Index

A

Acid deposition, 33, 49, 53, 193, 232, 502

Aerosol Radiative Forcing and Climate Change, 406

Aerosols, 192, 197-199, 205, 206, 209, 223, 227-231, 404, 406-409, 449, 489, 492, 503, 520, 528

decadal to centennial climate change, 153, 164, 170, 172, 175, 180, 396, 398-399

large-scale ecosystems, 28, 44, 68

models, 230-231, 406-407

paleoclimatology, 254, 255

Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer, 28

Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer, 28, 94, 380, 417

Agriculture, 296, 306, 307, 412, 460, 461, 499, 521, 557

fertilizers, 33, 34, 174, 296, 412

large-scale ecosystem modeling, 19, 20, 33, 44

monsoons, 91-94

production/climate models, 299-300, 312, 314

rain, 95-96

wetlands, 173

see also Department of Agriculture

Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer, 382

Air pollution, 33, 49-51, 73, 170, 192, 205-206, 520

emissions trading, 320

see also Acid deposition;

Aerosols;

Carbon dioxide;

Greenhouse gases;

Ozone layer depletion;

Ozone, tropospheric;

Particulate matter;

Photochemical oxidants;

Trace gases

Albedo, 94-95, 159, 162, 163, 164, 166, 172, 183, 256, 462

UV radiation and, 227

All-India Rainfall Index, 91, 93, 94

Amazon basin, 20, 27, 54, 299, 301, 304, 306, 314, 462

American River, 134-137

Antarctica, 147, 158-161, 182, 159, 160, 162, 182

ozone hole, 6-7, 191, 194-195, 201, 206, 227, 488

paleoclimatology, 241, 242, 246, 248, 270

Anthropogenic factors, see Human factors in global environment

Archiving, 538

decadal to centennial climate change, 154, 155

human factors, 337, 348, 351, 356

paleoclimatology, 269, 275

precipitation data, 120, 389



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 575
GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE: Research Pathways for the Next Decade Index A Acid deposition, 33, 49, 53, 193, 232, 502 Aerosol Radiative Forcing and Climate Change, 406 Aerosols, 192, 197-199, 205, 206, 209, 223, 227-231, 404, 406-409, 449, 489, 492, 503, 520, 528 decadal to centennial climate change, 153, 164, 170, 172, 175, 180, 396, 398-399 large-scale ecosystems, 28, 44, 68 models, 230-231, 406-407 paleoclimatology, 254, 255 Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer, 28 Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer, 28, 94, 380, 417 Agriculture, 296, 306, 307, 412, 460, 461, 499, 521, 557 fertilizers, 33, 34, 174, 296, 412 large-scale ecosystem modeling, 19, 20, 33, 44 monsoons, 91-94 production/climate models, 299-300, 312, 314 rain, 95-96 wetlands, 173 see also Department of Agriculture Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer, 382 Air pollution, 33, 49-51, 73, 170, 192, 205-206, 520 emissions trading, 320 see also Acid deposition; Aerosols; Carbon dioxide; Greenhouse gases; Ozone layer depletion; Ozone, tropospheric; Particulate matter; Photochemical oxidants; Trace gases Albedo, 94-95, 159, 162, 163, 164, 166, 172, 183, 256, 462 UV radiation and, 227 All-India Rainfall Index, 91, 93, 94 Amazon basin, 20, 27, 54, 299, 301, 304, 306, 314, 462 American River, 134-137 Antarctica, 147, 158-161, 182, 159, 160, 162, 182 ozone hole, 6-7, 191, 194-195, 201, 206, 227, 488 paleoclimatology, 241, 242, 246, 248, 270 Anthropogenic factors, see Human factors in global environment Archiving, 538 decadal to centennial climate change, 154, 155 human factors, 337, 348, 351, 356 paleoclimatology, 269, 275 precipitation data, 120, 389

OCR for page 575
GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE: Research Pathways for the Next Decade satellite data, general, 30, 121, 390, 427, 436, 437 snow, 390 vegetation, 123, 392 Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition, 53 Arctic systems, 25, 27, 32, 160, 161, 166, 249, 264, 265, 401 ozone layer depletion, other than Antarctica, 197, 201 polar platforms, 14-15, 29, 428, 430 see also Antarctica; Cryosphere; Greenland Atlantic Ocean, 53, 100 North Atlantic Oscillation, 133, 138-139, 141, 142, 150, 151, 157, 161, 165, 168, 257, 302 surface temperature, other, 98, 133, 145, 149, 151, 156, 165, 168 thermohaline circulation, 141, 147, 169, 267 Younger Dryas, 132, 242-243, 252 Atmosphere-ocean interactions, 100, 114, 219, 408, 425-426, 528 carbon dioxide exchange, 20, 21, 36, 173, 181, 384, 478, 479, 480-486, 491, 501-502 decadal to centennial climate change, 127, 136, 137, 141, 143, 148-149, 155, 156-159, 173, 181, 182-183, 396; see also “paleoclimatology” infra ecosystems, 20, 21, 36, 51 GOALS, 110, 114, 115, 117, 379, 387, 388 models, 14, 89, 99, 100, 101, 112, 114, 115, 148, 154, 156, 266-267, 268, 383, 387, 399, 453, 454, 456, 457, 473-487, 490-493, 500-502 paleoclimatology, 240, 251, 266 sea level pressure, 136, 137, 141, 143, 388 see also El Niño; La Niña; Sea surface temperature Atmospheric boundary layers, 29, 107, 115-116, 152, 155, 168, 174-175, 183, 200, 201, 221, 400, 519 Atmospheric chemistry, xi, xii, 8, 170-176, 191-236, 277, 353-354, 399-410, 453, 464, 487-495, 498, 502-503, 519-520, 524 case studies, 193 data management, 193-194, 206-207, 220 decadal to centennial climate change, 129, 170-176 large-scale ecosystems, 21, 22, 23, 28, 33, 44, 49-51, 53, 69 models, 191, 194, 201, 204, 207, 208, 209, 213, 214, 218, 219, 220-221, 225, 226, 227, 230, 231-232, 487-495, 502-503, 520 regional factors, 33, 49, 203, 204, 224, 227, 229, 403, 405-406 satellite technology, 207, 220, 223, 227, 407 see also Aerosols; Air pollution; Greenhouse gases; Ozone layer depletion; Trace gases Atmospheric circulation, 489 decadal to centennial climate change, 136, 153-156, 152, 153-156 experimental studies, 229-230, 402, 406 paleoclimatology, 251, 271, 276, 277 wind, 99, 113, 121, 136, 159, 182, 259, 388, 390-391, 395, 397, 460, 467 see also Atmospheric transport; El Niño; General circulation models; La Niña; North Atlantic Oscillation; North Pacific Oscillation Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project, 96-97, 451 Atmospheric moisture, 9, 202, 222-224, 449, 457, 467, 524, 528 decadal to centennial climate change, 127, 128, 164-165, 167-168, 170, 175, 179-180, 183, 395 large-scale ecosystems, 29, 61, 68 seasonal to interannual climate change, 97, 104, 108, 113, 115, 387, 388 see also Aerosols; Clouds and cloud cover; Evaporation; Greenhouse gases; Humidity; Precipitation; Transpiration/evapotranspiration Atmospheric pressure, 102, 108, 136, 141, 395 see also Sea level pressure Atmospheric temperature, 5, 15, 378, 379 decadal to centennial climate change, 127, 128, 131, 132, 170, 171, 174, 179, 258, 395 ecosystems, 21, 23, 25-26, 29 ozone layer, 200 paleoclimatology, 131, 132, 241, 243, 244, 248, 250, 251, 254-255, 257, 264-268

OCR for page 575
GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE: Research Pathways for the Next Decade seasonal to interannual climate change, 102, 107, 384, 388 surface air temperature, 95, 121-122, 141, 166, 388, 391, 455, 460 see also Albedo; El Niño; Glaciers and glacial/interglacial cycles; Greenhouse gases; La Niña Atmospheric transport, 7, 8, 23, 37, 164, 174, 175, 194, 203, 205, 208, 218, 219, 221, 225, 226, 265, 266, 399, 448, 454, 489-493, 502 see also Atmospheric circulation Attitudes, 327-328, 340, 442, 521 B Biodiversity, 21, 23, 31-32, 42, 45-46, 54-56, 68, 70, 302, 307, 380, 382-383, 521 Biogeochemistry, 8, 380, 449, 450, 453, 456, 457-466 (passim), 471, 480-483, 499, 518 human dimension, general, 294-296, 304 land use/cover, 294-296, 304 large-scale ecosystem models, 20, 23, 25, 30, 31, 37-41, 42, 43, 53, 68, 71, 72 see also Atmospheric chemistry; Carbon cycle; Hydrological cycles; Nitrogen and nitrogen cycle Biogeography, 26, 38, 39, 41, 71 Biological Aspects of the Hydrological Cycle Core Project, 23 Biomass, 388, 405, 457-458, 460 burning, 20, 30, 44, 53, 69, 164, 173, 175, 224, 225, 229, 340, 381, 403, 404, 407, 408, 491, 496 carbon storage, 170 miscalculations, 305 phytoplankton, 51 trace gases, 272 Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study, 26, 28 Boundary layers, see Atmospheric boundary layers; Sea surface temperature; Terrestrial-atmosphere interactions; Terrestrial-ocean interactions Brazil, 95-96, 145 Amazon basin, 20, 27, 54, 299, 301, 304, 306, 314 C Carbon cycle, xii, 3, 5, 15, 380, 381, 457-462, 464, 491, 498, 518, 522, 528 case studies, 34-41 decadal to centennial climate change, 162-164, 170, 171-173, 396 funding of research, 12 integrated assessments, 324 land use, 5, 34, 162-163, 496 large-scale ecosystems, 20, 21, 24-43 (passim), 46, 47, 51, 56, 59, 65, 66-67, 68, 71 ocean processes, 20, 21, 36, 173, 181, 384, 478, 479, 480-486, 491, 501-502 seasonal to interannual climate change, 26, 158-159, 458 see also Greenhouse gases Carbon dioxide, other decadal to centennial climate changes, 133, 171-173, 180-181 large-scale ecosystems, 23, 31, 32, 43, 44, 48, 49-51, 57-60, 69, 70, 72, 73, 385 paleoclimatology, 241, 254, 256, 257, 260, 264 time series data, 446-447 see also Carbon cycle; Fossil fuel emissions; Greenhouse gases Case studies, 471 atmospheric chemistry, 193, 211 carbon cycle, 34-41 decadal to centennial climate change, 130-140 human dimension, 294, 298-302, 306, 319, 342, 344, 348, 350, 353 observation systems, general, 377, 414, 421-424 paleoclimatology, 240-268, 274 seasonal to interannual variation, 89-98 Ceará's Foundation for Meteorology and Hydrological Resources, see Fundação Cearense de Meteorologia e Recursos Hídricos Center for the Study of Institutions, Population, and Environmental Change, 306 Chlorofluorocarbons, 170, 201, 202, 401, 412, 449, 485-486, 487, 501, 552 see also Ozone layer depletion Climate change, general, 20, 44, 378, 425 biodiversity, 31, 46, 302 carbon and carbon cycle, 34, 43, 44; see also Greenhouse gases

OCR for page 575
GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE: Research Pathways for the Next Decade downscaling scope of predictions, 88, 98, 106-107, 112, 117-118, 519 human impacts, 293, 294, 301-302, 312-326, 342-344, 345, 522, 523; see also Greenhouse gases; Ozone layer depletion; Ozone, tropospheric integrated assessments, 227, 323-326, 355, 518-519 land surface factors, 43, 49, 51, 67, 162-164, 379, 384, 391-392, 395; see also mainheads beginning “Land” and “Terrestrial” large-scale ecosystems, 19-31 (passim), 34, 38-39, 42-49 (passim), 51, 52, 57, 59-60, 70, 71 multiple stresses and, 33, 44, 45, 46, 68, 380, 461, 533 oceanic processes, 20 regional, 45, 301, 312-313, 314 time series measurements, 48, 57-60 vegetation and soils, 21, 38-42, 57, 59 see also Decadal to centennial climate change; El Niño; Greenhouse gases; La Niña; Models and modeling; Paleoclimatology; Sea level change; Seasonal to interannual climate change; Solar radiation; specific atmospheric/climatologic categories (e.g., “Clouds and cloud cover”) Climate Mapping, Analysis, and Prediction Group, 239, 241 Cloud and the Earth's Radiant Energy System, 477 Clouds and cloud cover, 28, 29, 69, 406, 407, 476-478, 492, 500-501, 502-503 case studies, 422-423 decadal to centennial climate change, 127, 128, 162, 167-168, 171, 177, 179-180, 183, 395, 396 models, 449 satellite interference, 28 seasonal to interannual climate change, 113, 387, 388 Club of Rome, 448 Coastal ecosystems, 45, 265, 380, 466-467, 500 human impacts, 307-308, 313 nutrient transport, 23, 32, 45, 466 regional factors, 467, 500 Coastal Zone Color Scanner, 380 Common-pool natural resources, 305, 308, 317, 319-320 Community Climate Model, 491-493 Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set, 99, 109-110, 113, 387 Computer applications, 9, 31, 532, 538 algorithms for satellite data, 27, 28, 51, 64, 68, 121, 390, 391, 427, 436 decadal to centennial climate change, 129 see also Internet; Models and modeling Confidentiality of data, 295, 351, 356-357, 412, 415-416 Cooperative Holocene Mapping Project, 240, 250 Cost factors, 322, 352, 560 atmospheric chemistry, research platforms, 207 disasters, 298-299, 301-302 energy, 309 EOS data management, 443, 546 mitigation strategies, 299, 302-303, 320, 325, 346, 521 natural resource valuation, 321 regulations, 320 sea level changes, 298-299 space-based observations, 13, 31, 528 technology, environmentally benign, 342 see also Funding Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, 451 Cryosphere, 152, 159-162, 182-183, 398, 410 ice cores, 11, 130-133, 241, 242-248, 251, 254, 255, 260-262, 265, 269, 270, 273, 274, 275, 314, 410 see also Arctic systems; Antarctica; Glaciers and glacial/interglacial cycles D Data management, 1, 2, 9-10, 11-12, 428, 435-444, 555, 558-559 atmospheric chemistry, 193-194, 206-207, 220 decadal to centennial climate change, 154, 155 ENSO, 14 EOS, 435-444, 537-546 funding, 356, 437, 440, 443 human factors research, 295, 298, 335-337 confidentiality issues, 295, 351, 356-357, 412, 415-416 institutional factors, 438-442, 537-543 international comparability, 413-414, 555

OCR for page 575
GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE: Research Pathways for the Next Decade models, 438-444 ozone layer depletion, 222 research infrastructure, 1-6, 10-11, 13, 14, 66-67, 298, 335-336, 529-531 satellite data, 30, 121, 390, 427, 435-444 archiving, 30, 121, 390, 427, 436, 437 seasonal to interannual climate change, 105, 109-110 socioeconomic and health data links, 295, 355-357 standards, 437, 438-439, 442-443, 538, 543 streamflow, 389 see also Archiving; Computer applications; Models and modeling; Telecommunications networks Decadal to centennial climate change, 3, 8, 111, 127-189, 254, 255, 271, 273, 275-276, 519 aerosols, 153, 164, 170, 172, 175, 180, 396, 398-399 archiving, 154, 155 atmosphere-ocean interactions, 127, 136, 137, 141, 143, 148-149, 155, 156-159, 173, 181, 182-183, 396 atmospheric chemistry, 129, 170-176 atmospheric circulation, 136, 153-156, 152, 153-156 atmospheric moisture, 127, 128, 164-165, 167-168, 170, 175, 179-180, 183, 395 atmospheric temperature, 127, 128, 131, 132, 170, 171, 174, 179, 258, 395 carbon cycle, 162-164, 170, 171-173, 396 carbon dioxide other, 133, 171-173, 180-181 case studies, 130-140 clouds, 127, 128, 162, 167-168, 171, 177, 179-180, 183, 395, 396 data management, 154, 155 deep ocean processes, 157, 161, 166, 167, 168, 171, 173, 177 drought, 167, 168, 169-170 El Niño, 100, 101, 140-141, 145-146, 147, 148-149, 155, 161-162, 259, 393 energy balances and exchanges, 164, 182-183, 398 evaporation, 157, 164-165, 166, 167, 169, 183, 399 transpiration/evapotranspiration, 164, 166, 169 floods, 130, 134-137, 166 forests, 163-164 general circulation models, 163, 166 greenhouse gases, 137-140, 151-152, 163, 165, 170, 172-174, 179-180, 183, 395, 397 human factors, 127, 128, 130, 133, 151-152, 153, 163, 177, 178, 179, 295-296, 310-311, 354, 393, 519 hydrological cycles, 163, 164-170, 183, 399 land surface, 162-164, 183, 398-399 land use, 163, 164 methane, 132, 162-163, 164, 170, 171, 173-174, 175, 181, 396 modeling, 129, 148-152 (passim), 154, 155-156, 159, 163, 166, 169, 170, 177-178, 180, 183, 184, 393, 396, 398, 446, 449 natural variation, 128, 131-137, 140-141, 149, 178, 269-270, 392-393, 411, 519, 520 North Atlantic Oscillation, 133, 138-139, 141, 142, 150, 151 observational systems, 392-399, 525-526 long-term, 128-129, 149-150, 178, 393519 satellite technology, 127, 168, 179, 182, 273, 525-526 ocean color, 139, 159, 182, 397 Pacific-North American teleconnection, 138, 141, 143-147, 151 Pacific Ocean, 135-136, 138, 145, 147, 157, 158; see also “El Niño” supra population dynamics, 130 precipitation, 145, 157, 166, 167-168, 183 regional factors, 132, 140, 141, 147, 155, 158, 165, 166, 168, 180-181 runoff, 135, 157, 164, 166, 169 salinity, 148, 149, 156, 157, 158, 161, 162, 166-169 (passim), 179, 181, 182, 183, 397, 398, 399 sea level change, 153, 159, 161, 162, 166, 182, 397 sea surface temperature, 133, 141, 144-148 (passim), 151, 155-159 (passim), 162, 165, 168, 181, 182, 183, 397 snow, 132, 135, 145, 147, 161, 162, 163, 183 soils, 163, 164, 169, 183 solar radiation, 94-95, 127, 128, 159, 162, 164, 166, 170-176, 179, 180, 394 system components general, 128, 178, 393

OCR for page 575
GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE: Research Pathways for the Next Decade thermohaline circulation, 140, 141, 147, 149, 158, 160-162, 167, 169, 182, 183 tropical zones, 148, 161, 183 uncertainty, 127, 128, 129, 150, 175 vegetation, 152, 162-164, 166, 169, 170, 183, 398-399 transpiration/evapotranspiration, 164, 166, 169 volcanic eruptions, 127-128, 172 see also Glaciers and glacial/interglacial cycles; Greenhouse gases; Paleoclimatology Decision making, 4, 21, 295, 315, 318, 335, 351-353 atmospheric chemistry, 193, 224 carbon cycle science, 34 data management, 438-439 decadal to centennial climate change, 130135 integrated assessments, 227, 323-326, 355 modeling, 454 ozone layer depletion, 196-197 risk management, 315, 322-323 see also Uncertainty Deep ocean, 109, 307, 308, 418, 480-486 (passim), 501 decadal to centennial climate change, 157, 161, 166, 167, 168, 171, 173, 177 paleoclimatology, 243-244, 265, 266-267 Defense Meteorological Satellite Program, 430 Dendrochronology, see Tree rings Department of Agriculture, 335, 413 Department of Defense, xii, 13, 430 NPOESS, 15, 391, 430, 525 see also Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory; Defense Meteorological Satellite Program; Office of Biological and Environmental Research; Office of Naval Research Department of Energy, 2, 12, 472 Department of Health and Human Services, 413 Department of the Interior, 335 see also Geological Survey Developing countries, 356, 413, 561 carbon emission offsets, 320 consumption patterns, 312, 327, 329, 338, 340, 341 crop modeling, 312 energy use, 340 industrial production, 330 streamflow, 388 technology use, 341 violent conflict due to environmental degradation, 316 vulnerability, 299, 301 Disasters, 298-299, 301-302, 315, 317, 345-346, 449 see also Drought; Floods Dissolved inorganic carbon, 478, 480-485 (passim) Dissolved organic carbon, 52, 480, 484 DIVERSITAS, see IUBS-SCOPE-UNESCO Programme on Biodiversity Drought, 301 decadal to centennial climate change, 167, 168, 169-170 human factors, 313 large-scale ecosystems, 32, 55, 59, 60 paleoclimatology, 167, 254, 257 seasonal to interannual climate change, 88, 89, 95, 98, 101, 108 E Earth-based observation, see Ground- and sea-based observation Earth Observing System (EOS), xii, 4, 6, 13, 20, 28, 391, 430, 435-444, 477, 526, 527-528, 537-547 NOAA, use of, xii, 12, 14-15, 526, 527-528 Earth orbital cycles, 240, 241, 248, 262, 270, 277 Earth System Science Pathfinders, xii, 13, 430 Econometric models, 342, 448 Economic factors, 93, 130, 298, 302, 329-330, 333-334, 336, 454, 520-521 carbon system, 85 consumption patterns, 294, 296, 297, 309-310, 313, 327, 328, 329, 333-334, 338-341 developing countries, 312, 327, 329, 338, 340, 341 data links, 295 drought, 95 greenhouse gases, 303 integrated assessments, 323, 324, 325, 355 market forces, 320, 329-330, 448 models, economic linked to climatic, 299, 311, 325, 334, 344

OCR for page 575
GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE: Research Pathways for the Next Decade natural resource valuation, 320-322, 335, 351, 352-353 production and productivity, 296, 297, 299 seasonal to interannual climate change, 108-109 taxes and subsidies, 299, 301, 306, 310, 320, 346 see also Cost factors; Developing countries; Funding Ecosystems, 2, 3, 8, 16, 19-85, 380-386, 450, 518 aerosols, 28, 44, 68 agriculture, 19, 20, 33, 44 atmosphere-ocean interactions, 20, 21, 36, 51 atmospheric chemistry, 21, 22, 23, 28, 33, 44, 49-51, 53, 69 atmospheric moisture, 29, 61, 68 atmospheric temperature, 21, 23, 25-26, 29 carbon cycle, 20, 21, 24-43 (passim), 46, 47, 51, 56, 59, 65, 66-67, 68, 71 carbon dioxide, other, 23, 31, 32, 43, 44, 48, 49-51, 57-60, 69, 70, 72, 73, 385 climate change, general, 19-31 (passim), 34, 38-39, 42-49 (passim), 51, 52, 57, 59-60, 70, 71 coupled modes, 20, 52, 70, 71, 72, 264, 453 drought, 32, 55, 59, 60 energy balances and exchanges, 41, 43, 69, 71, 72 evaporation, 21, 27, 88 experimental studies, 19-20, 22-28 (passim), 32, 33, 35, 37, 39, 41, 42, 44, 46, 47, 48 forests, 19, 20, 24, 26-27, 30, 31, 38, 41, 73 general circulation models, 38-39 human factors, 9, 19, 28-32, 33-34, 44, 46, 48-49, 53, 73, 294-295, 354 interdisciplinary research, 19, 24, 28, 34-35, 37, 46-47, 53, 62, 64-67, 71 land use/cover, 20, 26-28, 42, 43, 44, 49, 51-52, 53, 68, 69, 294-295, 306 modeling, 37-42, 263-264, 334, 448, 450-451 net ecosystem exchange, 15, 60 net primary productivity, 37-38, 39, 51, 56, 69, 381, 461-462 nitrogen cycle, 20, 25, 26, 33-34, 37, 39, 43, 44, 49, 59, 62, 68, 71, 457 observation systems, 20, 23-26 (passim), 47-52 (passim), 56-61, 64, 68-69, 71, 380-381 in situ, 20, 50, 59, 388 satellite technology, 19, 20, 26-31, 51, 52, 69 time series, 20, 47-48, 49, 56-61, 64, 68-69, 380-381 ocean color, 33, 47, 51, 68 ozone, tropospheric, 33, 34, 49, 68 methane, 21, 43, 44, 47, 49, 50, 52, 73 modeling, 19-85, 448, 450-451 multiple stresses, 20, 33-34, 42, 44-45, 46, 68, 533 multiscale investigations, 52-54, 61-63 regional factors, 20, 21, 33, 45, 49, 52-54, 56 remote sensing, 19, 20, 27, 46-47, 49, 51, 52-53, 63, 69 satellite observations, 19, 20, 26-31, 51, 52, 69; see also Earth Observing System soils, 19, 21, 24, 26, 30, 37, 47, 52, 62 terrestrial-atmosphere interactions, 20, 24-25, 26-28, 29, 43, 49, 51-52, 67, 457-464 toxics, 43, 45, 47, 53 trace gases, 20, 21, 23, 30, 43, 44, 51, 52, 53, 56, 70 USGCRP program, 2, 3, 24, 28, 30, 44, 64, 65, 67-68 vegetation, 19, 20, 21, 26-27, 31, 32-33, 36, 37-42, 49, 51-52, 57, 61-63, 72 see also Acid deposition; Biodiversity; Biogeochemistry; Carbon cycle; Coastal ecosystems; Marine ecosystems; Terrestrial ecosystems Education and training, 64 ecologists, 64-65 ENSO observations, 14 El Niño, xi, 11, 67, 89-90, 109-111, 112-114, 118-119, 313, 315-316, 476 cryosphere, 160 decadal to centennial climate change, 100, 101, 140-141, 145-146, 147, 148-149, 155index.pageref, 161-162, 259, 393 monsoons, 91-94, 95, 101-103, 115, 161-162 observation systems, 14, 112-114, 383, 387, 426 paleoclimatology, 254, 255, 257, 269, 271

OCR for page 575
GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE: Research Pathways for the Next Decade prediction of, 87-89, 98, 99-100, 111, 112-114, 302, 343, 383, 387, 453, 518 Energy balances and exchanges, 72, 381, 450, 452, 456, 457-458, 460, 466, 469, 471, 496, 502-503, 519 decadal to centennial climate change, 164, 182-183, 398 large-scale ecosystems, 41, 43, 69, 71, 72 paleoclimatology, 263, 266 seasonal to interannual climate change, 8897, 98, 103-107 (passim), 112, 114, 115, 117, 122, 387, 392 see also Atmospheric temperature; Greenhouse gases; Sea surface temperature; Solar radiation; Surface air temperature Energy resource consumption and conservation, 65, 88, 114, 130, 216, 294, 296, 297, 299, 308-312, 340, 342, 412, 557, 561 see also Fossil fuel emissions Environmental Protection Agency, 335, 558-559 EOS Data and Information System, 435, 438-441, 537-541 Equilibrium Vegetation Ecology model, 263, 264 European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting, 98 European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites , 15, 430 Evaporation, 267, 457, 462, 463, 477, 486, 496, 501 decadal to centennial climate change, 157, 164-165, 166, 167, 169, 183, 399 large-scale ecosystems, 21, 27, 88 seasonal to interannual climate change, 95, 104, 108, 115-116, 388 Evapotranspiration, see Transpiration/evapotranspiration, see Transpiration/evapotranspiration Experimental studies atmospheric chemistry, 229-230, 402, 406 ecosystems, 19-20, 22-28 (passim), 32, 33, 35, 37, 39, 41, 42, 44, 46, 47, 48 institutional factors, 348 F Federal government, 428 data management, 437-442 Global Change Research Act, text, 551-561 see also Funding; specific departments and agencies Fertilizers, agricultural, 33, 34, 174, 296, 412 First ISLSCP Experiment, 26, 28 Fisheries, 19, 49, 55, 89, 141, 302, 307-308, 320, 429 Floods, 470, 472 costs, 301 decadal to centennial climate change, 130, 134-137, 166 human dimension, 301, 313 paleoclimatology, 254, 255 seasonal to interannual climate change, 91, 96-98, 101, 107-108, 134-137 Food supply, 330 Forests, 499, 561 albedo, 163, 164, 256 biological invasion, 31 carbon sinks, 24, 163-164, 299 decadal to centennial climate change, 163-164 human deforestation, 295-296, 297, 299, 301, 304-307 (passim), 461, 462 large-scale ecosystem modeling, 19, 20, 24, 26-27, 30, 31, 38, 41, 73 paleoclimatology, 256, 263 Fossil fuel emissions, 2, 4-5, 22, 24, 28, 33, 35, 36, 137, 171, 173, 296, 297, 308-312, 339, 463-464, 491 Framework Convention on Climate Change, 34 Fundação Cearense de Meteorologia e Recursos Hídricos, 95-96 Funding, 14, 64, 66 data management, 356, 437, 440, 443 Global Change Research Act, 557 human factors research, 317, 318, 335, 336, 413 international efforts, 317, 318, 560 joint agency budgets, 4, 12 NASA, 13, 335 NSF, 14, 335, 354 USGCRP, xi, 1-2, 13, 335, 354, 377, 429, 527 G General circulation models, 449, 450, 452, 453, 456, 458, 462, 464, 473, 474-487, 489-496, 498, 501, 502 decadal to centennial climate change, 163, 166

OCR for page 575
GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE: Research Pathways for the Next Decade large-scale ecosystems, 38-39 paleoclimatology, 257, 263, 266, 267 seasonal to interannual climate change, 100, 106-107, 114, 117-118 Geochemical Ocean Sections Study, 484, 485 Geographic information systems, 415 Geological Survey, 119 Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, 485 Glaciers and glacial/interglacial cycles, 62, 141, 145, 159, 162, 166, 169, 237-238, 239-250, 262, 263, 269, 270-272, 277, 464 deglaciation, 129, 132, 251, 254 ice cores, 11, 130-133, 241, 242-248, 251, 254, 255, 260-262, 265, 269, 270, 273, 274, 275, 314, 410 Little Ice Age, 132-133, 177, 252, 254-255, 314 Global Atmospheric Research Program, 239 Global Change Data and Information System, 436 Global Change in Terrestrial Ecosystems Core Project, 23-24, 54-55 Global Change in the Geosphere-Biosphere, 4 Global Change Research Act of 1990, 551-561 Global Change System for Analysis, Research, and Training, 355 Global Changes in the Antarctic, 268 Global Climate Observing System, 378, 379, 394, 429 Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment, 87, 167, 169, 457, 522 Global Energy Water-Cycle Experiment Continental-Scale International Project, 96, 106, 117, 118, 471 Global mean temperature, 15, 138, 421, 455 see also Greenhouse gases Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land Surface program, 110, 114, 115, 117, 379, 387, 388 Global Ocean Observing System, 378, 394, 429 Global Sea Level Observing System, 397 Global Telecommunication System, 90 Global Terrestrial Observing System, 379, 394 Greenhouse gases, x-xi, 43, 137-140, 192, 201-203, 209, 215-223, 239, 402, 519, 522, 561 biomass burning, 20, 30, 44, 53, 69, 164, 173, 175, 224, 225, 229, 340, 381, 403, 404, 407, 408, 491, 496 crop production models, 312, 314, 334 decadal to centennial climate change, 137-140, 151-152, 163, 165, 170, 172-174, 179-180, 183, 395, 397 fossil fuel emissions, 2, 4-5, 22, 24, 28, 33, 35, 36, 137, 171, 173, 296, 297, 308-312, 339, 463-464, 491 historical perspectives, 4-5, 137 human dimension, 296, 302, 303; see also Fossil fuel emissions modeling, 5, 24, 219, 220-221, 256, 267, 299, 311, 312-313, 454, 455, 458, 463-464, 476, 477-483, 487, 489 paleoclimatology, 241, 243, 245, 251, 254-257 (passim), 260, 264-265, 270, 271, 275, 277 see also Carbon cycle; Carbon dioxide; Methane Greenland, 130, 131-133, 162, 182, 242-248, 251, 252, 255, 269, 270, 274 Ground- and sea-based observation, 4, 9, 13, 15, 159, 276, 395, 411-412, 492, 527 El Niño, 99, 110 large-scale ecosystems, 20, 50, 59, 388 National Weather Service, 390, 391, 422 precipitation, 389 streamflow, 388-389 TAO, 90, 99, 110, 113, 114, 148, 387 TOGA, 10, 66, 67, 87, 90, 101, 109-110, 115, 425 TRMM, 183, 430 H Hazard management systems, 294, 315, 316, 317, 334, 346 Health , see Human health High-Speed Civil Transport, 196, 197 Holocene, 132, 133, 238, 240, 250-255, 262, 268-270, 464 Household behavior, 306, 328-329, 331, 332, 333, 336 Human factors in global environment, 1-11(passim), 15, 239, 293-375, 411-416, 520-521, 523, 552 attitudes, 327-328, 340, 442, 521 biological invasion, 31 case studies, 294, 298-302 coastal ecosystems, 307-308, 313 data management, 295, 298, 335-337

OCR for page 575
GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE: Research Pathways for the Next Decade confidentiality, 295, 351, 356, 357, 412, 415-416 decadal to centennial climate change, 127, 128, 130, 133, 151-152, 153, 163, 177, 178, 179, 295-296, 310-311, 354, 393, 519 disasters, 298-299, 301-302, 315 funding of research, 317, 318, 335, 336, 413 hazard management systems, 294, 315, 316, 317, 334, 346 household behavior, 306, 328-329, 331, 332, 333, 336 individual behavior, 328-329, 333, 336, 352, 497, 521 international cooperation, general, 317-318, 320, 329-330, 336, 348, 355 International Human Dimensions Programme, 30, 306, 316-317, 335-336, 350, 355, 411 land cover, 294-297, 304-307, 348-351; see also Land use large-scale ecosystem modeling, 9, 19, 28-32, 33-34, 44, 46, 48-49, 53, 73, 294-295, 354 mitigation strategies, 299, 302-303, 320, 325, 346, 521 models, 299, 304, 305, 313, 314, 329, 332, 333, 336, 340, 344, 355, 446, 448, 453-455, 495-497, 499, 503 observation systems, 295, 303, 305, 346-347, 355, 357, 411-416 confidentiality, 295, 351, 356, 357, 412, 415-416 paleoclimatology, 133, 250, 270, 271, 273, 275, 276, 277, 410, 520 regional factors, 294, 297, 315-316, 342-344, 496 research infrastructure, 298, 335-336 seasonal to interannual climate change, 89, 111, 313, 315-316, 342-344, 354 study of, defined, 295, 298 vulnerability, 95, 170, 293, 294, 297, 298, 299, 301-302, 312-316 (passim), 329, 330, 331, 334, 340-345 (passim), 354, 357, 496 see also Agriculture; Air pollution; Decision making; Economic factors; Energy resource consumption and conservation; Greenhouse gases; Institutional factors; Land use; Population dynamics; Property rights; Social factors; Technological change Human health, 10, 31, 205, 228, 229, 297, 356, 415, 558 climatic change, impacts of, 301-302, 313, 314 confidentiality of data, 356, 415-416 data links, 295, 355-357 fertility and mortality, 38, 330-331, 414 see also Ultraviolet radiation Humidity, 116, 121, 390-391, 460 Hydroclimatic Data Network, 119, 389 Hydrological and Atmospheric Pilot Experiment, 28 Hydrological cycles, xii, 16, 23, 32, 45, 164-170, 381, 450, 452, 457-472 (passim), 492, 494-495, 502-503, 519, 522, 523 decadal to centennial climate change, 163, 164-170, 183, 399 paleoclimatology, 251, 271 seasonal to interannual, 88, 90-98, 104, 107-109, 112, 115-119, 384, 387-392, 519 snow-monsoon interaction, 94-95 soil moisture, 52, 88, 96-98, 101, 104, 116-117, 122-123, 164, 169, 183, 388, 391-392, 457, 460, 462-463, 467, 470, 498 see also Atmospheric moisture; Drought; Evaporation; Floods; Marine ecosystems; Ocean processes; Precipitation; River systems; Runoff; Terrestrial-ocean interactions; Transpiration/evapotranspiration I Ice, 105, 162, 164, 169, 183, 250, 263, 378 cryosphere, 152, 159-162, 182-183, 398, 410 sea ice, 102, 147, 157, 158, 161 see also Glaciers and glacial/interglacial cycles Ice cores, 11, 130-133, 241, 242-248, 251, 254, 255, 260-262, 265, 269, 270, 273, 274, 275, 314, 410 Individual behavior, 328-329, 333, 336, 352, 497, 521

OCR for page 575
GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE: Research Pathways for the Next Decade Information dissemination, see Data management; Hazard management systems Infrared radiation and infrared active species, 28, 69, 202, 215-222 (passim), 227, 229, 381, 382, 400-404 (passim), 407, 408, 524 In situ observation, see Ground- and sea-based observation Institutional factors, 5, 9, 293, 294, 295, 306, 317-320, 334, 346-348, 357, 521 data management, 438-442, 537-543 household behavior, 306, 328-329, 331, 332, 333, 336 international environmental policy, 317-318 land use management, 305, 306, 307, 308 local, 318-320, 347, 348 research, 1-6, 10-11, 13, 14, 66-67, 298, 335-336; see also Interdisciplinary research see also Property rights Interdisciplinary research, general, 3, 110, 305, 354-355, 521, 542-543, 552 decadal to centennial climate change, 150 integrated assessments, 227, 323-326, 355 large-scale ecosystem modeling, 19, 24, 28, 34-35, 37, 46-47, 53, 62, 64-67, 71 remote sensing, 53 seasonal to interannual climate change, 87 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 38-39, 73, 137, 150, 166, 266, 268, 298-299, 311, 336, 342, 343, 462, 476, 479, 483, 499 Intermediate Model for Global and Annual Evolution of Species, 491-492 International cooperation, general, 5-6, 7, 16, 347, 435, 526 atmospheric conditions, 50, 191, 193 carbon cycle as basis, 34, 523 DOD, xii El Niño, 87 fisheries, 308 funding, 317, 318, 560 Global Change Research Act, 555-556, 559-561 global economies, 329-330 human factors research, 317-318, 320, 329-330, 336, 348, 355 see also specific international organizations and programs International Council of Scientific Unions/International Council for Science, 3, 336 International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme, 3, 22, 23-24, 28, 30, 39, 44, 46, 54-55, 62, 66, 70, 268, 307, 350, 382, 411, 522 International Global Atmospheric Chemistry program, 23 International Human Dimensions Programme, 30, 306, 316-317, 335-336, 350, 355, 411 International Research Institute for Climate Prediction, 342, 355 International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project, 26 International Social Science Council, 336 International Union of Biological Sciences, 46 (footnote) Internet, 10, 90 (footnote), 436, 437, 540 IUBS-SCOPE-UNESCO Programme on Biodiversity, 46, 55, 521 J Joint Global Ocean Flux Study, 23, 480, 486, 487, 501 K Kyoto conference, ix, x L Land-Atmosphere-Ice Interaction Study, 27 LANDSAT, 28 La Niña, 91, 115 Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment, 27, 54, 117, 471 Land cover, 164, 294-295, 381, 386, 411, 497, 518 defined, 304 human impacts, 294-297, 304-307, 348-351 large-scale ecosystems, 20, 26-28, 42, 43, 44, 49, 51-52, 53, 68, 69, 294-295, 306 regional factors, 96-98, 294-295, 304, 350 see also Agriculture; Forests; Vegetation Land surface, 410, 518 cryosphere, 152, 159-162, 182-183, 398, 410

OCR for page 575
GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE: Research Pathways for the Next Decade decadal to centennial climate change, 162-164, 183, 398-399 global observation systems, 379 large-scale ecosystem models, 20, 26-28, 42, 43, 44, 49, 51-52, 53, 68, 69, 294-295, 306 models, 338, 449 satellite observations, 26, 27-28, 29, 69, 305-306, 381, 390, 391 seasonal to interannual climate change, 384, 388, 519 skin temperature, 121, 391 topographic factors, 38, 106, 117, 404, 464, 469, 471, 472 see also Cryosphere; Drought; Floods; Ice; River systems; Runoff; Snow; Soils; Terrestrial-atmosphere interactions; Terrestrial-ocean interactions; Vegetation Land use, xi, 294-295, 304-307, 348-351, 381, 464, 496, 528 carbon cycle, 5, 34, 162-163, 496 decadal to centennial climate change, 163, 164 defined, 304 institutional factors, 305, 306, 307, 308 large-scale ecosystem modeling, 28, 30-31, 34, 43-44, 45, 46, 49, 68, 69 regional factors, 96-98, 294-295, 304, 350 satellite observations, 30-31, 69, 305-306, 350, 351, 381 see also Agriculture Legislation, 551-561 LIDAR, 69, 229 Little Ice Age, 132-133, 177, 252, 254-255, 257, 269, 270, 314 Local factors, 414 carbon storage, 172 institutional factors 318-320, 347, 348 land surface factors and climate, 96 property rights, 294, 297, 306, 319, 320, 345, 347, 348, 354, 443 seasonal to interannual climate change, downscaling, 88, 96-98, 106-107, 112, 117-118, 344, 519 vulnerability, 344 see also Land use Long-Term Ecological Research Program, 23, 67 Long-term observations, 47-48, 56-61, 61-63, 67, 336, 426-430 decadal to centennial climate change, 128-129, 149-150, 178, 393, 519 human factors, 336 ozone layer depletion, 210-211 see also Time series observations M Mackenzie River basin, 313 Marine boundary layer, see Terrestrial-ocean interactions Marine ecosystems, 23, 24-25, 33, 43, 55, 71, 381 carbon cycle, 21, 478 fisheries, 19, 49, 55, 89, 141, 302, 307-308, 320, 429 human impacts, 307-308 models, 448 phytoplankton, 33, 51, 55, 68, 173, 265, 386 see also Coastal ecosystems Medieval Warm Period, 132-133, 254, 255, 269 Methane, 192, 199, 201, 202, 203, 211, 217, 243, 244, 251, 296, 303, 400, 402, 403, 412, 449, 452, 464, 487, 491, 522 decadal to centennial climate change, 132, 162-163, 164, 170, 171, 173-174, 175, 181, 396 large-scale ecosystems, 21, 43, 44, 47, 49, 50, 52, 73 paleoclimatology, 241, 243, 245, 251, 254, 270 see also Greenhouse gases Migration, humans, 38, 95, 294, 297, 301, 305, 315, 316, 317, 330, 331, 332, 334, 338, 349-351 Mission to Planet Earth, 6, 67, 435 Mississippi River, 20, 96-98 Missouri-Illinois-Nebraska-Kansas study, 313 Meteorological Operational Satellite, 15 Models and modeling, 9-10, 424, 445-516, 520, 531-533 aerosols, 230-231, 406-407 atmosphere, 96, 204, 221, 230, 448, 450-452, 462 terrestrial-atmosphere, 97, 105, 106, 116, 448, 456, 457-465, 469, 498-500

OCR for page 575
GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE: Research Pathways for the Next Decade atmosphere-ocean, 14, 89, 99, 100, 101, 112, 114, 115, 148, 154, 156, 266-267, 268, 383, 387, 399, 453, 454, 456, 457, 473-487, 490-493, 500-502 atmospheric chemistry, 191, 194, 201, 204, 207, 208, 209, 213, 214, 218, 219, 220-221, 225, 226, 227, 230, 231-232, 487-495, 502-503, 520 coupled models, various, 14, 20, 52, 70, 71, 72, 89, 96, 97, 99, 100, 101, 102, 112, 113, 114, 115, 129, 148-152(passim),154, 156, 170, 264, 267, 268, 314, 439, 446, 453, 456 data management, 438-444 decadal to centennial climate change, 129, 148-152 (passim), 154, 155-156, 159, 163, 166, 169, 170, 177-178, 180, 183, 184, 393, 396, 398, 446, 449 econometric, 342, 448 economic linked to climatic, 299, 311, 325, 334, 344 energy use, 340, 342 greenhouse gas effects, 5, 24, 219, 220-221, 256, 267, 299, 311, 312-313, 454, 455, 458, 463-464, 476, 477-483, 487, 489 households, 329, 332 human factors, 299, 304, 305, 313, 314, 329, 332, 333, 336, 340, 344, 355, 446, 448, 453-455, 495-497, 499, 503 integrated assessments, 227, 323-326, 355 inverse modeling, 24, 65 land surface factors, 20, 26-28, 42, 43, 51-52, 68, 96-98, 104-105, 114, 304, 305 large-scale ecosystems, 37-42, 263-264, 334, 448, 450-451 mitigation, 311 nesting, 106, 114, 304, 408, 459-460 ozone layer depletion, 6, 191-192, 488 paleoclimatology, 238, 263-264, 266-267, 268, 276 seasonal to interannual climate change, 88, 96-97, 99, 100, 104-107, 109, 114, 115, 117-118, 344, 383, 387 soil moisture factors, 52, 88, 96-97, 122-123, 457, 460, 462-463, 467, 470, 498 technological change, environmental impacts, 332, 342 terrestrial-atmosphere, 97, 105, 106, 116, 448, 456, 457-465, 469, 498-500 terrestrial-ocean, 24-26, 465-473, 500 USGCRP, xii, 2, 24 vegetation, 263-264, 268, 448, 452, 454, 457-464, 469, 498-499 large-scale ecosystems, 19, 20, 21, 26-27, 31, 32-33, 36, 37-42, 49, 51-52, 57, 61-63, 72 see also Ecosystems; General circulation models Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, 28, 477 Monsoons, 88, 90-95, 98, 100-103, 112, 115, 147, 251, 253, 254, 387, 518 Montreal Protocol, 7, 11, 12, 191 Multi-Angle Imaging Spectroradiometer, 28 N National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 3, 67, 183, 306, 336, 382, 411, 428, 530 Earth System Science Pathfinders, xii, 13 EOS, xii, 4, 6, 13, 20, 28, 391, 430, 435-444, 477, 526, 527-528, 537-547 ESSC, 4 funding, 13, 335 Mission to Planet Earth, 6, 67, 435 ozone layer depletion, 7, 191, 194, 195-198 National Center for Atmospheric Research, 491-493 National Center for Environmental Decision-Making Research, 323 National Center for Environmental Prediction, 120, 467 National Climate Program, 2, 558 National Climatic Data Center, 120, 390, 391 National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service, 120-121 National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 306, 335 National Institutes of Health, 335, 413 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 4, 94, 120-121, 335, 380, 424, 430, 527-528, 530 AVHRR, 28, 94, 380 carbon cycle, 12 EOS, use of, xii, 12, 14-15, 526, 527-528

OCR for page 575
GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE: Research Pathways for the Next Decade NPOESS, 15, 428, 430, 525, 526 National Operational Hydrologic Remote Sensing Center, 120-121 National Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System , 15, 428, 430, 525, 526 National Science Foundation, 4, 27, 67, 298, 306, 323, 355, 530 funding, 14, 335, 354 LTER program, 23, 67 National Weather Service, 390, 391, 422 Net ecosystem exchange, 15, 60 Net primary productivity, 37-38, 39, 51, 56, 69, 381, 461-462 Nitrogen and nitrogen cycle, 6, 380, 385, 460, 461, 464, 488-489, 491, 496, 518 decadal to centennial trends, 133, 164, 170, 171, 174, 181, 396 fertilizers, agricultural, 33, 34, 174, 296, 412 large-scale ecosystems, 20, 25, 26, 33-34, 37, 39, 43, 44, 49, 59, 62, 68, 71, 457 ozone layer depletion, 197-199, 211-213 photochemical oxidants, 203, 204, 225-226 Nitrous oxide, 43, 44, 51, 52, 73, 164, 192, 201, 202, 203, 213-218 (passim), 310, 400, 449, 464 North Atlantic Oscillation, 133, 138-139, 141, 142, 150, 151, 157, 161, 165, 168, 257, 302 North Pacific Index, 143, 145 North Pacific Oscillation, 145, 147, 157 Nutrients and nutrient cycling,20, 23, 32, 33, 43, 44, 52, 163, 192, 205, 209, 231-232, 385, 457-458, 462, 465, 481-482 coastal ecosystems, 23, 32, 45, 466 see also specific nutrients O Observation systems, general, 3, 9, 11, 14-15, 22-25, 377-433, 523, 524-528 aerosols, 209, 223, 228, 229-231, 406-409 atmospheric processes, 207-223 (passim), 230-233, 233, 179-181, 399-410, 493; see also “ozone layer depletion” and “photochemical oxidants” infra case studies, general, 377, 414, 421-424 decadal centennial climate change, 128-130,133, 137-138, 149-150, 154, 155, 159, 162, 167, 168, 172, 174, 175-176, 177-183, 392-399, 525-526; see also “paleoclimatology” infra El Niño, 14, 109-114, 383, 387, 426 funding, 12, 317, 318, 335, 336, 413 human factors, 295, 303, 305, 346-347, 355, 357, 411-416 land surface, 26, 27-28, 29, 69, 105, 118, 119-123, 305-306, 379, 381, 390, 391 large-scale ecosystems, 20, 23-26 (passim), 47-52 (passim), 56-61, 64, 68-69, 71, 380-381 ocean processes, 20, 88, 94, 98, 99, 159, 173, 378, 380, 388, 394, 397, 410, 429 GOALS, 110, 114, 115, 117, 379, 387, 388 ozone layer depletion, 6-7, 191-192, 193, 195, 197, 399-402 paleoclimatology, 238, 254, 263, 264, 267, 269, 273, 275, 276, 410-411; see also Ice cores; Tree rings photochemical oxidants, 204-205, 224-227, 403-406 photometry, 27 seasonal to interannual climate change, 88, 94, 98, 99, 105, 118, 119-123, 383-392 spectroscopy, 28, 240, 241, 382, 407, 477 see also Confidentiality of data; Data management; Ground- and sea-based observation; Long-term observations; Remote sensing; Satellite technology; Time series observations; specific observational systems (e.g., Earth Observing System) Ocean Carbon Model Intercomparison Project, 479 Ocean circulation, 11, 43, 113, 148, 149, 156-159, 171, 384, 386, 388, 449, 450, 452, 474-475, 479-480 thermohaline, 140, 141, 147, 149, 158, 160-161, 167, 169, 182, 183, 240, 244, 248, 250, 254, 255, 266-267, 268, 271, 272, 398, 399, 452, 453, 454, 479 Ocean color, 13, 380, 386, 482, 487, 501

OCR for page 575
GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE: Research Pathways for the Next Decade decadal to centennial climate change, 139, 159, 182, 397 large-scale ecosystem studies, 33, 47, 51, 68 see also Phytoplankton Ocean processes, general, 28, 66, 68, 177 carbon storage, 20, 21, 36, 173, 181, 384, 478, 479, 480-486, 491, 501-502 global observation systems, 378, 380, 388, 394, 397, 410, 429 GOALS, 110, 114, 115, 117, 379, 387, 388 sea ice, 102, 147, 157, 158, 161, 162, 166, 169, 182-183, 244, 250, 257, 388 topographic factors, 11, 430, 480, 487, 501 see also Atmosphere-ocean interactions; Deep ocean processes; Marine ecosystems; Salinity; Sea level change; Sea surface temperature; Terrestrial-ocean interactions Ocean Topography Experiment, 11, 430, 480, 487, 501 Office of Management and Budget, xii, 4, 12 Office of Science and Technology Policy, xii Ozone layer depletion, xi, 2, 44, 67, 192, 193, 194-201, 205, 206-207, 209, 210-215, 217, 221-222, 316, 399-402, 487-488, 502, 519, 552, 561 Antarctic ozone hole, 6-7, 191, 194-195, 201, 206, 227, 488 decadal to centennial trends, 171, 174-175, 176, 177 historical perspectives, 6-7, 15, 194, 197, 206 jet aircraft, role in, 6, 175, 195, 196, 199 modeling, 6, 191-192, 488 Montreal Protocol, 7, 11, 12, 191 NASA programs, 7, 191, 194, 195-198 social factors, 310 Ozone, tropospheric, 192, 193, 197, 201-202, 203, 205, 217, 221-222, 400, 403, 404-405, 487-489, 519, 520 decadal to centennial trends, 171, 174, 177 large-scale ecosystems, 33, 34, 49, 68 P Pacific-North American teleconnection, 136, 138, 141, 143-145, 148, 151, 157, 165, 168 Pacific Ocean, 33, 113, 135-136, 145, 158 North Pacific Index,138, 143, 145 North Pacific Oscillation, 145, 147, 157 see also El Niño; La Niña Paleoclimate Model Intercomparison Project, 451 Paleoclimatology, 8, 127, 128, 129, 131-133, 149, 163, 176, 178, 237-291, 393, 410-411, 519, 520, 556 aerosols, 254, 255 Antarctica, 241, 242, 246, 248, 270 atmosphere-ocean interactions, 240, 251, 266 atmospheric circulation, 251, 271, 276, 277 atmospheric temperature, 131, 132, 241, 243, 244, 248, 250, 251, 254-255, 257, 264-268 carbon dioxide, 241, 254, 256, 257, 260, 264 case studies, 240-268, 274 data management, 269, 275 deep ocean, 243-244, 265, 266-267 drought, 167, 254, 257 El Niño, 254, 255, 257, 269, 271 energy balances and exchanges, 263, 266 floods, 254, 255 general circulation models, 257, 263, 266, 267 greenhouse gases, 241, 243, 245, 251, 254-257 (passim), 260, 264-265, 270, 271, 275, 277 Holocene, 132, 133, 238, 240, 250-255, 268-270 human factors, 133, 250, 270, 271, 273, 275, 276, 277, 410, 520 hydrological cycles, 251, 271 methane, 241, 243, 245, 251, 254, 270 models, 238, 263-264, 266-267, 268, 276 observation systems, 238, 254, 263, 264, 267, 269, 273, 275, 276, 410-411 time series, 238, 240-264, 276, 411; see also Ice cores; Tree rings regional, 255, 270-271, 411 salinity, 243 sea surface temperature, 133, 250 solar radiation, 240, 254, 256, 257, 271 thermohaline circulation, 240, 244, 248, 250, 254, 255, 266-267, 268, 271, 272 tropical zones, 248, 251, 256, 266 vegetation, 250, 256-264, 265

OCR for page 575
GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE: Research Pathways for the Next Decade volcanic eruptions, 239, 240, 248, 251, 254, 257, 269, 271, 272, 277, 278 see also Glaciers and glacial/interglacial cycles; Ice cores; Tree rings Particulate matter, 33, 44, 227, 254, 271, 404 Photochemical oxidants, 44, 174, 192, 193, 203-205, 208, 209, 216, 222-223, 224-227, 399, 403-406, 409, 489, 502, 520 regional factors, 203, 204, 224, 227, 403, 405-406 Photometry, 27 Photosynthesis, 25, 32, 35-36, 62-63, 386, 458, 459, 460, 461 Phytoplankton, 33, 51, 55, 68, 173, 265, 386 see also Ocean color A Plan for a Research Program on Aerosol Radiative Forcing and Climate Change, 228 Polar Circulation Index, 249-250, 252 Polar platforms, 14-15, 29, 428, 430 Polar regions, see Arctic systems Pollen, 250 Population dynamics, 293, 294-297 (passim), 303, 306, 307, 330-332, 333, 349-351, 521 consumption vs population growth, 338 decadal to centennial climate change, 130 fertility and mortality, 38, 330-331, 414 greenhouse gases, 216, 311 migration, 38, 95, 294, 297, 301, 305, 315, 316, 317, 330, 331, 332, 334, 338, 349-351 rainfall and, 95 see also Urban areas Precipitation, 379, 380, 463 archiving, 120, 389 decadal to centennial climate change, 145, 157, 166, 167-168, 183 greenhouse gases, 5 large-scale ecosystem models,21 seasonal to interannual trends, 60, 88, 96, 107, 108, 113, 116, 118-119, 120, 121, 387, 389 see also Acid deposition; Drought, Monsoons; Rain; Snow Program for Climate Variability and Predictability, 114, 115, 268 Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land Surface program, 110, 114 Project for Intercomparison of Land Surface Parameterization Schemes Property rights, 294, 297, 306, 319, 320, 345, 347, 348, 354 common-pool resources, 305, 308, 317, 319-320 EOS data, 443 R Radar, 69, 120, 389 Radiometry, 27, 28 Rain, 95-96, 113, 118, 144, 145, 165, 166-167, 168, 183, 259 see also Drought; Monsoons Real time measurements, El Niño, 88, 89, 90 Regional factors, 472-473, 533 atmospheric chemistry, 33, 49, 203, 204, 224, 227, 229, 403, 405-406 climate change consequences, general, 45, 301, 312-313, 314 coastal systems, 467, 500 decadal to centennial climate change, 132, 140, 141, 147, 155, 158, 165, 166, 168, 180-181 ecosystems, 20, 21, 33, 45, 49, 52-54, 56 human dimension, 294, 297, 315-316, 342-344, 496 land cover/use factors, 96-98, 294-295, 304, 350 North Atlantic Oscillation, 133, 138-139, 141, 142, 150, 151, 157, 161, 165, 168, 257, 302 ocean carbon studies, 20 paleoclimatology, 255, 270-271, 411 photochemical oxidants, 203, 204, 224, 227, 403, 405-406 rainfall data, regional series, 166, 168 research infrastructure, 336, 427 seasonal to interannual climate change, 96-98, 106-107, 114, 302, 315-316 see also Arctic systems; Local factors; Tropical zones Remote sensing, 168, 276, 451, 499-500 aerosols, 229 algorithms, 27, 28, 51, 64, 68, 121, 390, 391, 427, 436 land use, 350 large-scale ecosystems, 19, 20, 27, 46-47, 49, 51, 52-53, 63, 69 LIDAR, 69, 229

OCR for page 575
GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE: Research Pathways for the Next Decade radar, 69, 120, 389 seasonal to interannual climate change, 105, 113, 120 see also Satellite technology Risk management, 315, 322-326 River systems, 134-137, 465-471, 472, 500 Amazon basin, 20, 27, 54, 299, 301, 304, 306, 314 Mackenzie River basin, 313 Mississippi River, 20, 96-98 Missouri-Illinois-Nebraska-Kansas study, 313 modeling, 453 Runoff, 301, 463, 465, 466, 467, 469, 471, 472, 494, 500, 522 decadal to centennial climate change, 135, 157, 164, 166, 169 seasonal to interannual climate change, 104, 105, 107, 108, 116-119 (passim), 388, 389 S Salinity, 524, 528 decadal to centennial climate change, 148, 149, 156, 157, 158, 161, 162, 166-169 (passim), 179, 181, 182, 183, 397, 398, 399 paleoclimatology, 243 seasonal to interannual climate change, 113, 116, 383, 388 see also Thermohaline circulation Satellite technology, 9-10, 467, 492, 526-528 algorithms, 27, 28, 51, 64, 68, 121-122, 390, 391, 427, 436 atmospheric chemistry, 207, 220, 223, 227, 407 clouds, 477 data management issues, 30, 121, 390, 427, 435-444 archiving, 30, 121, 390, 427, 436, 437 decadal to centennial climate change, 127, 168, 179, 182, 273, 525-526 land-surface observations, 26, 27-28, 29, 69, 305-306, 381, 390, 391 land use, 30-31, 69, 305-306, 350, 351, 381 large-scale ecosystems, 19, 20, 26-31, 51, 52, 69 seasonal to interannual climate change, 110, 113, 121-122 snow, 94, 120-121 social factors, 305, 306, 411-412 vegetation, 51, 221 see also Earth Observing System; National Aeronautics and Space Administration; Ocean color Scales and Global Change, 62 Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research, 268 Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment, 23 Sea ice, 102, 147, 157, 158, 161, 162, 166, 169, 182-183, 244, 250, 257, 388 Sea level change, 11, 256, 271, 298-299 decadal to centennial climate change, 153, 159, 161, 162, 166, 182, 397 seasonal to interannual climate change, 99, 113, 387, 388 Sea level pressure, 136, 137, 141, 143, 388 Seasonal to interannual climate change, 8, 47-52, 59-60, 68, 87-126, 275, 518-519 atmospheric moisture, 97, 104, 108, 113, 115, 387, 388 carbon cycling, 26, 158-159, 458 case studies, 89-98 clouds, 113, 387, 388 data management, 105, 109-110 drought, 88, 89, 95, 98, 101, 108 economic factors, 108-109 energy balances and exchanges, 88, 97, 98, 103-107 (passim), 112, 114, 115, 117, 122, 387, 392 evaporation, 95, 104, 108, 115-116, 388 transpiration/evapotranspiration, 104-105, 108, 116, 118, 119, 121, 388, 390, 391 floods, 91, 96-98, 101, 107-108, 134-137 general circulation models, 100, 106-107, 114, 117-118 human factors, 89, 111, 313, 315-316, 342-344, 354 hydrological cycles, 88, 90-98, 104, 107-109, 112, 115-119, 384, 387-392, 519 land surface, 384, 388-390, 519 local downscaling, 88, 96-98, 106-107, 112, 117-118, 344, 519 models, 88, 96-97, 99, 100, 104-107, 109, 114, 115, 117-118, 344, 383, 387 observation systems, 88, 94, 98, 99, 105, 118, 119-123, 383-392 remote sensing, general, 105, 113, 120

OCR for page 575
GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE: Research Pathways for the Next Decade satellite remote sensing, 110, 113, 121-122 precipitation, 60, 88, 96, 107, 108, 113, 116, 118-119, 120, 121, 387, 389 regional, 96-98, 106-107, 114, 302, 315-316 runoff, 104, 105, 107, 108, 116-119 (passim), 388, 389 salinity, 113, 116, 383, 388 sea level change, 99, 113, 387, 388 sea level pressure, 136, 137, 141, 143, 388 sea surface temperature, 98, 101-103, 110, 114 snow, 88, 94-95, 101, 105, 108, 118, 120-121, 388, 390 soils, 88, 96-98, 104, 116-117, 122-123, 388, 391-392 solar radiation, 91, 94-95, 101, 105, 113, 116, 384, 387, 389-390 terrestrial-atmosphere interactions, 88, 89, 96-98, 100, 103-105, 106-107, 112, 114, 117-119 trace gases, 105 tropical zones, 101, 102, 115; see also El Niño; La Niña; Monsoons vegetation, 104-105, 116, 123, 381, 386, 388, 392 transpiration/evapotranspiration, 104-105, 108, 116, 118, 119, 121, 388, 390, 391 see also Drought Sea surface temperature, 43, 110, 114, 302, 379, 417, 474 Atlantic, other than NAO, 98, 133, 145, 149, 151, 156, 165, 168 cryosphere, 159-162 decadal to centennial climate change, 133, 141, 144-148 (passim), 151, 155-159 (passim), 162, 165, 168, 181, 182, 183, 397 monsoons, 95, 101-103 paleoclimatology, 133, 250 sea ice, 102, 147, 157, 158 seasonal to interannual climate change, 98, 101-103, 110, 114 see also El Niño; La Niña; North Atlantic Oscillation; Thermohaline circulation Simulated Topographical Network, 467, 468 Snow decadal to centennial climate change, 132, 135, 145, 147, 161, 162, 163, 183 seasonal to interannual climate change, 88, 94-95, 101, 105, 108, 118, 120-121, 388, 390 Social and Economic Data and Applications Center, 336 Social factors, 10, 130, 293, 294, 297, 298, 302, 303, 304, 326-337, 412-416, 454, 520 attitudes, 327-328 carbon system, 85 climate change, 296, 297, 309-310, 312-313, 314, 342-344, 520 consumption patterns, 294, 296, 297, 309-310, 313, 327, 328, 329, 333-334, 338-341, 347 developing countries, 312, 327, 329, 338, 340, 341 data links, 295 drought, 95, 133 El Niño, 14 energy resources consumption, 296, 297, 309-310, 328, 336, 338-339, 340, 342 household behavior, 306, 328-329, 331, 332, 333, 336 individual behavior, 328-329, 333, 336, 352, 497, 521 integrated assessments, 323, 324, 355 land use management, 305, 306, 307, 308 satellite observations, 305, 306, 411-412 surprises, 294, 315, 345-346, 352; see also Disasters see also Institutional factors Soils, 381, 457-458, 469 decadal to centennial climate change, 163, 164, 169, 183 large-scale ecosystems, 19, 21, 24, 26, 30, 32, 37, 47, 52, 62 moisture, 52, 88, 96-98, 101, 104, 116-117, 122-123, 164, 169, 183, 388, 391-392, 457, 460, 462-463, 467, 470, 498 models, 52, 88, 96-97, 122-123, 457, 460, 462-463, 467, 470, 498 seasonal to interannual climate change, 88, 96-98, 104, 116-117, 122-123, 388, 391-392 Solar radiation, 449, 460, 461, 477, 502-503

OCR for page 575
GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE: Research Pathways for the Next Decade albedo, 94-95, 159, 162, 163, 164, 166, 172, 183, 256, 462 case studies, 421-422 decadal to centennial climate change, 94-95, 127, 128, 159, 162, 164, 166, 170-176, 179, 180, 394 Earth orbital cycles, 240, 241, 248, 262, 270, 277 paleoclimatology, 240, 254, 256, 257, 271 photosynthesis, 25, 32, 35-36, 62-63, 386, 458, 459, 460, 461 seasonal to interannual climate change, 91, 94-95, 101, 105, 113, 116, 384, 387, 389-390 tropospheric ozone, 193 UV, 171 see also Greenhouse gases; Ozone layer depletion; Photochemical oxidants Southern Oscillation Index, 259 Spectral Mapping Project, 240, 241 Spectroscopy, 28, 240, 241, 382, 407, 477 Standards, data, 437, 438-439, 442-443, 538, 543 START, see Global Change System for Analysis, Research, and Training Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment, 222 Streamflow, 118-119, 134-135, 145, 379, 388-389 Sulfates, 44, 49, 52, 133, 214, 215, 254, 257, 261, 404, 407, 408, 409, 488, 489 Surface air temperature, 95, 121-122, 141, 166, 388, 391, 455, 460 Surface radiation, 21, 94-95, 120, 227, 159, 162, 163, 164, 166, 172, 183, 256, 462 see also Albedo T Taxes and subsidies, 299, 301, 306, 310, 320, 346 Technological change, environment impacts, 10, 16, 194, 293, 294, 298, 307-312 (passim), 315, 317, 325, 332, 333, 341-342, 521, 561 Telecommunications networks, 435, 436 Internet, 10, 90 (footnote), 436, 437, 540 Television and Infrared Observation Satellite, 430 Temperature factors, see Atmospheric temperature; Greenhouse gases; Sea surface temperature; Surface air temperature Terrestrial-atmosphere interactions, 520 climate change, 43, 49, 51, 67 albedo, 94-95, 159, 162, 163, 164, 166, 172, 183, 256, 462 decadal to centennial change, 155, 162-164, 167-168, 180, 183, 395-396, 398-399 observation systems, 379, 387 seasonal to interannual change, 88, 89, 96-98, 100, 103-105, 106-107, 112, 114, 117-119 ecosystem modeling, 20, 24-25, 26-28, 29, 43, 49, 51-52, 67, 457-464 GOALS, 110, 114, 115, 117, 379, 387, 388 models, 97, 105, 106, 116, 448, 456, 457-465, 469, 498-500 observation systems, 379, 380, 387 see also Evaporation; Land cover; Land surface; Land use; Vegetation Terrestrial-ocean interactions, 51-52, 68, 100, 114, 162, 182, 270, 452-453, 465-473, 500 GOALS, 110, 114, 115, 117, 379, 387, 388 greenhouse effect, COWL, 137, 139, 147, 151-152, 160, 170-171 models, 24-26, 465-473, 500 see also Coastal ecosystems; River systems Terrestrial ecosystems, 20, 23, 24-25, 35, 45, 53, 55, 62, 66, 450-451, 470 types of models, 70-71 see also Biodiversity; Soils; Vegetation; terms beginning “Land” Thermohaline circulation, 398, 399, 452, 453, 454, 479 Atlantic Ocean, 141, 147, 169, 267 decadal to centennial climate change, 140, 141, 147, 149, 158, 160-162, 167, 169, 182, 183 paleoclimatology, 240, 244, 248, 250, 254, 255, 266-267, 268, 271, 272 Time series observations, 144, 380, 446-447 large-scale ecosystems, 20, 47-48, 49, 56-61, 64, 68-69, 380-381 oceanic, 20, 159, 181, 397 paleoclimatology, 238, 240-264, 276, 411; see also Ice cores; Tree rings see also Long-term observations TOPEX, see Ocean Topography Experiment

OCR for page 575
GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE: Research Pathways for the Next Decade Topographic factors, ocean, 11, 430, 480, 487, 501 Topographic factors, land surface, 38, 106, 117, 404, 464, 469, 471, 472 Total ozone mapping spectrometer, 222 Toxics acid deposition, 33, 49, 53, 193, 232, 502 atmospheric, 53, 192, 205-206, 209, 231-232 large-scale ecosystems, 43, 45, 47, 53 marine ecosystems, 43 multiple ecosystem stress, 45 Trace gases, 181, 239, 269, 271, 396, 400-405, 407, 408, 452, 458, 460, 463-464, 470, 491, 493, 498 biodiversity, 56 land use, 30 large-scale ecosystems, 20, 21, 23, 30, 43, 44, 51, 52, 53, 56, 70 seasonal to interannual climate change, 105 see also specific trace species Training, see Education and training Transpiration/evapotranspiration, 39, 61-62, 215, 221, 452, 457, 458, 460, 461, 465, 467, 470, 471, 472, 474, 494, 522 decadal to centennial climate change, 164, 166, 169 seasonal to interannual climate change, 104-105, 108, 116, 118, 119, 121, 388, 390, 391 Transport processes and models, general, 65, 69, 107, 381, 458, 464, 465, 472 atmospheric, 7, 8, 23, 37, 164, 174, 175, 194, 203, 205, 208, 218, 219, 221, 225, 226, 265, 266, 399, 448, 454, 489-493, 502 greenhouse gases, 24, 25 moisture, 98, 117 oceanic, general, 62, 156, 157-158, 162, 166, 168-169, 182, 266, 267, 287, 298, 490-493 sediments, 465, 467 see also Biogeochemical cycles Tree rings, 167, 169, 170, 250, 254, 257, 275, 276, 410 Tropical Atmospheric-Ocean array, 90, 99, 110, 113, 114, 148, 387 Tropical Oceans and Global Atmosphere program, 10, 66, 67, 87, 90, 101, 109-110, 115, 425 Tropical Rainfall Monitoring Mission, 183, 430 Tropical zones, 27, 402 aerosols, 172, 223 atmospheric moisture, 102 carbon cycles, 34, 36, 402 decadal to centennial climate changes, 148, 161, 183 ozone layer, 199, 201, 213-214, 215, 222 paleoclimatology, 248, 251, 256, 266 sea level change, 113 seasonal to interannual climate change, 101, 102, 115 sea surface temperature, 100, 103, 145, 149, 155, 159, 165, 168, 183 see also El Niño; La Niña; Monsoons U Ultraviolet radiation, 171, 176, 192, 193, 205, 209, 210-215, 217-231, 316, 399-402, 519 see also Ozone layer depletion Uncertainty, x-xi, 1, 8, 219, 295, 302, 323, 324, 352, 353, 445, 449, 476, 499, 557 carbon cycle, 34 decadal to centennial climate change, 127, 128, 129, 150, 175 socioeconomic vs biophysical, 293, 333, 454 technological change, environment impacts, 10, 16, 194, 293, 294, 298, 307-312 (passim), 315, 317, 325, 332, 341-342 United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization , 55, 389 United Nations Environment Programme, 191 Urban areas, 33, 44, 49, 135, 193, 203, 224, 227, 301, 313, 330, 331, 340, 350 sea level changes, 298 U.S. Agency for International Development, 413, 414 U.S. Global Change Research Program, ix-xiii(passim) atmospheric chemistry component, 191, 337 decadal to centennial climate change, 129 ecosystems, 2, 3, 24, 28, 30, 44, 64, 65, 67-68 EOS data management model, 442 funding, xi, 1-2, 13, 335, 354, 377, 429, 527 historical overview, 1-6, 298

OCR for page 575
GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE: Research Pathways for the Next Decade human dimension research, 298, 337-338, 342, 350, 353-356, 357, 413 mission of, 10-11, 377 modeling efforts, general, 446, 456, 497, 499-500, 531-533 observation systems, 377-430 program review, 10-16 recommendations for, 517-546 research infrastructure, 335-336, 442 seasonal to interannual climate change, 87, 117 U.S. government, see Federal government; terms beginning “Department”, “National” and “Office” V Vegetation, 123, 528 archiving, 123, 392 canopy measures, 26, 39, 51, 61, 62-63 decadal to centennial climate change, 152, 162-164, 166, 169, 170, 183, 398-399 Holocene, 250 large-scale ecosystem modeling, 19, 20, 21, 26-27, 31, 32-33, 36, 37-42, 49, 51-52, 57, 61-63, 72 modeling, other, 263-264, 268, 448, 452, 454, 457-464, 469, 498-499 paleoclimatology, 250, 256-264, 265 photosynthesis, 25, 32, 35-36, 62-63, 386, 458, 459, 460, 461 pollen, 250 precipitation, 88 satellite observations, 51, 221; see also “canopy measures” supra seasonal to interannual climate change, 104-105, 116, 123, 381, 386, 388, 392 successional dynamics, 25, 41, 57, 232, 305, 448, 452, 458, 460, 463, 499 tree rings, 167, 169, 170, 250, 254, 257, 275, 276, 410 see also Drought; Forests; Transpiration/evapotranspiration Vegetation and Ecosystem Modeling and Analysis Project, 38-42 Volatile organic compounds, 164, 204, 403, 405 Volcanic eruptions, 206, 210, 211, 213, 222, 228, 314, 492 decadal to centennial climate change, 127-128, 172 paleoclimatology, 239, 240, 248, 251, 254, 257, 269, 271, 272, 277, 278 Vulnerability, human, 95, 170, 293, 294, 297, 298, 299, 301-302, 312-316 (passim), 329, 330, 331, 334, 340-345 (passim), 354, 357, 496 W Water cycles, see Hydrological cycles Water vapor, see Atmospheric moisture Wetlands, 32, 178, 466, 469 Wind, 99, 113, 121, 136, 159, 182, 259, 166, 388, 390-391, 395, 397, 460, 467 World Climate Conferences, 2, 5 World Climate Research Programme, 2, 3, 117, 263, 268, 394, 425 World Fertility Survey, 331, 414 World Meteorological Organization, 5, 6, 191, 389 World Ocean Circulation Experiment, 457, 480, 484, 486, 487, 501 World Wide Web, see Internet Y Younger Dryas, 132, 242-243, 252