Gradient Heating Facility APCF Advanced Protein Crystallization Facility ASTP Apollo-Soyuz Test Project BDPU Bubble, Drop, and Particle Unit CFZF Commercial Float Zone Furnace CPCG Commercial Protein Crystal Growth facility CPF Critical Point Facility CSLM Coarsening in Solid-Liquid Mixtures Facility DCE Droplet Combustion Experiment EURECA European Retrievable Carrier FFEU Free Flow Electrophoresis Unit GAS Get Away Special GPPF Gravitational Plant Physiology Facility IML International Microgravity Laboratory LDEF Long Duration Exposure Facility LMS Life and Microgravity Spacelab MAUS Materialwissenschaftliche Autonome Experimente unter Schwerelosigkeit MEA Materials Experiment Assembly MEPHIS Material pour l'Étude des Phenomenes Interessant de la Solidification sur Terre et en Orbit MMA Microgravity Measurement Assembly MSL Microgravity Science Laboratory OSTA Office of Space Technology and Applications (NASA) RAHF Research Animal Holding Facility SLS Spacelab Life Sciences SPAS Shuttle Pallet Satellite (Germany) STS Space Transportation System (U.S.) TEMPUS Electromagnetic Containerless Processing Facility TVD Torque Velocity Dynamometer USML U.S. Microgravity Laboratory USMP U.S. Microgravity Payload  

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--> TABLE A.3 U.S.-European International Cooperative Ventures in Space Sciences Launch Year Mission Name Cooperating Countries Space Science Objectives or Remarks 1962 Ariel-I GBa-US Measure energy spectrum of cosmic rays and solar x-rays 1964 Ariel-II GBa-US Measure galactic radio noise and micrometeoroid flux 1964 Explorer 20 GBb Measure ion mass composition and temperature 1964 San Marco-I Ia-US Atmospheric physics; launched from Wallops by Italian launch crew 1965 Explorer 31 DME-A GBb Measure ion mass composition and temperature, and electron temperature 1965 FR-1 Fa-US Study very low frequency wavefields in magnetosphere and irregularities in ionosphere 1965 OSO-2 GBb-Fb Conduct multiple solar research experiments 1967 San Marco-II Ia-US Ionospheric propagation studies; first launch from San Marco platform 1967 Ariel-III GBa-US Multiple atmospheric physics measurements 1967 OSO-4 GBb Measure distribution of total solar x-ray emissions 1967 Pioneer-8 Ib Flux gate magnetometer 1968 OGO-5 GBb-Fb-NLb Determine direction of incidence of primary cosmic rays and density or temperature of hydrogen in geocorona; measure energy spectrum of cosmic ray electrons 1968 ESRO-2 (IRIS) ESROa-US Study solar x-rays and cosmic radiation in Van Allen belt 1968 ESRO-1A (Aurorae) ESROa-US Measure particles impinging on polar ionosphere 1968 HEOS-1 ESROa Study interplanetary magnetic fields and cosmic ray particles 1969 OSO-5 Fb-GBb Measure solar x-ray flux and self-reversal of Lyman-Alpha line 1969 Apollo 11 CHb Measure composition of solar wind 1969 OSO-6 Ib-GBb Study solar helium I and helium II resonance radiation 1969 ESRO-1B (Boreas) ESROa Study ionospheric and auroral phenomena (polar orbiter) 1969 GRS-A (Azur-1) Dc-US Study of inner Van Allen belt and auroral zones 1969 Apollo 12 CHb Measure composition of solar wind 1970 Explorer 42 I First x-ray satellite, Scout launched from San Marco platform 1971 Apollo 14 Chb Measure composition of solar wind 1971 San Marco-III Ic-US Study local density of equatorial upper atmosphere, San Marco launch 1971 Apollo 15 CHb Measure composition of solar wind 1971 Explorer 45 Ib Study of inner magnetosphere; San Marco launch 1971 Ariel-IV GBa-US Measure VLF radiation and cosmic radio noise 1972 HEOS-2 ESROa Investigate particles and micrometeorites in space 1972 Pioneer 10 Db-US Investigation of Jupiter and interplanetary medium 1972 TD-1 ESROa Study high-energy emissions from stellar and galactic sources 1972 Apollo-16 CHb Measure composition of solar wind 1972 Explorer 46 Db Cosmic dust detectors on Meteoroid Technology Satellite 1972 OAO-3 GBb Study stellar ultraviolet (UV) and x-ray emissions 1972 Explorer 48 I-US Small astronomy satellite to study gamma rays; San Marco Launch 1972 ESRO-4 ESROa Investigate ionosphere, magnetosphere; auroral and solar particles 1972 Aeros Da-US Measure solar extreme UV and correlate with upper atmosphere components 1973 Skylab Fb-CHb Sky survey, distribution of galaxies and ionized hydrogen; solar wind analysis

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--> 1973 Pioneer 11 Da-US Investigation of Jupiter, Saturn, and interplanetary medium 1974 San Marco-C-2 Ia-US Measure equatorial neutral atmospheric density, composition, and temperature 1974 Aeros B-2 Da Study state and behavior of upper atmosphere and ionosphere 1974 ANS NLa-USb UV photometry and measuring soft and intermediate-energy x-ray emissions 1974 UK-5/Ariel-5 GBa-US-I Conduct x-ray sky survey; launched from San Marco 1974 INTASAT Ea-US Conduct ionospheric total electron counts 1974 Helios-A Da-US-I-A Study the Sun from heliocentric orbit 1975 Explorer 53 (SAS-3) I Study x-ray sources within and beyond Milky Way galaxy, San Marco launch 1975 OSO-8 Fb-GBb Spectrographic study of solar chromosphere; x-ray heliometer 1975 COS-B ESAa Cosmic ray satellite to study extraterrestrial gamma radiation 1976 Helios-B Da-US-I-A Measure micrometeoroid flux; study solar x-rays and planetary orbits 1977 Voyager 2 Fb-Db-US Investigation of Jupiter and Saturn planetary systems and interplanetary medium 1977 SIRIO Ia Investigate trapped radiation flux, magnetic field intensity, and electron energy 1977 Voyager 1 Fb-Db-US See Voyager 2 1977 ISEE-1/2 (Dual Payload) ESAa-US-F Coordinated spacecraft studies of magnetosphere, interplanetary space, and their interaction; three coordinated spacecraft missions (see ISEE-3) 1978 IUE-A ESA-US-GB UV spectroscopy of stellar objects, gas clouds, planets, and comets 1978 Pioneer-Venus 1 Orbiter GBb-Db-ESAb-US Atmospheric, ionospheric, solar wind interaction; studies of Venus 1978 GEOS-B ESAa Studies of magnetosphere 1978 Pioneer-Venus-2 Fb-US Atmospheric and cloud studies at Venus 1978 ISEE-3 Db-Fb-NLb-CHb- GBb-ESAb Solar wind composition and mapping, comet flyby 1979 UK-6 GBa Study of ultra heavy and low-energy cosmic rays 1979 HEAO-3 DKb, Fb Study isotopic composition and atomic number of cosmic nuclei 1980 SMM NLb-GBb-Db Solar hard x-ray imaging spectrometry 1983 IRAS NLa-USb-GB Conduct infrared all-sky survey 1983 EXOSAT ESAa Continuous observations of x-ray sources; U.S. experiment on board 1983 Spacelab 1 ESA-US Astronomy and physics (6); space plasma physics (5) 1984 LDEF Db-DKb-IRLb ESAb-CHb-GBb Broad-scale investigations of space environment 1984 AMPTE Db-GBb-US Identify particle entry windows and energizing or transport processes in magnetosphere (artificial comets) 1985-1986 International Halley Watch (Giotto) ESA-USSR-Japan-US Spacecraft and mission design coordinated for ESA's Giotto, USSR's Venera-Halley (2), and Japan's Planet-A; U.S. coordinated ground-based and near-Earth observations and Deep Space Network 1985 Spacelab 3 Fb Very Wide Field Camera (astrophysics) 1985 Spacelab 2 ESAb-GBb Flew ESA-developed IPS; hard x-ray imaging (GB) and coronal helium abundance experiments (GB) 1988 San Marco-IV Ia-US-D Effects of solar activity on meteorological processes 1989 Magellan Fb Study of Venus's gravity and atmospheric tides 1989 Hipparcos ESA-USb Strong international cooperation on spacecraft emergency operations post launch 1989 Galileo D-US Multidisciplinary studies of Jupiter system, its moons, atmosphere, and magnetosphere 1990 HST ESA-US High-resolution coverage of optical and UV wavelengths 1990 ROSAT Da-USb-GB X-ray sky survey and sources study 1990 Ulysses ESAa-USb Observations of solar and interplanetary medium out of plane of ecliptic 1991 GRO ESAb-Db-NLb Wide-range gamma-ray detection; imaging Compton telescope 1992 STS-45 Fb FAUST reflight 1992 Eureca-1 ESA-USb X-ray science instrument

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--> Launch Year Mission Name Cooperating Countries Space Science Objectives or Remarks 1992 Mars Observer Fb-US Mars geoscience and climatology 1993 ORFEUS-SPAS-1 D-US Explore universe in far and extreme UV 1994 Wind ESAb-US-F(3)b Measure three-dimensional plasma and energetic particle distributions 1995 SOHO USb Investigate processes that lead to formation and heating of solar corona 1996 FAST Db Study energy transfer processes in magnetosphere 1996 ORFEUS-SPAS-2 D-US Second flight of this German-U.S. cooperative, Shuttle-launched subsatellite 1996 TSS-IR (reflight) Ia-USb Experiments on electricity in space 1997 Cassini-Huygens US-ESA-I Spacecraft orbiter and probe mission to Saturn and its moon, Titan 1997 Equator-S Dc Measure magnetic and electrical fields and density, velocity, temperature, and composition of the charged particles surrounding the spacecraft NOTE: Where countries are listed without a superscript notation (e.g., D-US), the mission was fully cooperative with many joint experiments and mission elements. a Reimbursable launch on a U.S. vehicle; U.S.-cooperative mission launched on a U.S. vehicle. b European experiment on a U.S. mission. c U.S. experiment on a European mission; ESRO became ESA in 1975. AMPTE Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorer ANS Astronomical Netherlands Satellite COS Cosmic Ray Satellite (Germany) DME Direct Measurement Explorer ESRO European Space Research Organization FAST Fast Auroral Snapshot Explorer FAUST Far Ultraviolet Space Telescope GEOS Geostationary satellite GRO Gamma-Ray Observatory GRS German Research Satellite HEAO High-Energy Astronomical Observatory HEOS Highly Eccentric Orbit Satellite HST Hubble Space Telescope INTASAT Infrared Astronomical Satellite IRAS Infrared Astronomical Satellite ISEE International Sun-Earth Explorer  

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--> IUE International Ultraviolet Explorer OAO Orbiting Astronomical Observatory OGO Orbiting Geophysical Observatory ORFEUS Orbiting and Retrievable Far and Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer OSO Orbiting Solar Observatory ROSAT Roentgen Satellite SIRIO Italian Satellite for Industrially Oriented Research SMM Solar Maximum Mission SOHO Solar and Heliospheric Observatory STS Space Transportation System (U.S.) TD Thor Delta TSS Tethered Satellite System VFL Very low frequency   SOURCE: Update of Table 9-1, U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment, in International Cooperation and Competition in Civilian Space Activities, OTA-ISC-239, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., July 1985, p. 379.

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