Acknowledgments

Many people contributed in many different ways to the completion of this book, and we are most grateful for their efforts. First, the committee and staff would like to acknowledge Ellen Schiller (U.S. Department of Education), Naomi Karp (U.S. Department of Education), and Reid Lyon (National Institutes of Health) for assistance given during the project. Louis Danielson, Tom Hehir, Judith Heumann, Kent McGuire, and Marshal Smith of the U.S. Department of Education and Duane Alexander of the National Institutes of Health provided support and encouragement. Our thanks to Rebecca Fitch (U.S. Department of Education) and Frederick Mosher (Carnegie Corporation of New York) for their help in developing plans for liaison activities.

During the information-gathering phase of our work, a number of people made presentations and gave advice to the committee: Elizabeth Segal (Beginning with Books); Marcia Invernizzi (Book Buddies); Andrew Hayes (Comprehensive Family Literacy Program); John Guthrie (Concept Oriented Reading Instruction); Bob Stark (Early ID: Reading Early Identification and Intervention); Barbara Taylor (Early Intervention in Reading); Jerry Zimmerman (Foundations in Reading); Sabra Gelfond (Fast ForWord); Annette Dove and Pia Rebello (Home Instruction Program for Preschool Youngsters-HIPPY); Darcy Vogel (Intergenerational Tutoring Program); Ethna Reid (Keyboarding, Reading, Spelling); Bob Lemire and Kathy Hook (Phonics Based Reading); George Farkas (Reading One-One); M. Trika Smith-Burke (Reading Recovery); James Wendorf, Linda Gambrell, and Suzanne Kealey (RIF’s Running Start Program); John Nunnary (Success For All); Marilyn Howard (Auditory Discrimination in Depth). We are grateful for their valuable contributions.

There are a number of additional people who gave advice specific to this book; our thanks to Valorie Burgess (Children’s Learning Center, MD), Anne Colgate (Children’s Learning Center, MD), Carmen DaCosta (Chicago Public Schools, IL), Jo Dennis (Children’s Institute International, CA), Susan Derber (Springfield Public



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Starting Out Right: A Guide to Promoting Children’s Reading Success Acknowledgments Many people contributed in many different ways to the completion of this book, and we are most grateful for their efforts. First, the committee and staff would like to acknowledge Ellen Schiller (U.S. Department of Education), Naomi Karp (U.S. Department of Education), and Reid Lyon (National Institutes of Health) for assistance given during the project. Louis Danielson, Tom Hehir, Judith Heumann, Kent McGuire, and Marshal Smith of the U.S. Department of Education and Duane Alexander of the National Institutes of Health provided support and encouragement. Our thanks to Rebecca Fitch (U.S. Department of Education) and Frederick Mosher (Carnegie Corporation of New York) for their help in developing plans for liaison activities. During the information-gathering phase of our work, a number of people made presentations and gave advice to the committee: Elizabeth Segal (Beginning with Books); Marcia Invernizzi (Book Buddies); Andrew Hayes (Comprehensive Family Literacy Program); John Guthrie (Concept Oriented Reading Instruction); Bob Stark (Early ID: Reading Early Identification and Intervention); Barbara Taylor (Early Intervention in Reading); Jerry Zimmerman (Foundations in Reading); Sabra Gelfond (Fast ForWord); Annette Dove and Pia Rebello (Home Instruction Program for Preschool Youngsters-HIPPY); Darcy Vogel (Intergenerational Tutoring Program); Ethna Reid (Keyboarding, Reading, Spelling); Bob Lemire and Kathy Hook (Phonics Based Reading); George Farkas (Reading One-One); M. Trika Smith-Burke (Reading Recovery); James Wendorf, Linda Gambrell, and Suzanne Kealey (RIF’s Running Start Program); John Nunnary (Success For All); Marilyn Howard (Auditory Discrimination in Depth). We are grateful for their valuable contributions. There are a number of additional people who gave advice specific to this book; our thanks to Valorie Burgess (Children’s Learning Center, MD), Anne Colgate (Children’s Learning Center, MD), Carmen DaCosta (Chicago Public Schools, IL), Jo Dennis (Children’s Institute International, CA), Susan Derber (Springfield Public

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Starting Out Right: A Guide to Promoting Children’s Reading Success Schools, IL), Jimmy England (Church Tutoring Program, TN), Ethelyn Hamilton-Frezel (New Orleans Public Schools, LA), Scott Hirose (Queens Child Guidance Center, NY), Marilyn Hosea (Head Start, CA), Emelie Parker (Fairfax County Public Schools, VA), Jennifer Schindler (Modesto Public Schools, CA), Daniel Shapiro (Pediatrician, MD), and Grover Whitehurst (Stony Brook Reading and Language, NY). This book has been reviewed by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the authors and the National Research Council in making the published book as sound as possible and to ensure that the book meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. We also wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the official review of this book: Carol Copple (National Association for the Education of Young Children, Washington, D.C.), Margaret Heritage (Seeds University Elementary School, University of California at Los Angeles), Peggy Kaye (education consultant, New York, New York), Frederick Mosher (Carnegie Corporation, New York, New York), P. David Pearson (College of Education, Michigan State University), Richard Wagner (Department of Psychology, Florida State University). While the individuals listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, responsibility for the final content of this book rests solely with the authoring committee and the National Research Council. Throughout the research, conceptualization, and writing phases of this work, our coeditor, Peg Griffin, was an invaluable colleague—a strong-minded collaborator, a tireless writer, and a reliably good-natured colleague. Laura Schenone provided the foundation for the book, taking the information from our main report and developing text and formats to make the document interesting to a wide audience. Three committee members, Marilyn Adams, Hollis Scarborough, and Elizabeth Sulzby, provided extra assistance with this book; the final product was enhanced greatly by their attention, as well as from the editorial attention of Christine McShane. Alexandra Wigdor, director of the Division on Education, Labor, and Human Performance, provided guidance and support throughout the project. Sharon Vandivere ably assisted the committee in their work. At the National Academy Press, many have collaborated to turn the committee’s work into a visual reality. We are especially grateful to Francesca Moghari for her graphic design, which has added both beauty and meaning to the original manuscript. Thanks also to Sally Stanfield for keeping the project on track and to Sally Groom for illustrating the reading pillar with such charm. The committee extends its sincere thanks and appreciation to all those who assisted us in our work. Catherine Snow, Chair Susan Burns, Study Director Committee on the Prevention of Reading Difficulties in Young Children

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Starting Out Right: A Guide to Promoting Children’s Reading Success Credits Page i, © Jeffry W. Myers/Stock, Boston; page iii, © Lambert/Archive Photo; page iv (from top), © Amy Etra/PhotoEdit; © Jeffry W. Myers/Stock, Boston; National Research Council (NRC) family photo archives; Patton Photographer; Patton Photographer; Photodisk; page v (from top), Paul Hartmann, Photography; Paul Hartmann, Photography; Photodisk; Paul Hartmann, Photography; Paul Hartmann, Photography; page vi, Foreword TK; page viii, Photodisk; page 1, © Amy Etra/PhotoEdit; page 2, NRC family photo archives; page 3, Paul Hartmann, Photography; page 5, Paul Hartmann, Photography; page 6, NRC family photo archives; page 7, drawing by Sally Groom; page 8, NRC family photo archives; page 9, Photodisk; page 11, Paul Hartmann, Photography; page 12, Paul Hartmann, Photography; page 13, Patton Photographer; page 14, Patton Photographer; page 15, Photodisk; page 16, © Tony Freeman/PhotoEdit; page 18, Photodisk; page 20, NRC family photo archives; page 21, “Teddy Bear,” © 1994, edited by Sandra Reichenbach. Kindermusik ® International, Inc., reprinted by permission; page 22, “Ba-Be-Bi-Bo-Bu,”reprinted by permission of B. Joan E. Haines, from Haines, B.J. and L.L. Gerber. (1995). Leading Young Children to Music. Fifth Edition. Upper Saddle River: Merrill/Prentice-Hall; page 23, Patton Photographer; page 24, NRC family photo archives; page 26, NRC family photo archives; page 28, Photodisk; page 29, NRC family photo archives; page 31, Photodisk; page 33, © Jeffry W. Myers/Stock, Boston; page 35, NRC family photo archives; page 36, Patton Photographer; page 37, NRC family photo archives; page 38, NRC family photo archives; page 39, NRC family photo archives; page 40, NRC family photo archives; page 41, NRC family photo archives; page 42, Paul Hartmann, Photography; page 43, © Joseph Schuyler/Stock, Boston; page 44, Patton Photographer; page 45, NRC family photo archives; page 47, “I Can Hear the Rain,” © 1994, edited by Sandra Reichenbach. Kindermusik ® International, Inc., reprinted by permission; page 49, Patton Photographer; page 50, NRC family photo archives; page 51, Patton Photographer; page 53, Paul Hartmann, Photography; page 56, NRC family photo archives; page 58, NRC family photo archives; page 61, Paul Hartmann, Photography; page 62, Paul Hartmann, Photography; page 67, Paul Hartmann, Photography; page 73, Paul Hartmann, Photography; page 75, Photodisk; page 77, Photodisk; page 78, Photodisk; page 81, Photodisk; page 84, Paul Hartmann, Photography; page 86, Paul Hartmann, Photography; page 88, Photodisk; page 89, Photodisk; page 97, Photodisk; page 100, Paul Hartmann, Photography; page 105, Photodisk; page 109, Photodisk; page 113, Photodisk; page 115, NRC family photo archives; page 116, Photodisk; page 121, Photodisk; page 122, Paul Hartmann, Photography; page 125, Paul Hartmann, Photography; page 127, Photodisk.

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Starting Out Right: A Guide to Promoting Children’s Reading Success The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.