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The content of this book is based on a study by a committee of some of the nation’s most eminent researchers, who were appointed by the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering to review current scientific research in the field of early reading development. The work of the Committee on the Prevention of Reading Difficulties in Young Children resulted in the publication of Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children (National Academy Press, 1998), which includes its complete scientific assessment and recommendations.

The focus of that report is prevention. In it we tried to sketch the conditions under which reading is likely to develop most easily—conditions that include stimulating preschool environments, excellent reading instruction, and the absence of a wide array of risk factors. In fact, many children from poor and uneducated families learn to read well, even without excellent preschool classroom experiences or superb early reading instruction. Nonetheless, with an eye to reducing risk and preventing failure, we focused on ways to provide the best possible situation for every child.

Two additional documents developed by educational organizations might be of interest to the readers of this book.



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Starting Out Right: A Guide to Promoting Children’s Reading Success For More Information Page Number Source 2 The content of this book is based on a study by a committee of some of the nation’s most eminent researchers, who were appointed by the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering to review current scientific research in the field of early reading development. The work of the Committee on the Prevention of Reading Difficulties in Young Children resulted in the publication of Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children (National Academy Press, 1998), which includes its complete scientific assessment and recommendations. The focus of that report is prevention. In it we tried to sketch the conditions under which reading is likely to develop most easily—conditions that include stimulating preschool environments, excellent reading instruction, and the absence of a wide array of risk factors. In fact, many children from poor and uneducated families learn to read well, even without excellent preschool classroom experiences or superb early reading instruction. Nonetheless, with an eye to reducing risk and preventing failure, we focused on ways to provide the best possible situation for every child. Two additional documents developed by educational organizations might be of interest to the readers of this book.

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Starting Out Right: A Guide to Promoting Children’s Reading Success   • Learning First Alliance. (1998). Every Child Reading: An Action Plan. (Learning First Alliance member organizations are American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education, American Association of School Administrators, American Federation of Teachers, Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, Council of Chief State School Officers, Education Commission of the States, National Association of Elementary School Principals, National Association of Secondary School Principals, National Association of State Boards of Education, National Education Association, National Parent Teacher Association, and National School Boards Association.) 1001 Connecticut Ave., NW, Suite 335, Washington, DC, 202/296-5220. • International Reading Association and the National Association for the Education of Young Children. (1998). Learning to read and write: developmentally appropriate practices for young children. Young Children 53:30-46. 19 We found several sources helpful in developing these activities • Lynn, L. (1997). Helping children develop oral-language skills: 10 activities teachers and parents can do. The Harvard Education Letter 13(4). • Whitehurst, G.J., F.L. Falco, C.J. Lonigan, J.E. Fischel, B.D. DeBaryshe, M., C. Valdez-Menchaca, and M. Caulfield. (1988). Accelerating language development through picture book reading. Developmental Psychology 24:552-559. • Helping Your Baby Learn to Talk. (1995). U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement, National Institute on Early Childhood Development and Education. • Ready*Set*Read for Families. (1997). U.S. Department of Education, America Reads Challenge. 20 Green Eggs and Ham by Dr. Seuss. (1960). New York: Random House. 21 Friends Old and New: Picture Songbook by Linda Swears. (1994). Greensboro, NC: Kindermusik International, Inc. 22 Dr. Seuss wrote and illustrated 42 books, published by Random House. They are listed below. • And to Think That I Saw It on Mulberry Street • The 500 Hats of Bartholomew Cubbins

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Starting Out Right: A Guide to Promoting Children’s Reading Success   • The King’s Stilts • Horton Hatches the Egg • McElligot’s Pool • Thidwick the Big-Hearted Moose • Bartholomew and the Oobleck • If I Ran the Zoo • Scrambled Eggs Super! • Horton Hears a Who! • On Beyond Zebra! • If I Ran the Circus • How the Grinch Stole Christmas! • Yertle the Turtle and Other Stories • Happy Birthday to You! • The Sneetches and Other Stories • Dr. Seuss’s Sleep Book • I Had Trouble in Getting to Solla Sollew • The Cat in the Hat Songbook • I Can Lick 30 Tigers Today! And Other Stories • I Can Draw It Myself • The Lorax • Did I Ever Tell You How Lucky You Are? • Hunches and Bunches • The Butter Battle Book • Oh, the Places You’ll Go! • The Cat in the Hat • The Cat in the Hat Comes Back • One Fish Two Fish Red Fish Blue Fish • Green Eggs and Ham • Hop on Pop • Dr. Seuss’s ABC • Fox in Socks • The Foot Book • Mr. Brown Can Moo! Can You? • Marvin K. Mooney Will You Please Go Now! • The Shape of Me and Other Stuff • There’s a Wocket in My Pocket! • Oh, the Thinks You Can Think! • The Cat’s Quizzer • I Can Read with My Eyes Shut! • Oh Say Can You Say?

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Starting Out Right: A Guide to Promoting Children’s Reading Success 22 Haines, B.J. and L.L. Gerber. (1995). Leading Young Children to Music. Fifth Edition. Upper Saddle River: Merrill/Prentice-Hall. Reprinted by permission. 22 Raffi recorded this song on a videotape titled “Raffi in Concert with the Rise and Shine Band.” (1988). A&M video, PO Box 118, Hollywood, Calif 90028. 26 Every Grownup Is a Famous Storyteller. (1997). The Connecticut Commission on Children, 18-20 Trinity Street, Hartford, CT 06106. 860/240-0290 28 Ready*Set*Read for Families. (1997). U.S. Department of Education, America Reads Challenge. 29 High-quality children’s magazines also serve as a rich source of print material. A few examples are listed • Turtle Magazine for Preschool Kids, P.O. Box 420235, Palm Coast, FL 32142. 904/447-0818 • Ladybug, The Cricket Magazine Group, Box 7434, Red Oak, IA 51591-2434. 800/827-0227 • Click, Box 7499, Red Oak, IA 51591-2499. 800/827-0227 32, 33 Clay, M. (1975). What Did I Write? Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann Educational Books. 34 Helping Your Child Learn to Read. (1993). U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement. 35 Many companies produce cassette tapes to accompany children’s books. A few examples are listed. • Goodnight Moon by Margaret Wise Brown. Available from Harper Collins Publishers, Inc., 10 East 53rd Street, New York, NY 10022. • Kinderkittens Show-and-Tell by Stephanie Calmenson. Available from Scholastics Cassettes, Scholastic, Inc., 555 Broadway, New York, NY 10012. • The Frog Prince narrated by Robert Guillaume. Available from the Confetti Entertainment Company, Inc., P.O. Box 1155, Studio City, CA 91614.

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Starting Out Right: A Guide to Promoting Children’s Reading Success   • Lyle, Lyle Crocodile by Bernard Waber. Available from Houghton Mifflin Co., 222 Berkeley Street, Boston, MA 02116. • Grover and the Package by Michaela Muntean. Available from Golden Books, Western Publishing Company, Inc., Racine, WI 53404. • Arthur Meets the President by Marc Brown. Available from Little Brown & Co., 1271 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10020. 36 Munsch, R.N. and M. Martchenko. (1980). The Paper Bag Princess. Toronto: Annick Press. 45 • Hohmann, M. and D. Weikert. (1995). Educating Young Children. Ypsilanti, MI: High/Scope Press.   Also see Schweinhart, L.J., et al. • (1985). Effects of the Perry Preschool Program on youths through age 19: A summary. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education Quarterly 5(2): 26-35. • (1986). Consequences of three preschool curriculum models through age 15. Early Childhood Research Quarterly 1(1):15-45. 46 Ready*Set*Read for Caregivers. (1997). U.S. Department of Education, America Reads Challenge. 46 • Adams, M.J., B.R. Foorman, I. Lundberg, and T.D. Beeler. (1998). Phonemic Awareness in Young Children. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Pub. Co. 800/638-3775 • Byrne, B. and R. Fielding-Barnsley. (1989). Phonemic awareness and letter knowledge in the child’s acquisition of the alphabetic principle. Journal of Educational Psychology 81:313-321. • Byrne, B. and R. Fielding-Barnsley. (1993). Evaluation of a program to teach phonemic awareness to young children: A 1-year follow-up. Journal of Educational Psychology 85:104-111. 47 Friends Old and New: Picture Songbook by Linda Swears. (1994). Greensboro, NC: Kindermusik International, Inc. 48 The Eentsy, Weentsy Spider: Fingerplays and Other Action Rhymes by Joanna Cole and Stephanie Calmeson. (1991). New York: Mulberry Press. 48 • Adams, M.J., B. R. Foorman, I. Lundberg, and T. D. Beeler. (1998).

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Starting Out Right: A Guide to Promoting Children’s Reading Success   Phonemic Awareness in Young Children. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Pub. Co. 800/638-3775 • Helping Your Child Learn to Read. (1993). U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement.   This poem, The Spider, is written by Frank Collymore and published in • Agard, J. and G. Nichols (Editors) and C. Felstead (Illustrator). (1990). A Caribbean Dozen: Poems from Caribbean Poets. Cambridge, MA: Candlewick Press.   Additional examples of books of poetry for young children include   • Prelutsky, J. (Selector) and M. Bown (Illustrator). (1986). Read-Aloud Rhymes for the Very Young. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. • Slier, D. (Editor) and C. Van Wright and Y. Hu (Illustrators). (1991). Make a Joyful Sound: Poems for Children by African-American Poets. New York: Checkerboard Press. 49 McGee, L.M. and D.J. Richgels. (1990). Literacy’s Beginnings: Supporting Young Readers and Writers. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon. 51 • Lynn, L. (1997). Helping children develop oral-language skills: 10 activities teachers and parents can do. The Harvard Education Letter 13(4). • Helping Your Child Learn to Read. (1993). U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement. 51 Paley, V.G. (1986). Mollie Is Three: Growing Up in School. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 52 Stony Brook Reading & Language • Grover J. (Russ) Whitehurst, Ph.D. Professor of Psychology and Pediatrics, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794-2500. website: www.whitehurst.sbs.sunysb.edu • Whitehurst, G.J., F.L. Falco, C.J. Lonigan, J.E. Fischel, B.D. DeBaryshe, M.C. Valdez-Menchaca, and M. Caulfield. (1988). Accelerating language development through picture book reading. Developmental Psychology 24:552-559. 52 Kasza, K. (1992). A Mother for Choco. New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons.

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Starting Out Right: A Guide to Promoting Children’s Reading Success 53 Getting Books in Children’s Hands: The Great Book Flood of 1996. Susan Neuman, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Temple University, Ritter Hall (003-00), Philadelphia, PA 19122. 54 Adams, M. (1994). Beginning to Read. Cambridge, MA: M.I.T. Press. 56 Paley, V.G. (1986). Mollie Is Three: Growing Up in School. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 57 Hohmann, C., B. Carmody, and C. McCabe-Branz. (1995). High/Scope Buyer’s Guide to Children’s Software. Ypsilanti, MI: High/Scope Press. 57 Reader Rabbit’s Ready for Letters. The Learning Company, 6493 Kaiser Dr., Fremont, CA 94555. 800/852-2255 57 Kid Pix. Broderbund Software, PO Box 61215, 500 Redwood Blvd., Novato, CA 94948-6121. 800/521-6263 57 Living Books. Random House/Broderbund Co., P.O. Box 6144 Novato, CA 94948-6144. 800/776-4724 57 A to Zap. Sunburst Communications, 101 Castleton St., Pleasantville, NY 10570. 800/321-7511 57 Bailey’s Book House. Edmark Corporation, PO Box 3218, Redmond, WA 98073-3218. 800/426-0856 57 The Playroom. Broderbund Software, PO Box 61215, 500 Redwood Blvd., Novato, CA 94948-6121. 800/521-6263 66 The reading series in your child’s school most likely includes many activities in this area. In addition, there are a number of books with similar activities. Examples of these are   • Fountas, I.C., and G.S. Pinnell. (1995). Guided Reading: Good First Teaching for All Children. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann Educational Books. • Bear, D.R., M. Invernizzi, S. Templeton, and F. Johnston. (1996). Words Their Way. Columbus, Ohio: Merrill.

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Starting Out Right: A Guide to Promoting Children’s Reading Success   Parents might also be interested in activities published in documents such as   • You Can Help Your Child with Reading and Writing. (1994). Edinfo Press, P.O. Box 5247, Bloomington, IN 47407. 800/925-7853 • Helping Your Child Learn to Read. (1993). U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement. • Read*Right*Now. (1997) U.S. Department of Education, America Reads Challenge. 66 • Adams, M.J., B.R. Foorman, I. Lundberg, and T.D. Beeler. (1998). Phonemic Awareness in Young Children. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Pub. Co. 800/638-3775 • Griffith, P.L. and M.W. Olson. (1992). Phonemic awareness helps beginning readers break the code. The Reading Teacher 45:516-523. • Yopp, H.P. (1995). Read-Aloud Books for Developing Phonemic Awareness: An Annotated Bibliography. Reading-Teacher 48:538-542. • Yopp, H.P. (1992). Developing Phonemic Awareness in Young Children. Reading-Teacher 45:696-703. 70 Paley, V.G. (1981). Wally’s Stories: Conversations in the Kindergarten. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. 74 A 1992 recording of Ella Jenkins called ”Come Dance by the Ocean” and a 1989 recording of Ella Jenkins called ”You’ll Sing a Song and I’ll Sing a Song” include many of these features. They are available from Rounder Records, One Camp Street, Cambridge, MA 02140. 78 The reading series in your child’s school most likely includes many activities in this area. In addition, there are a number of books with similar activities. Examples of these are   • Fountas, I.C. and G.S. Pinnell. (1995). Guided Reading: Good First Teaching for All Children. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann Educational Books. • Bear, D.R., M. Invernizzi, S. Templeton, and F. Johnston. (1996). Words Their Way. Columbus, Ohio: Merrill.   Parents might also be interested in documents such as • Evaluating Commercial Phonics Packages. The International Reading Association, 800 Barksdale Road, P.O. Box 8139, Newark, DE 19714-8139.

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Starting Out Right: A Guide to Promoting Children’s Reading Success   • Read*Right*Now. (1997). U.S. Department of Education, America Reads Challenge. 82 The reading series in your child’s school most likely includes many activities in this area. In addition, there are a number of books with similar activities. Examples of these are   • Adams, M.J., B.R. Foorman, I. Lundberg, and T.D. Beeler. (1998). Phonemic Awareness in Young Children. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Pub. Co. 800/638-3775 • Bear, D.R., M. Invernizzi, S. Templeton, and F. Johnston. (1996). Words Their Way. Columbus, Ohio: Merrill. 90 The reading series in your child’s school most likely includes many activities in this area. In addition, there are a number of books with similar activities. Examples of these are   • Fountas, I.C. and G.S. Pinnell. (1995). Guided Reading: Good First Teaching for All Children. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann Educational Books. • Bear, D.R., M. Invernizzi, S. Templeton, and F. Johnston. (1996). Words Their Way. Columbus, Ohio: Merrill. 96 Four Blocks. Patricia Cunningham and Dorothy Hall, Box 7266 WFU, Winston Salem, NC 27109. 96 The reading series in your child’s school most likely includes many activities in this area. In addition, there are a number of books with similar activities. Examples of these are   • Fountas, I.C. and G.S. Pinnell. (1995). Guided Reading: Good First Teaching for All Children. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann Educational Books. • Beck, I., M.G. McKeown, and R.L. Hamilton. (1997). Questioning the Author: An Approach for Enhancing Student Engagement With Text. Newark, NJ: International Reading Association.   Parents might also be interested in children’s magazines which provide a great resource. Some examples include • Jack and Jill, P.O. Box 420235, Palm Coast, FL 32142. 904/447-0818

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Starting Out Right: A Guide to Promoting Children’s Reading Success   • Spider, The Cricket Magazine Group, Box 7434, Red Oak, IA 51591-2434. 800/827-0227 • Muse, Box 7468, Red Oak, IA 51591-2499. 800/827-0227 99 Hot Cross Buns Just in case you wanted a complete recipe, here it is. This is basic but tasty. 2 pkgs active dry yeast 3 1/2 to 4 c sifted flour 1/3 c water 1/2 to 1 tsp cinnamon 1/3 c milk, scalded 3 beaten eggs 1/2 c salad oil 2/3 c currants 1/3 c sugar 1 slightly beaten egg white 3/4 tsp salt sifted confectioners’ sugar Soften yeast in warm water. Combine milk, oil, sugar, and salt; cool to lukewarm. Sift together 1 c flour and the cinnamon; stir into milk mixture. Add eggs; beat well. Stir in softened yeast and currants. Add remaining flour (or a little more or less to make a soft dough). Cover with damp cloth; and let rise in warm place till double (about 1 1/2 hr). Punch down. Roll or pat out to 1/2 inch on lightly floured surface. Cut in rounds with 2 1/2 inch biscuit cutter; shape in buns. Place on greased baking sheet about 1 1/2 inches apart. Cover and let rise in warm place until almost double (about 1 hr). If desired, cut shallow cross in each bun with sharp scissors or knife. Brush tops with egg white. Bake at 375° about 12 minutes or until done. Add confectioners’ sugar (about 3/4 c) to the remaining egg white. Use this as a frosting for piping crosses on warm buns. Makes about 2 dozen. 103 Helping Your Child Learn to Read. (1993). U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement. 106 Staton, J., R.W. Shuy, J.K. Peyton, and L. Reed. (1998). Dialogue Journal Interaction: Classroom, Linguistic, Social, and Cognitive Views. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

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Starting Out Right: A Guide to Promoting Children’s Reading Success 110 Stahl, S.A., K. Heubach, and C.E. Davus. (1997.) Fluency-Oriented Reading Instruction. Reading research report No. 79. Athens, GA: National Reading Research Center. 111 Pressley, M., J. Rankin, and L. Yokoi. (1996). A survey of instructional practices of outstanding primary-level literacy teachers. Elementary School Journal 93:363-384. 112 • Palincsar, A.S. and A.L. Brown. (1984). Reciprocal teaching of comprehension-fostering and comprehension-monitoring activities. Cognition and Instruction 1:117-175. • Palincsar, A.S., A.L. Brown, and J.C. Campione. (1993). First-grade dialogues for knowledge acquisition and use. In E. Forman, N. Minick, and C.A. Stone (Eds.), Contexts for Learning: Sociocultural Dynamics in Children’s Development. New York: Oxford University Press. 120 Breakthrough to Literacy. 131 Technology Innovation Center, Oakdale, IA 52319. 800/874-2851 120 Waterford Early Reading Program. 1590 East 9400 South, Sandy, UT 84093. 801/576-4900 120 Little Planet Publishing. P.O. Box 158427, Nashville, TN 37215-8427. 800/947-2248 121 Hohmann, C., B. Carmody, and C. McCabe-Branz. (1995). High/Scope Buyer’s Guide to Children’s Software. Ypsilanti, MI: High/Scope Press. 121 The Treehouse. Broderbund Software, PO Box 61215, 500 Redwood Blvd., Novato, CA 94948-6121. 800/521-6263 121 Reader Rabbit 2. The Learning Company, 6493 Kaiser Dr., Fremont, CA 94555. 800/852-2255 121 My Own Stories. MECC Minnesota Ed Computing Corp., 6160 Summit Dr., Minneapolis, MN 55430-4003. 800/685-6322 129 Collections for Young Scholars. Open Court Publishing Company of SRA/McGraw-Hill, New York.

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Starting Out Right: A Guide to Promoting Children’s Reading Success 131 Success for All. Robert Slavin, CRESPAR, 3505 North Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21218-2498. 410/516-8800 134 Reach Out and Read (ROAR). Boston City Hospital, Mat 5, 818 Harrison Avenue, Boston, MA 02118. 617/534-5701 138 • Campbell, F.A., and C.T. Ramey. (1994). Effects of early intervention on intellectual and academic achievement: A follow up study of children from low income families. Child Development 65:684-698. • Campbell, F.A., and C.T. Ramey. (1993). Mid-Adolescent Outcomes for High-Risk Students: An Examination of the Continuing Effects of Early Intervention. ERIC document ED358919. 140 Learning to Read, Reading to Learn: Helping Children with Learning Disabilities to Succeed. U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs. 202/205-5465 141 Reading Recovery. Gay Su Pinnell or Carol Lyons, The Ohio State University, Ramseyer 200, 29 W. Woodruff, Columbus, Ohio 43210. 143 Beginning with Books. Elizabeth Segel, Ph.D., Co-Director, Beginning with Books, 7101 Hamilton Ave., Pittsburgh PA 15208. segele@clpgh.org 144 Book Buddies. Connie Juel, Director of Studies in Learning to Read, University of Virginia, 405 Emmet St., Charlottesville, VA. 804/924-1380 144 Reading One-One. Professor George Farkas, University of Texas at Dallas. farkas@utdallas.edu 148,149 American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Third Edition, (1994). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.