Index

A

Age-mediated effects

cost-benefit analysis of fiscal impacts, 22-25

duration of immigrant residency, 303

employment rates across female cohorts, 264, 266

fertility patterns across female cohorts, 249-253

fiscal impacts of immigration, 3, 39-44

household consumption/revenues (California), 156-157, 158-159, 161

household consumption/revenues (New Jersey), 77-80, 81, 90-91

labor market outcomes across female cohorts, 249-253

no fiscal impact of population growth, 27-28

risk of criminal behavior, 370, 375, 381

use of government services, 52

See also Generational modeling

Ages of immigrants, 42, 45

California household characteristics, 133-136

distribution of arriving cohorts, 40-41

historical patterns, 294-295, 299-301

New Jersey household data, 73-75

Aggregate production function, 317-319

Agricultural workers, 310-311

Aid to Families with Dependent Children California government expenditures , 141, 164

New Jersey government expenditures, 101-102, 103

Alcohol use/abuse, 369

Arizona, 413

Phoenix, 397-399

Asian immigrants, 5

in California, 121, 133, 137-140, 141, 151, 158

distribution patterns, 389-392

employment rates across cohorts, 271, 275

New Jersey household fiscal impacts, 81, 82, 85-86

New Jersey sociodemographic data, 73, 75, 77

trends among women, 242

Assimilation

criminal behavior and, 370, 383-384

female immigrants, 9

historical patterns, 292

labor market outcomes across female cohorts, 249-253, 260-261, 265, 270-271, 275-276, 286

labor market outcomes across male cohorts, 270-271



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The Immigration Debate: Studies on the Economic, Demographic, and Fiscal Effects of Immigration Index A Age-mediated effects cost-benefit analysis of fiscal impacts, 22-25 duration of immigrant residency, 303 employment rates across female cohorts, 264, 266 fertility patterns across female cohorts, 249-253 fiscal impacts of immigration, 3, 39-44 household consumption/revenues (California), 156-157, 158-159, 161 household consumption/revenues (New Jersey), 77-80, 81, 90-91 labor market outcomes across female cohorts, 249-253 no fiscal impact of population growth, 27-28 risk of criminal behavior, 370, 375, 381 use of government services, 52 See also Generational modeling Ages of immigrants, 42, 45 California household characteristics, 133-136 distribution of arriving cohorts, 40-41 historical patterns, 294-295, 299-301 New Jersey household data, 73-75 Aggregate production function, 317-319 Agricultural workers, 310-311 Aid to Families with Dependent Children California government expenditures , 141, 164 New Jersey government expenditures, 101-102, 103 Alcohol use/abuse, 369 Arizona, 413 Phoenix, 397-399 Asian immigrants, 5 in California, 121, 133, 137-140, 141, 151, 158 distribution patterns, 389-392 employment rates across cohorts, 271, 275 New Jersey household fiscal impacts, 81, 82, 85-86 New Jersey sociodemographic data, 73, 75, 77 trends among women, 242 Assimilation criminal behavior and, 370, 383-384 female immigrants, 9 historical patterns, 292 labor market outcomes across female cohorts, 249-253, 260-261, 265, 270-271, 275-276, 286 labor market outcomes across male cohorts, 270-271

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The Immigration Debate: Studies on the Economic, Demographic, and Fiscal Effects of Immigration B Beneficiary societies, 342-343 Bias and discrimination immigrant risk of imprisonment, 375-376 internal migration and, 404, 424 Bilingual education, 97, 121, 191 Border state crime rates, 378-380C California, 3-4, 5-6 distribution of government benefits, 150-153, 175-178 fiscal impacts of immigration, 121-122, 153-168 fiscal impacts research, methodology and data sources, 122-128, 168 -178 government expenditures, 131 government revenues, 128-130, 141-150, 168-175 household characteristics, 131-141, 167-168 immigrant/native tax revenues, 121, 141-150 immigrant population, 120-121 internal migration patterns, 392-393, 394-397, 404, 407, 413, 416, 417, 419-423 Los Angeles, 404, 424-425 patterns of immigration, 120 politics of immigration, 121 San Francisco, 404 significance of, in immigration analysis, 120 Canadian immigrants. See European/Canadian immigrants Capital-labor ratio, 320-322, 326 Children of immigrants fiscal impacts modeling, 184-185 See also Generational modeling Colombia, 374-375, 376-377 Colorado, 393 Denver, 399 Commission on Immigration Reform, 1 Consumption behavior demand side modeling, 218 fiscal impacts of immigration, 32-33, 61 of immigrants, 54-55 Corporate sector, 5 Cost-benefit analysis identifying beneficiaries, 72 intergovernmental modeling, 25-27 multiperiod-analysis, 22-25 theoretical model, 20-22 Countries of origin criminality research, 370-371 destination patterns and, 390, 412, 425 distribution in prisons, 373-375 employment rates across female cohorts, 261-263 employment rates across female immigrant cohorts, 271 trends, 239 trends among women, 241-242 See also Ethnicity; specific country or region Criminal activity, 2, 11 acculturation effects, 370, 383-384 age-mediated risk, 370, 375, 381 arrest rates correlated with immigration rates, 372 in border states, 378-380 challenges to research, 11, 368, 375, 382 costs of incarceration, 177-178 data sources, 368, 372-373, 380-381 detention before trial, 376 drug use among immigrants and, 376-378 early research, 369-371 immigrant group heterogeneity and, 374 immigrant victimization, 382 implications of fertility patterns, 382, 383, 384-385 New York homicide rate, 369-370, 372 number of incarcerated immigrants, 367 organized crime, 371 projections, 382, 383-385 public concern over time, 367-368, 371-372, 378 risk for, 381-382 risk of imprisonment, 375-376 turn of the century immigration law, 368-369 Cross-sectional analysis concurrent descendants formulation, 184-185 defining concurrent descendants, 186-187, 200 estimating expenditures and revenues, 187-192, 201-204 fiscal impacts (1994-1995), 192-201 fiscal impacts of concurrent descendants, 192-199 immigrant household fiscal impacts, 197-199

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The Immigration Debate: Studies on the Economic, Demographic, and Fiscal Effects of Immigration immigrant household formulation, 184 immigrant-only fiscal impacts, 197-199 immigrant-only formulation, 184 labor market outcomes for female cohorts, 258-260 limitations, 185 rationale, 7, 184, 199-200 research base, 185-186 vs. longitudinal study, 199, 200-201 Cuba, 375 Cultural factors in education, 55-56D Demand side modeling, 218 Deportation, 367 Disabled persons, 106-107 Dominican Republic, 375, 376-377 Drug trade and use, 376-378, 381 Duration of residency, 290, 302-305E Economic growth aggregate production function, 317-319 capital-labor ratio, 320-322, 326 defining, 314-315 economies of scale, 328-330 effects on immigration, 290, 305-307 historical patterns, 10 historical supply of human capital, 330-331 immigration effects, 291, 306, 316, 333-334 immigration-related mechanisms of, 10, 291 innovation and invention, 326-328 internal migration patterns, 394, 397, 399 labor force participation of immigrants, 319-320 as labor productivity, 315 measuring immigrant effects, 316-319 physical capital formation, 322-325 upward mobility of immigrants, 350 Economies of scale, 328-330 Education spending calculating household consumption, 96-100 California, 131, 152, 175-177 as income redistribution, 347-349 1994-1995, 191 Educational attainments, 11 among female immigrant cohorts, 243, 254 California household characteristics, 137-140 cultural factors, 55-56 employment rates across female cohorts, 263, 266, 268-269 fiscal impacts of population growth, 37-39, 46-48, 61 future fiscal inflows from, 61 immigrant destination patterns and, 390 internal migration patterns, 401-404, 406 international factor price convergence, 222 multi-period analysis of fiscal effects, 26 parental factors, 56 trends, 47 wage levels across female immigrant cohorts, 275-276, 277 Educational quality, 38-39 El Salvador, 374-375 Employment-based preferences, 51-52 Employment counseling/training, 104-106 Ethnicity, 5 educational system participation, 347-348 employment rates across female cohorts, 261-263, 271 sociodemographic variation among New Jersey immigrants, 73-77 socioeconomic disparities in high-immigration areas, 425 wage levels across female cohorts, 275-276, 277, 278, 280 See also Countries of origin Eugenics movement, 369 European/Canadian immigrants, 5 in California, 133, 137-140, 150, 157-158 macroeconomic models, 306, 307 New Jersey household fiscal impacts, 77, 80, 81, 86 New Jersey sociodemographic data, 73, 75, 77 trends among women, 242F Factor price equalization, 8, 210 Family reunification, 45, 389 Family structure and functioning across female immigrant cohorts, 246, 255-258 California household characteristics, 136, 167

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The Immigration Debate: Studies on the Economic, Demographic, and Fiscal Effects of Immigration education outcomes, 55-56 fertility patterns, 349-350, 383, 384-385 fiscal impacts, 45-46 New Jersey household fiscal impacts, 81-82 Female immigrants, 1-2 assimilation effects in labor market outcomes, 249-253, 260-261, 265, 275, 286 census data (1980 and 1990), 247-241 changes across cohorts, 247-249 country of origin trends, 241-242 economic assimilation, 9, 264 educational attainments, 347 educational attainments across cohorts, 243, 254 employment and wage patterns, 9-10 employment rate across cohorts, 243, 249-251, 260-275, 281-286 female-headed households, 52, 53, 82-83, 86 fertility outcomes across cohorts, 246, 248, 255-258 historical patterns, 10, 290, 300-301 human capital variables, 243 labor market outcomes, 239-240 labor market outcomes across cohorts, 243-247, 248, 249-253, 281-287 language skills across cohorts, 243, 254-255 marital status changes across cohorts, 246, 248, 255 research base, 239 wage levels across cohorts, 243-246, 249, 252-253, 275-280 Fiscal impacts of immigration age-mediated differences, 40-44 California case study, 3-4, 5-6, 121-178 consumption and savings patterns, 32-33 cost-benefit analysis, 20-27 cross-sectional analysis, 7, 184-186, 192-201 effects of immigrant characteristics, 39-40 ethnic variation, 5 general equilibrium modeling, 68-69 generational modeling, 6-7, 15 geographic concentration, 3-4, 11-12, 56-57 historical analysis, 10-11 household-level analysis, 4, 5-6, 66, 69, 87-88 immigrant vs. native households (California), 152-168 immigrant vs. native households (New Jersey), 87, 168 income distribution changes, 334-349 increasing returns to scale, effects of, 30, 60-61, 216-217 legal status of immigrants, 71-72 on local government, 25-27, 68 modeling education effects, 37-39 modeling international trade, 209-219 neutrality model, 27-29, 60 New Jersey case study, 3-5, 6, 69-116 1994-1995, 186, 192-199 nonuniform increases in age groups, 34-37 research base, 2-3, 57-62, 66-69 research design, 3, 6-7, 13-14, 183-186 skill level of immigrants, 33-34, 46-48 theoretical framework for assessing, 2, 3, 14-19, 39-40 top-down vs. bottom-up modeling, 71, 122-123 wage patterns, 48-51 Florida, 191, 399 internal migration patterns, 393, 413 Miami, 397, 404G General equilibrium modeling, 68-69 international trade, 208-219 Generational modeling, 6-7 concurrent descendants formulation, 184-185, 186, 192-197, 200-201 educational effects on fiscal impacts, 37-39 fiscal impacts (1994-1995), 192-201 fiscal impacts of immigrant children, 184-185 limitations of cross-sectional approaches, 184-185 local government fiscal modeling, 26 long-run general equilibrium models, 208. See also specific model longitudinal, 199, 200-201 multi-period cost-benefit analysis of fiscal impacts, 22-25 nonuniform population growth, fiscal effects of 34-37 theoretical framework, 15 Geographic distribution, 11-12 concentration of immigrants, 389-392, 423-424 federal compensation to high immigration states, 197

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The Immigration Debate: Studies on the Economic, Demographic, and Fiscal Effects of Immigration fiscal impacts, 3-6, 57, 194-197 historical wage differentials, 337-339 internal migration, 12 metropolitan patterns, 394-399 modeling out-migration from high-immigration areas, 413, 416-417, 419-423 patterns, 56-57, 399-401 socioeconomic disparities in high-immigration areas, 425 state trends, 392-394 wage and labor differences, 11-12 See also Internal migration; specific U.S. state Georgia, 393, 413 Atlanta, 399 Government services, consumption of California households, 126-127, 140-141, 150-153, 175-178 California immigrants, 121 cost-benefit analysis, 20-22 family composition factors, 45-46 fiscal impacts of immigration, 3, 60-62 historical patterns, 10-11, 291, 340-343 household level, 5-6 immigrant patterns, 43, 67-68 immigrant skill levels and, 52-54 native-born households, 5-6, 52-54 New Jersey households, 77-86, 93-108 research methodology, 13-14 theoretical model, 15-16 trends in eligibility, 13 Government spending allocation to households, 70, 89-93 California, 121, 131, 175-178 characteristics of immigrant groups as factor in, 55, 167-168 cost-benefit analysis, 20-22, 25-27 cross-sectional analysis, 201-204 education, 55-56, 77, 80, 347-349 education effects on fiscal impact, 37-39 federal compensation to high immigration states, 197 fiscal impacts of immigration (1994-1995), 192-201 future fiscal inflows from, 61-62 historical income redistribution through social spending, 339-349 immigrant age-mediated effects, 43-46 intergovernmental externalities, 27 intergovernmental transfers, 26-27 investments, 18 multi-period analysis, 22-25 1994-1995, 187-192 old-age support, 345-347 in penal system, 367 public debt management, 19, 30, 187, 188-189 on public goods and services, 16-18, 30-32, 60, 70, 187, 188 theoretical model, 16-19 on transfers, 18-19, 187, 189-191 variation in marginal cost of public services, 30-32 See also Government services, consumption of; Tax payments Guatemala, 374-375H Heckscher-Olin model of international trade, 211-215 High-skilled labor in fiscal impacts of population growth, 33-34 historical patterns, 312-313 See also Skill levels of immigrants High education allocation of costs/benefits (California), 177 allocation of costs/benefits (New Jersey), 97-100 Hispanic immigrants criminal activity, 378-379 destination patterns, 390-392 language skills, 48 in prisons, 373-375, 376-378 See also Latin American immigrants Historical developments, 10-11 African American internal migration, 337 age of immigrants, 42 assimilation of immigrants, 292 capital-labor ratio, 320-322, 326 characteristics of immigrants, 290-291 concerns about criminality and immigration, 367-368, 371-372 distribution of social spending, 339-349 duration of immigrant stay, 302-305 economic growth effects of immigration, 291 economic mobility of immigrants, 350 geographic distribution of immigrants, 56

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The Immigration Debate: Studies on the Economic, Demographic, and Fiscal Effects of Immigration human capital mix of immigrants, 47 immigrant demography, 299-301 immigrant-native wage differentials, 334-339 immigrant savings behavior, 323-325 291-292, 334 income distribution effects of immigration, interpretation of, 289-290 labor force participation of immigrants, 319-320 magnitude of immigration, 290, 292-298 occupations of arriving immigrants, 310-313 physical capital formation, 322-326 relevance to policymaking, 350-352 research base, 289 skills of immigrants, 290-291, 307-310 supply of human capital, 330-331 wage patterns, 48-51, 331-334 Home ownership, 326, 348 Household-level analysis, 5-6 allocation of costs and benefits, 72 allocation of government expenditures and revenues, 70-71, 88-116 California data, 123-125, 131-141 consumption of government services, 5-6, 66-67, 150-153 cross-sectional, 184 educational costs of immigration, 122, 152 female-headed households, 52, 53, 82-83, 86 fiscal impact studies, 4, 5, 66, 69 fiscal impacts of immigration (California), 122 fiscal impacts of immigration (New Jersey), 80-83, 84-86 future research, 87-88 generational modeling, 6-7 immigrant vs. native fiscal impacts, 87, 153-168 legal status issues, 71-72 local government spending (New Jersey), 83-84 methodology, 69, 70-72 New Jersey data, 72-77 rationale, 69-70 significance of, 68 state government spending (New Jersey), 77-80 tax revenues (California), 125-126, 128-130, 141-150 tax revenues (New Jersey), 109-112, 115-116I Illegal immigrants, 302, 373 arrest and prosecution, 375-376 fiscal impact modeling, 71-72 tax payments, 68 Illinois Chicago, 370, 397, 404 internal migration patterns, 392-393, 413, 416 Immigration Reform and Control Act, 293, 301 Incentives to migrate factor price equalization model, 210 general equilibrium models of international trade, 209-219 immigrant skill linkage, 308 international factor price convergence, 219-223 metropolitan migration patterns, 397 opportunities for innovation, 327 out-migration from high-immigration areas, 401-407 policy effects, 290, 305 push-pull model, 308, 401, 424 state internal migration patterns, 392-394 U.S. economic conditions, 290, 305-307 Income California households, 140, 159, 167 general effects of immigration, 192 immigration-related redistribution, 334-337 New Jersey immigrant households, 75-77 redistribution through social spending, 339-349 theoretical model, 15-16 See also Wages Innovation, 326-328 Intergovernmental transfers, 26-27 Internal migration, 2 African Americans, 292, 337 concentration of immigrants, 389-392 demographic variables, 419-420 economic conditions and, 394, 397, 399 educational attainments and, 401-404, 406 from high-immigration areas, 401-407 immigration and, 12 impact analysis, 407-413, 416-417, 419-423 implications, 388, 424-428 labor market effects, 389 local government effects, 25-26 metropolitan patterns, 394-399 motivations, 423-424

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The Immigration Debate: Studies on the Economic, Demographic, and Fiscal Effects of Immigration nested logit model analysis, 410-413, 428-432 patterns, 388-389, 392, 401 policy issues, 410 prejudice and, 404, 424 regional and nonmetro, 399 spillover effects, 420-423 state trends, 392-394 International trade, 8 demand side models, 218 factor content analysis, 224-230 factor price equalization, 8, 210 general equilibrium models, 208-219 Heckscher-Olin model, 211-215 immigration surplus in two-goods economy, 207-208 increasing returns to scale, 216-217 migration linkages, 206, 223-234 modified factor price equalization model, 213-215 policymaking, 231-233 Ricardian model, 215-216 wage levels and, 8-9, 223-234J Jamaica, 374-375L Labor markets, 8 capital-labor ratio, 320-322 capital ownership by workers, 321-322 economic growth-immigration linkages, 291 employment-based immigration policy, 51-52 employment rates across female cohorts, 243, 249-251, 260-275, 281 -286 employment rates across male cohorts, 269-270, 282-286 geographic variation, 11-12 historical participation of immigrants, 319-320 historical supply of human capital, 330-331 historical wage-immigration linkages, 331-334 immigrant outcomes, 48-51 immigration surplus in two-goods economy, 207-208 impacts of immigration, 2 increasing returns to scale, 216-217 internal migration of less-skilled workers, 407-413, 416-417, 419-423, 425 macroeconomic models of immigration, 306, 307 occupational distribution of arriving immigrants, 50-51 outcomes for immigrant men, 282-286 outcomes for immigrant women, 9-10, 239-240 productivity, 315, 333 upward mobility of immigrants, 350 wage levels across female cohorts, 243-246, 249, 252-253, 275-280, 286 wage-trade linkages, 223-234 wages and, 8-9 Language skills, 48 among female immigrant cohorts, 243, 254-255 bilingual education, 97, 121, 191 employment rates across female cohorts, 263-264, 266-268 Latin American immigrants, 5 in California, 121, 133, 136, 137, 140, 141, 143, 149, 150-151, 158, 163 distribution patterns, 389-392 New Jersey household fiscal impacts, 77-80, 81-82, 86 New Jersey sociodemographic data, 75, 77 in prisons, 373 trends among women, 242 See also Hispanic immigrants Local government cost-benefit modeling, 25-27 expense allocation to households, 70 fiscal impacts of immigration, 68, 83-86, 167, 192-193 revenues (California), 130 revenues (New Jersey), 115-116 spending among households (New Jersey), 83-86, 112-115 Longitudinal studies, 2, 6-7, 183-184 vs. cross-sectional analysis, 199, 200-201M Marital status among female immigrant cohorts, 246, 248, 255 employment rates across female immigrant cohorts, 264, 268

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The Immigration Debate: Studies on the Economic, Demographic, and Fiscal Effects of Immigration immigration statistics, 45-46 wage levels across female immigrant cohorts, 275-276, 277 Massachusetts Boston, 370, 397 internal migration patterns, 393, 413 Medicaid, 78-80, 100-103 California consumption/expenditures, 141 New Jersey government expenditures, 100-101 1994-1995 consumption/expenditures, 191 Medical care California government expenditures, 131 pharmaceutical assistance, 103-104 Medicare, California consumption/expenditures, 131, 140, 163, 164-165 Mexico incarcerated immigrants from, 373, 374-375, 381-382 labor market outcomes across emigrant cohorts, 271, 275, 280, 286 migration-trade linkage, 206 Migrant workers, 302 Mortality determinants of, 40-41 modeling fiscal impacts of immigration, 42-43N Natives consumption of government services, 5-6, 52-54 fertility patterns, 255-258, 349-350 fiscal impacts (California), 141-168 fiscal impacts (New Jersey), 77-86 household characteristics (California), 133, 136, 137, 140-141 incarceration rate, 374 internal migration patterns, 388-389 labor force participation, 319-320 labor market outcomes for women, 266, 268-269 occupational skills, 291, 309-314 out-migration from high-immigration areas, 401-413 out-migration from high-immigration states, 416-417, 419-423 public assistance consumption, 67 savings and consumption patterns, 54-55, 325 taxes paid, 5-6 Nested logit model analysis, 410-413, 428-432 Nevada, 413 Las Vegas, 397-399 New Jersey, 3-5, 6 fiscal impacts of immigration, 68, 69, 168 fiscal impacts research, methodology, and data sources, 86-116 internal migration patterns, 392-393, 407 local expenditures, 112-115 local level fiscal impacts of immigration, 83-86 local revenues, 115-116 sociodemographics of immigrant population, 72-77 state expenditures, 93-108 state level fiscal impacts of immigration, 77-83 state revenues, 109-112 New York homicide rate, 369-370, 372 internal migration patterns, 392-393, 397, 404, 413, 416, 417, 419 -423 North American Free Trade Agreement, 206 North Carolina, 399 Numbers of immigrants historical patterns, 10, 290, 292-298 illegal, 373 in jails and prisons, 367, 372-373, 381-382 1994-1995, 186-187 as source of population change, 297-298O Old-age support, 345-347 Organized crime, 371P Penal system data sources, 372-373, 380-381 detention before trial, 376, 381 distribution of countries of origin, 373-375, 381 immigrant population in, 367, 372-373, 381-382 immigrant risk of imprisonment, 375-376 native population, 374 Pennsylvania, 413 Philadelphia, 370 Pension systems, 345

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The Immigration Debate: Studies on the Economic, Demographic, and Fiscal Effects of Immigration Physical capital, 322-325 Policymaking in California, 121 criminal justice issues, 367, 382 effects on immigration, 290, 305 employment-based preferences, 51-52 federal compensation to high immigration states, 197 historical understanding of immigration effects, 350-352 implications of internal migration, 424-428 internal migration patterns, 410 trade and immigration, 231-233 turn of the century immigration law, 368-369 Population growth fiscal impact modeling, 27-39 immigration as source of change in, 297-298, 314 theoretical framework for modeling, 14, 27 Portland, Oregon, 397-399 Poverty across female immigrant cohorts, 246 Productivity, 315, 333 Prohibition, 369 Property taxes, 107, 147-148, 171-173, 190-191 Public perception and understanding, 404 concerns about immigrant crime, 367-369, 371-372, 378R Remigration historical patterns, 302-305, 306 modeling fiscal effects of immigrants, 41, 42-43 Ricardian model of international trade, 215-216S Savings behavior capital ownership by workers, 321-322 fiscal impacts of immigration, 32-33, 61 generational modeling, 15 home ownership trends, 326 immigrant patterns, 323-325 of immigrants, 54-55 physical capital formation, 322-325 Self-employment, 50, 325 Skill levels of immigrants, 46 consumption of government services and, 52-54 destination patterns and, 390, 412 general equilibrium models of international trade, 209-219 historical trend, 290-291, 308-314 internal migration of low-skilled workers, 409-410 internal migration patterns, 388-389, 404 language fluency, 48 motivation to migrate and, 308 occupational distribution, 50-51, 313-314 occupations on arrival, 310-313 policy issues, 307-308 relative to natives, 291, 309-310 trends, 239 U.S. policy, 51-52 See also Educational attainments; High-skilled labor; Unskilled labor Social Security, 345-347 California consumption/expenditures, 140-141, 143-144, 150, 163, 164-165 immigrant age distribution and, 43 immigrant consumption, 43 1994-1995 consumption/expenditures, 189-190 Supplemental Security Income California government expenditures, 141, 164 New Jersey government expenditures, 102-103T Tax payments, 3 California households, 125-126, 128-130, 141-150, 168-175 California immigrants, 121 cost-benefit analysis of fiscal impacts, 20-22 cross-sectional analysis, 187-192, 201-204 family composition factors, 45-46 fiscal impacts of immigrants (1994-1995), 192-201 historical effects of immigration, 11 immigrant vs. native households, 5-6, 68 multi-period analysis, 23-24 New Jersey households, 80-82, 90, 91, 109-112, 115-116 obstacles to modeling, 185 population growth modeling, 30, 32-33 research methodology, 13-14 theoretical model, 15-16, 19, 27

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The Immigration Debate: Studies on the Economic, Demographic, and Fiscal Effects of Immigration transfers, 18-19 worker skill level, multi-period analysis, 33-34 Technological innovation and invention, 326-328 Tennessee, 399 Texas Austin, 399 El Paso, 376, 378 Houston, 404 internal migration patterns, 392-393, 394, 397, 407, 413, 416 Tourism, 5 Transfer payments, 18-19 age-mediated effects, 43-44 cost-benefit analysis, 20 educational services, 347-349 family composition correlated with, 45-46 income distribution effects of immigration, 291-292, 334 intergovernmental, 26-27 multi-period analysis, 22-23 1994-1995, 187 old-age support programs, 345-347 through social spending, 339-345 uneven distribution of immigration effects, 207U Unskilled labor elasticity of demand, 11-12 in fiscal impacts of population growth, 33-34 geographic variation, 11-12 occupations of arriving immigrants, 310 wage-trade linkage, 223 See also Skill levels of immigrantsW Wages across female immigrant cohorts, 243-246, 249, 252-253, 275-281 among male immigrant cohorts, 277-278 capital-labor ratio, 320-321 cohort and assimilation effects, 258-259 estimating, for female immigrants, 241 factor price equilization model, 210 female immigrants, 9-10 general effects of immigration, 192, 291-292 geographic variation, 12 Heckscher-Olin model of international trade, 211-215 immigrant patterns, 48-51 immigration effects, 315, 316, 331-334 immigration-related inequality, 334-339 international factor price convergence, 219-223 international trade and, 8 labor markets and, 8-9 measuring immigrant effects, 317 migration-trade linkage, 206-207, 223-234 regional variation, 337-339 trade vs. immigration effects, 230-231 U.S. trends, 206-207 See also Income Washington, D.C., 397