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Appendix I BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES ON COMMITTEE MEMBERS AND CONSULTANTS JAY P. SANFORD is president of the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USUHS) and dean of the F. Edward Hebert School of Medicine, USUHS, Bethesda, Maryland. Prior to his arrival at USUHS in 1975, he was professor of internal medicine and chief of the Infectious Disease Service at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical School, Dallas. Dr. Sanford is a member of the Institute of Medicine and has served on numerous scientific advisory boards and on the editorial boards of more than 10 scientific journals; he is a former associate editor of the Journal _ Clinical Investigation. He received his M.D. degree from the University of Michigan Medical School. MARSHALL H. BECKER is professor and chairman in the Department of Health Behavior, School of Public Health, and professor in the Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor. From 1974 to 1977 he was associate professor in the departments of pediatrics, behavioral sciences, and social relations at Johns Hopkins University. He has published extensively on such topics as beliefs and attitudes as determinants of individuals' health-related behaviors, patient compliance with prescribed regimens, diffusion of innovations among health professionals, drug-prescr~bing patterns, and different approaches to organizing the delivery of medical care. He is a medical sociologist and holds M.P.H. and Ph.D. degrees from the University of Michigan. LAWRENCE M. DeBROCK is assistant professor of economics at the University of Illinois in Urbana-Champaign. His research has focused on the effects of government policies on market outcomes, including such areas as invention and innovation, energy, and health care. He received his M.A. and Ph.D. degrees from Cornell University and his B.A. from Bradley University. ROGER B. DWORKIN is professor of law and Harry T. Ice Faculty Fellow at the Indiana University School of Law, Bloomington, where he has been on the faculty since 1968. He also has served as professor of biomedical history at the University of Washington School of 196

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197 Medicine. His primary research and public service activities involve the relationship between law and the biomedical sciences. He was educated at Princeton University and Stanford Law School. BERNARD N. FIELDS is the Adele H. Lehman Professor and chairman of the Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics at Harvard Medical School, a position he has held since 1982. His research has focused on the molecular basis of viral pathogenesis. He has served on a number of scientific advisory boards, was chairman of the Experimental Virology Study Section of the National Institutes of Health, and is an editor of the Journal of Virology. He recently was elected to membership in the National Academy of Sciences. He received his M.D. degree from New York University Medical School and his B.A. from Brandeis University. ~ JERK E. GOYAN is professor of pharmacy and pharmaceutical chemistry and dean of the School of Pharmacy of the University of California, San Francisco. From 1979 to 1981, he was commissioner of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. His research interests involve the physical chemistry of dosage form design. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine and has served on numerous scientific advisory boards and committees related to his research interests, pharmacy education, and drug regulation. He received his bachelor's degree in pharmacy from the University of California, San Francisco, and his Ph.D. degree in pharmaceutical chemistry from the University of California, Berkeley. HENRY G. GRABOWSKI has been at Duke University since 1972 and is a professor of economics. He is also an adjunct scholar of the American Institute of Public Policy Regulation. Professor Grabowski has held visiting appointments at the Health Care Financing Administration and the International Institute of Management in Berlin, Germany. He has published numerous articles and books on the pharmaceutical industry, including studies of the research and development process, the international diffusion of new drugs, and the effects of various government policy actions. He also has authored cost-benefit studies of government regulatory actions in various other industrial sectors. He has served as an advisor and consultant to several organizations, including the National Academy of Engineering, the General Accounting Office, and the Office of Technology Assessment. Professor Grabowski received his undergraduate degree in engineering physics at Lehigh University in 1962 and his Ph.D. in economics from Princeton University in 1967. SAMUEL L. KATZ is the Wilbur C. Davison Professor of Pediatrics and chairman of the Department of Pediatrics at Duke University, a position he has held since 1968. His research has focused on human virology, infectious diseases, and immunization. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine and has served on a variety of scientific advisory boards, committees and consultative groups, and editorial

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198 boards relating to problems in infectious diseases and immunization. He received his M.D. degree from Harvard University and his B.A. degree from Dartmouth College. EDMUND W. KITCH is professor of law and member of the Center for Advanced Studies, the University of Virginia. He is a member of the bars of the U.S e Supreme Court, numerous federal courts, and the states of Illinois and Kansas. He has written in the fields of antitrust, industrial torts~and property, legal history, constitutional law, and law and economics. He received his B.A. degree from Yale University and his J.D. from the University of Chicago. From 1965 to 1982 he was a member of the faculty of the University of Chicago Law School. He has served the federal government as special assistant to the Solicitor General (1972-1973) and executive director of the Civil Aeronautics Board Committee on Procedural Reform (1974-1975~. LOUIS LASAGNA is academic dean of the medical school and dean of the Sackler School of Graduate Biomedical Sciences at Tufts University. Previously, he served as chairman of the Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology at the University of Rochester Medical School for 10 years. He is also director of the Center for the Study of Drug Development, which moved from Rochester to Boston in 1984, and has been chairman of the Advisory Board of the Center since its inauguration in 1976. He led the first unit of clinical pharmacology at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, where he held academic appointments for 16 years prior to his move to Rochester. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Lasagna received his B.S. degree from Rutgers University and his M.D. from Columbia University. MARTHA L. LEPOW has been professor of pediatrics and program director of the Clinical Research Center at Albany Medical College since 1979. She is a specialist in infectious diseases; her principal research interest is in the development of vaccines against the meningococcus and Hemophilus influenzas type b, the commonest cause of meningitis in infants and young children. She has served on a number of scientific committees and consultative groups. Dr. Lepow received her B.A. degree from Oberlin College and her M.D. from Case Western Reserve University. DAVID W. MARTIN, JR. is vice-president of Research and Development of Genentech, Inc. in South San Francisco, California. He is also adjunct professor of medicine and biochemistry at the University of California, San Francisco. He attended the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Duke University, from which he received the M.D. degree in 1964. He is a member of the Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee of the National Institutes of Health, serves on several editorial boards of scientific journals, and is the major author and editor of HarPer's Review of Biochemistry. His research involves inherited metabolic diseases, particularly disorders of purine metabolism and immunodeficiencies.

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199 DONALD N. MEDEARIS, JR. is Charles Wilder Professor of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, and chief, Children's Services, Massachusetts General Hospital. He graduated from the University of Kansas in 1950 with an A.B. in chemistry and received his M.D. from Harvard in 1953. He interned in internal medicine at Barnes Hospital, St. Louis, and served a residency in pediatrics at Children's Hospital, Cincinnati. He has served on the faculties of Johns Hopkins, Pittsburgh, and Case Western Reserve, and on national advisory groups concerning general research support, clinical research, immunization, and graduate medical education. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine and was a member of the President's Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine and Biomedical and Behavioral Research from 1979 to 1982. THOMAS C. MERIGAN is the first holder of the George E. and Lucy Becker Professorship in Medicine at Stanford University, and heads the Division of Infectious Diseases at Stanford. He is both an active clinician and an internationally known researcher in the field of infectious disease. He has served on the editorial boards of 13 journals, edited 6 books, and published more than 330 scientific papers. He has been a member of a number of national and international scientific advisory committees, including those of the National Institutes of Health, the Hartford and Lasker foundations, the American Cancer Society, and the World Health Organization. He is also a member of the Institute of Medicine. He received the Guggenheim Fellowship Award in 1972 and the Borden Award for Outstanding Research from the American Association of Medical Colleges in 1973. He received his undergraduate degree with honors in 1955 from the University of California, Berkeley, and his M.D. in 1958 from the University of California, San Francisco. EDWARD A. MORTIMER, JR. has been Elisabeth Severance Prentiss Professor and chairman of the Department of Epidemiology and Community Health, and professor of pediatrics at the Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine since 1975. From 1966 to 1975 he chaired the Department of Pediatrics at the University of New Mexico. His interests have been primarily in epidemiology, especially of infectious diseases. He serves or has served on a number of advisory groups concerned with immunization and control of infection. He received his A.B. degree from Dartmouth College and his M.D. from Northwestern University. JANE E. SISK is a project director in the Health Program of the congressional Office of Technology Assessment, a position she has held since 1981. She recently completed a project on the medical devices industry, and previously worked on studies of federal vaccine policies and on cost-effectiveness analyses of influenza and pneumococcal vaccines. From 1978 to 1981, she was a Veterans Administration scholar based at the National Center for Health Services Research, where she examined the use of medical technologies under different financing and organizational arrangements. She received a Ph.D. in

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200 economics from McGill University and a B.A. in international relations from Brown University. GENE STOLLERMAN is professor of medicine at Boston University School of Medicine and chief of the General Internal Medicine Section at University Hospital, Boston. From 1965 to 1981, he was professor and chairman of the Department of Medicine at the University of Tennessee College of Medicine, Memphis. He has served on many scientific advisory boards and is the editor of Advances in Tnt~rn~ 1 Medicine and the "Capsule and Comments" section of Hospital Practice. He received his A.B. degree from Dartmouth College and his M.D. from the College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University. THOMAS H. WELLER is the Richard P. Strong Professor of Tropical Public Health at Harvard, a position he has held since 1954. In that year, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine with his colleagues John Enders and Frederick Robbins for work that led to the polio vaccine. Trained as a pediatrician, his research has focused on viral diseases of children and on tropical diseases. He is a member of both the National Academy of Sciences and the Institute of Medicine. He has served as senior advisor for research programs of the World Health Organization, the U.S. Agency for International Development, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases of the National Institutes of Health, and the Centers for Disease Control. He received his A.B. and M.S. degrees from the University of Michigan, and his M.D. from Harvard Medical School.