Index

A

Accomplishments

birth through age four, 58, 59

first grade, 106, 107

kindergarten, 83, 84

second grade. 117, 118

third grade, 117, 119

Adults, 1

day care providers, 43

interaction with children, general, 14, 16, 17

reading to and with children, general, 10, 13, 14, 17, 134, 143

talking with children, 36, 50-52, 134

birth through age four, 17, 19-20, 23, 28, 30

kindergarten, 70-72, 75, 81

see also Families;

Parents;

Questions;

Teachers

Alphabetic principle, 6, 9

birth through age four, 21, 28, 29, 54-55, 57

computer-based instruction, 57, 121

curriculum, optimal, 129

day care settings, 54

defined, 127, 147

first grade, 91, 92-94, 102

identifying/preventing difficulties, 127

second and third grades, 108

teacher certification, 123

see also Letter identification;

Print awareness;

Word recognition

Apples and Bananas, 22

Assessment, see Evaluation;

Screening and identification

Attitude, see Motivation and attitude

Audiovisual presentations

audiotaped stories, 35, 50, 74, 120

birth through age four, 37, 135

CD-ROMs, 37, 51, 56, 120

television, 19, 34, 37, 166

see also Computer-assisted instruction

Auditory impairments, see Hearing impairments

B

Babysitters, see Day care environments

Beliefs, see Motivation and attitude

Big books, 52, 129, 147

Bilingual education, 124, 130, 131, 132

Birth through age four, 1-2, 4, 8, 14, 15-60, 153

alphabetic principle, 21, 28, 29, 54-55, 57

audiovisual presentations, 37, 135

book reading, 8-9, 17, 19, 20, 22, 27-28, 37, 38, 52-53, 59

access to, 8-9, 17, 37, 38, 53

libraries and librarians, 36, 37, 38, 53

pretend reading, 17, 28, 37

classroom design, 45

cognitive skills, 18, 60

computer-based instruction, 47, 49, 56-57

conceptual knowledge, 10, 36, 44, 60

curricular design, 45, 46

directionality, concept of, 18, 60

emergent writing, 15, 17, 30, 32, 37, 45, 55-56, 59, 60

families, 18, 27, 139;

see also “parents” below

funding, 138

goals outlined, 6, 8, 10, 59

grammar, 19

identifying/preventing difficulties, 24, 42, 128, 137, 138-139

instructional materials, 29, 49, 54, 55

access to books, 8-9, 17, 37, 38, 53



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Starting Out Right: A Guide to Promoting Children’s Reading Success Index A Accomplishments birth through age four, 58, 59 first grade, 106, 107 kindergarten, 83, 84 second grade. 117, 118 third grade, 117, 119 Adults, 1 day care providers, 43 interaction with children, general, 14, 16, 17 reading to and with children, general, 10, 13, 14, 17, 134, 143 talking with children, 36, 50-52, 134 birth through age four, 17, 19-20, 23, 28, 30 kindergarten, 70-72, 75, 81 see also Families; Parents; Questions; Teachers Alphabetic principle, 6, 9 birth through age four, 21, 28, 29, 54-55, 57 computer-based instruction, 57, 121 curriculum, optimal, 129 day care settings, 54 defined, 127, 147 first grade, 91, 92-94, 102 identifying/preventing difficulties, 127 second and third grades, 108 teacher certification, 123 see also Letter identification; Print awareness; Word recognition Apples and Bananas, 22 Assessment, see Evaluation; Screening and identification Attitude, see Motivation and attitude Audiovisual presentations audiotaped stories, 35, 50, 74, 120 birth through age four, 37, 135 CD-ROMs, 37, 51, 56, 120 television, 19, 34, 37, 166 see also Computer-assisted instruction Auditory impairments, see Hearing impairments B Babysitters, see Day care environments Beliefs, see Motivation and attitude Big books, 52, 129, 147 Bilingual education, 124, 130, 131, 132 Birth through age four, 1-2, 4, 8, 14, 15-60, 153 alphabetic principle, 21, 28, 29, 54-55, 57 audiovisual presentations, 37, 135 book reading, 8-9, 17, 19, 20, 22, 27-28, 37, 38, 52-53, 59 access to, 8-9, 17, 37, 38, 53 libraries and librarians, 36, 37, 38, 53 pretend reading, 17, 28, 37 classroom design, 45 cognitive skills, 18, 60 computer-based instruction, 47, 49, 56-57 conceptual knowledge, 10, 36, 44, 60 curricular design, 45, 46 directionality, concept of, 18, 60 emergent writing, 15, 17, 30, 32, 37, 45, 55-56, 59, 60 families, 18, 27, 139; see also “parents” below funding, 138 goals outlined, 6, 8, 10, 59 grammar, 19 identifying/preventing difficulties, 24, 42, 128, 137, 138-139 instructional materials, 29, 49, 54, 55 access to books, 8-9, 17, 37, 38, 53

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Starting Out Right: A Guide to Promoting Children’s Reading Success language skills, general, 1, 2, 6, 15-17, 18, 44, 138 letter identification, 34, 53, 54-55, 57, 59 libraries, 36, 37, 38, 53 listening comprehension, 50, 52 literacy, general, 1, 7, 8, 15-17, 18, 42, 44, 45, 120, 137, 139, 148 computer-based instruction, 56-57 day care, 43, 53 play activities, 37 teacher knowledge of, 123 motivation, 7, 8, 10, 13, 37, 42, 44, 60 motor skills, 8, 18, 60, 74, 138 oral reading, 20, 52 parents, 1, 2, 4, 6, 10, 17, 18-20, 27, 30, 42 phonemic awareness, 46-47, 57 phonological awareness, 20-22, 46-48, 50, 55 phonology, 23, 57 pictures, 10, 15, 17, 23, 25, 28, 36, 37, 59, 88 list of 100 great picture books, 38-41 pretend reading, 17 print awareness, 18, 27-28, 29, 30, 32-33, 52, 55, 59 questions posed to children, 20, 21, 32, 35, 36, 37, 44, 55 reading problems, 24, 42, 128, 137, 138-139 rhymes and songs, 17, 19, 20-22, 24, 42, 43, 46, 47-48, 57, 59, 135 spelling, 55-56 spoken words, 18, 19, 35, 50, 56 storybooks, 15, 19, 26, 44, 45, 51, 52, 57 talking with adults, 17, 19-20, 23, 28, 30, 36, 50-52 teachers, 44, 45, 50-51, 52, 58, 60 teaching activities, 2, 9, 11, 19, 21, 23-25, 26, 29, 32-35, 37, 47-56, 58 talking with children, 17, 19-20, 23, 27, 28, 30, 36, 50-51 vocabulary, 6, 8, 19-20, 35, 50-51, 59, 60 word recognition, 17, 19, 34, 44, 57, 59, 60 writing, 49, 51, 55-56 emergent writing, 15, 17, 30, 32, 37, 45, 55-56, 59, 60 see Day care environments; Emergent reading Book reading, 8, 9 access to books, 53, 62, 63, 65, 74, 76, 127, 134, 135, 143 birth through age four, 8-9, 17, 36, 37, 38, 53 see also Libraries and librarians big books, 52, 129, 147 birth through age four, 8-9, 17, 19, 20, 22, 27-28, 37, 38, 52-53, 59 pretend reading, 17, 28, 37 curriculum, optimal, 129 day care settings, 53 first grade, 62, 63, 90-94 kindergarten, 65, 66, 74, 85 sound-focused, 22 summer reading lists, 10 see also Storybooks C Capitalization, letters, 80, 82, 85, 92, 94-95, 107 CD-ROMs, 37, 56, 120 Child care settings, see Day care environments Choral reading, see Group reading Classroom design first grade, 62-63 kindergarten, 72 preschool, 45 Classroom support, 140 Class size first grade, 87 poor children, 62 see also Student-teacher ratios Cognitive deficits, 128, 136, 137, 138 intelligence quotient, 136, 138 special education, 112, 127, 131, 138, 140 Cognitive skills birth through age four, 18, 60 problem-solving activities, 5, 32 second and third grades, 111 space and directionality, 18, 60 teacher education, 123 Comprehension, see Reading comprehension Computer-assisted instruction, 120-121 alphabetic principle, 57, 121 birth through age four, 47, 49, 56-57 CD-ROMs, 37, 56, 120 Internet resources, 165-167 K-3, 63 phonemic awareness, 47 second grade, 114 World Wide Web, resources available, 165-167 Conceptual knowledge, 10, 117, 129, 134 birth through age four, 10, 36, 44, 60 first grade, 90, 98-100, 107 kindergarten, 65, 71, 85 labeling and labeling games, 19, 29, 37, 49, 59, 72, 86 literacy, 9, 65, 123-124 pedagogical, 123-124 second and third grades, 111, 118, 119 see also Questions; Reading for meaning; Summarizing Conversation, adults talking with children, 36, 134 birth through age four, 17, 19-20, 23, 28, 30, 36, 50-52 kindergarten, 70-72 parents, 17, 19-20, 27, 50-51, 52, 89, 135 see also Questions Cost factors computer instruction, 120 funding, 138, 140-141 remedial programs, 130 teacher training, 122 CROWD questions, 52 Cultural factors, 62

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Starting Out Right: A Guide to Promoting Children’s Reading Success see also Dialects; English as a second language; Minority groups Curricular design, general, 2 birth through age four, 45, 46 comprehensive, 129 defined, 147 first grade, 87, 94 identifying/preventing problems, 131 K-3 teachers, 61, 63, 90 optimal, 129-130 primary education, 10, 61 second and third grades, 108, 110-111 spelling, 102 teacher certification, 124 see also Instructional materials; Teaching activities Curriculum casualties, 130, 147 D Day care environments, 1, 18, 32, 43, 44, 53-54, 136 books, access to, 53 Deafness, see Hearing impairments Decoding computer instruction, 120 curriculum, optimal, 129 defined, 147, 151 first grade, 94-96, 107 kindergarten, 78-81 second and third grades, 108, 110, 113, 115, 118 Developmental factors, see Birth through age four; Cognitive deficits Diagnostics, see Screening and identification Dialects, 124, 133, 148 Dialogic reading, see Paired reading Dictation activities, 51, 66, 85, 129 Dictionaries, letters of the alphabet first grade, 92 kindergarten, 83, 84 Directionality, concept of, 18, 60 Disabilities cognitive deficits, 128, 136, 137, 138 special education, 112, 127, 131, 138, 140 early language impairments, 24, 42, 44, 136, 137, 148 hearing impairments, 24, 136, 137 learning disabilities, 5, 112, 128, 136, 140 speech impairments, 24 Dramatic play, 26-27, 49, 72-73, 85, 101, 114, 115, 129 Dr. Seuss, 22, 80 Dyadic reading, see Paired reading E Early childhood development, see Birth through age four; Day care environments; Emergent reading; Emergent writing Early language impairments, 24, 42, 44, 136, 137 defined, 148 letter identification, 15, 42, 141 Economic factors, see Cost factors; Funding; Poverty Emergent reading, 1, 28, 37, 85 defined, 148 pretend reading, 17, 28, 37, 59 teacher education on, 60 videotaped, 51 Emergent writing birth through age four, 15, 17, 30, 32, 37, 45, 55-56, 59, 60 defined, 148 first grade, 88, 89, 102-106, 107 invented spelling, 10, 45, 55-56, 85, 88, 102, 105, 107 kindergarten, 10, 65, 81-84, 85 teacher education on, 60 Employment, 5 English as a second language, 5, 130-132 bilingual education, 124, 130, 131, 132 Hispanics, 130, 131 teacher certification, 124 Ethnic groups, see Minority groups Evaluation continuous classroom assessment, 10, 123 peer, 103 teachers, 122-123 see also Screening and identification; Standards Explicit instruction, general, 96, 111, 112, 129 Expressive language capacity defined, 148 delayed development, 136 see also Spoken words F Families birth through age four, 18, 27, 139 Internet resources, 166 literacy programs, 127, 143 see also Adults; Parents First grade, 2, 4, 10, 86-107 alphabetic principle, 91, 92-94, 102 book reading, 62, 63, 90-94 conceptual knowledge, 90, 98-100, 107 decoding, 94-96, 107 goals, 10, 88, 90, 96, 102, 107 group/choral reading, 88, 97 group instruction, other, 63, 64, 87, 96 independent reading, 10, 88 instructional materials, 92, 93, 94, 95 language skills, general, 96-102, 106 letter identification, 63, 88, 90-96, 102, 106, 107 literacy, general, 106, 107 oral reading, 10, 63, 88, 94-96, 97, 107 parents, 2, 4, 87, 97 phonemic awareness, 10, 88, 90-94, 102, 107

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Starting Out Right: A Guide to Promoting Children’s Reading Success phonics, 10, 86, 96, 102, 106, 107 pictures, diagrams and charts, 89, 91, 92, 93, 101, 102, 103, 105 print awareness, 10, 90-94 questions posed to children, 93, 98, 99-100, 102, 107 reading comprehension, general, 88, 96-102, 107 reciprocal teaching, 112 rhymes and songs, 62, 95, 102 sentences, 102, 107 spelling, 10, 62, 63, 88, 91, 95, 102-106, 107 storybooks, 88, 96-102 summarizing, 88, 96, 101, 107 syllables, 90-91, 94, 95, 107 teachers, 86, 87, 91, 98, 102 teaching activities, 62-63, 87, 90-106 vocabulary, 90, 98, 99, 107 word recognition, 10, 63, 88, 94-96, 99, 107 writing, 10, 62, 63, 101, 102-106, 107 emergent writing, 88, 89, 102-106, 107 see also Primary grades, general Fluency, 6 curriculum, optimal, 129 defined, 148 first grade, 94, 96 K-3, 62 second and third grades, 110, 113, 114 see also Alphabetic principle; Frustration level; Phonemic awareness; Reading comprehension; Word recognition Follow the Leader, 74 Foreign language speakers, see English as a second language Frequency of reading, 53, 64, 96, 111 practice, 94, 96, 112 rereading, 10, 74, 97, 115 Frustration level, 10, 64 defined, 148 Funding, 140-141 birth through age four, 138 early grades, 140 poor children, funding for, 133-134 G Games, see Play-based instruction Government role funding, 133-134, 138, 140-141 politics and policy makers, 1, 5-6, 11, 140-141 Group reading first grade, 88, 97 kindergarten, 74 second and third grades, 112 see also Small-group instruction H Health care professionals, 14, 24, 134-135, 136 Health care services, Internet resources, 167 Hearing impairments, 24, 136, 137 Hickory Dickory Dock, 82 High-risk children, see Risk factors Hispanic persons, see Spanish speakers Home environment, see Families; Parents Homework, 10 see also Independent reading I I Can Hear the Rain, 47 Identification of problems, see Screening and identification IEP (Individualized educational program), see Tutors and tutoring Income, see Poverty Independent reading, 10, 11, 64 curriculum, optimal, 129 first grade, 10, 88 second and third grades, 10, 108-115 (passim), 118 Individual instruction, see Tutors and tutoring Inference, 10, 88, 129 Instructional materials, 47, 112 access to books, 53, 62, 63, 65, 74, 76, 127, 134, 135, 143 birth through age four, 8-9, 17, 37, 38, 53 see also Libraries and librarians birth through age four, 29, 49, 54, 55 commonplace, 49, 93, 105 first grade, 92, 93, 94, 95 letter recognition, 54, 83, 84, 92 kindergarten, 72, 76, 82 second and third grades, 108 toys, 16, 17, 29, 49, 76, 93 see also Audiovisual presentations; Book reading; Curricular design Instructional methods, see Teaching activities Internet resources, 165-167 Interventions, see Preventive interventions; Remedial interventions; Special education Invented spelling, 10, 45, 55-56, 85, 88, 102, 105, 107 defined, 149 K Kindergarten, 1, 65-84 attention levels, 65, 75, 85 book reading, 65, 66, 74, 85 conceptual knowledge, 65, 71, 85 decoding, 78-81 goals of, 10, 65, 84-85 identification/prevention of difficulties, 138 poor children, programs, 133-134, 138 instructional materials, 72, 74, 82 language skills, general, 65, 72, 74

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Starting Out Right: A Guide to Promoting Children’s Reading Success letter identification, 10, 53, 68-69, 74, 78-81, 82, 85 letter dictionaries, 83, 84 listening comprehension, 65, 68, 70, 74, 75, 85 literacy, general, 65, 72 oral reading, 66, 72 phonemic awareness, 65, 68-69, 85 phonics, 10, 65, 66, 80 pictures, 72, 73, 79, 82-84 print awareness, 10, 65, 66, 74, 85 questions posed to children, 70, 74, 85 reading problems, 138 poor children, programs, 133-134, 138 rhymes and songs, 66, 82, 85 sentences, 65, 74, 85 spelling, 81-84, 85 storybooks, 65, 66, 70, 72, 74, 75 summarizing, 74 teaching activities, 66-84 vocabulary, 10, 70, 71, 72, 82, 85 word recognition, 10, 78-82, 85 writing, 10, 65, 66, 81-84, 85 Knowledge, conceptual, see Conceptual knowledge L Language-minority children, see Dialects; English as a second language Language skills, general birth through age four, 1, 2, 6, 15-17, 18, 44, 45, 138 first grade, 96-102, 106 identification/prevention of difficulties, 138 early language impairments, 24, 42, 44, 136, 137, 148 Hispanics, 130 kindergarten, 65, 72, 74 milestones, defined, 149 oral, 7, 8, 88, 130; see also Oral reading primary grades, 10 second and third grades, 108, 114, 115, 117, 118, 119 teacher certification, 123 see also English as a second language; Literacy; specific skills Learning disabilities funding, 140 identification/preventive of difficulties, 5, 128, 136 Internet resources, 166 reciprocal teaching, 112 see also Cognitive deficits; Special education Letter identification, 7, 8, 10 birth through age four, 34, 53, 54-55, 57, 59 capitalization, letters, 80, 82, 85, 92, 94-95, 107 computer-based instruction, 57 day care settings, 53, 54 early deficits, 15, 42, 141 first grade, 63, 88, 90-96, 102, 106, 107 kindergarten, 10, 53, 68-69, 74, 78-81, 82, 85 letter dictionaries, 83, 84, 92 second and third grades, 10, 110, 113, 114, 115, 119 see also Alphabetic principle; Capitalization Letters (correspondence) teacher-parent, 128 written by children, 10, 30, 63, 66 Libraries and librarians, 10, 143 birth through age four, 36, 37, 38, 53 kindergarten, 76 New York Public Library’s list of 100 great picture books, 38-41 Limited-proficiency English, see English as a second language Listening comprehension birth through age four, 50, 52 first grade, 105 kindergarten, 65, 68, 70, 74, 75, 85 speech discrimination, defined, 150 teacher education on, 60 see also Oral reading Literacy, general, 1, 2, 5 birth through age four, 1, 7, 8, 15-17, 18, 42, 44, 45, 120, 137, 139, 148 computer-based instruction, 56-57 day care, 43, 53 play activities, 37 teacher knowledge of, 123 computer instruction, 120, 121 conceptual knowledge, 9, 65, 123-124 defined, 149 emergent, defined, 148 family programs, 139 first grade, 106, 107 identifying/preventing difficulties, 120, 135, 137, 138 Internet resources, 165, 166 kindergarten, 65, 72 primary school, individual children, background, 61, 64 second and third grades, 111, 112, 119 teachers, 112, 123 Local risk factors, see Poverty; School-based factors M Medical professionals, see Health care professionals Memory, see Letter identification; Summarizing; Word recognition Mental retardation, see Cognitive deficits; Special education Minority groups, 5, 62, 130 African Americans, 133 Hispanics, 130, 131 see also English as a second language Morphology, 123, 149 Motivation and attitude, 20 birth through age four, 7, 8, 10, 13, 37, 42, 44, 60

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Starting Out Right: A Guide to Promoting Children’s Reading Success computers in the classroom, 120 English as a second language, 132 first grade, 96 identifying/preventing difficulties, 127, 139 kindergarten, 65, 70, 85 parents, 139 questions posed to children, birth through age four, 20, 21, 32, 35, 36, 37 first grade, 93, 98, 99-100, 102, 107 kindergarten, 70, 85 second and third grades, 112, 113, 114, 115, 118 second and third grades, 108, 110, 113 teachers, 60, 63, 124 see also Frustration level; Independent reading N Narrative comprehension, 35, 59 day care settings, 53 first grade, 63 kindergarten, 66, 72, 74 predicting, reading comprehension, 10, 26 second and third grades, story maps, 110-111, 118 teacher education on, 60 see also Dramatic play New York Public Library, list of 100 great picture books, 38-41 Non-English speakers, see English as a second language Non-standard dialects, see Dialects Norm-referencing, teacher certification, 123 Nursery rhymes, see Rhymes and songs O This Old Man, 48 Oral language skills, general, 7, 8, 88, 130 Oral reading, 7 birth through age four, 20, 52 curriculum, optimal, 129 first grade, 10, 63, 88, 94-96, 97, 107 group reading, 74, 88, 97, 112 kindergarten, 66, 72 paired reading, 35, 63, 74, 93, 110, 112 parents, reading to and with children, 2, 16-17, 20, 111, 135, 143 pretend reading, 17, 28, 37, 59 second and third grades, 110, 111, 113, 114, 115, 119 Orthography, see Spelling Outings, 20, 37, 71, 143 Outreach, 131, 139, 143 health care professionals, 14, 24, 134-135, 136 P Paired reading, 35, 63, 74, 93, 110, 112 Parents, 1, 2 birth through age four, 1, 2, 4, 6, 10, 17, 18-20, 27, 30, 42 first grade, 2, 4, 87, 97 Hispanics, 130 Internet resources, 166-167 kindergarten, 74 reading problems identifying/preventing, 128, 131, 135, 137, 138 parents with, 137 reading to and with children, 2, 16-17, 20, 111, 135, 143 second and third grades, 110 talking with children, 17, 19-20, 27, 50-51, 52, 89, 135 teacher communication with, 45, 127, 128 see also Adults; Families Pediatricians, 14, 24, 134-135 PEER sequence, 52 Phonemes birth through age four, 21 computer-based instruction, 47 defined, 149 invented spelling, 10, 45, 55-56, 85, 88, 102, 105, 107, 149 see also Decoding Phoneme segmentation curriculum, optimal, 129 defined, 149 first grade, 107 invented spelling and, 10 Phonemic awareness birth through age four, 46-47, 57 computer-based instruction, 57 curriculum, optimal, 129 defined, 149 dialect speakers, 133 first grade, 10, 88, 90-94, 102, 107 invented spelling and, 10 kindergarten, 65, 68-69, 85 Phonics, 6, 7, 13 computer instruction, 121 curriculum, optimal, 129 defined, 150 first grade, 10, 86, 96, 102, 106, 107 invented spelling and, 10 K-3, 62, 80 kindergarten, 10, 65, 66, 80 reading difficulties, 141 dialect speakers, 133 second and third grades, 10, 110, 113, 114, 118, 119 Phonological awareness, 7, 9 birth through age four, 20-22, 46-48, 50, 55 computer instruction, 120, 121 defined, 150 early deficits, 15 kindergarten, 66-70 see also Rhymes and songs Phonological decoding, see Decoding

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Starting Out Right: A Guide to Promoting Children’s Reading Success Phonology birth through age four, 23, 57 computer-based instruction, 57 defined, 150 dialect speakers, 133 teacher certification, 123 see also Dialects; Hearing impairments; Phoneme segmentation; Phonemic awareness; Phonological awareness; Rhymes and songs; Spoken words Play-based instruction, 49 alliteration, 42 birth through age four, 44 dramatic play, 26-27, 49, 72-73, 85, 101, 114, 115, 129 kindergarten, 66, 72-73 labeling and labeling games, 19, 29, 37, 49, 59, 72, 86 letter recognition, 55 outings, 20, 37, 71, 143 parents, 42 pretending, 26-27, 37; see also Pretend reading second grade, 114 toys, 16, 17, 29, 49, 76, 93 see also Rhymes and songs; Word games Poetry, see Rhymes and songs Policy makers and political factors, 1, 5-6, 11, 140-141 funding, 138, 140-141 Poverty, 5, 133-134, 137, 139 books, access to, 53, 143 early language environments, 44 first grade, 62 Hispanics, 130, 131 language disabilities programs, 24 Practice, 112 first grade, 94, 96 frequency of reading, 53, 64, 96, 111 rereading, 10, 74, 97, 115 homework, 10 see Play-based instruction Predicting, reading comprehension, 10, 26 curriculum, optimal, 129 first grade, 88, 107 kindergarten, 85 second and third grades, 112 Predictors of reading difficulties, see Risk factors Preschool education, see Birth through age four; Day care environments; Emergent reading; Emergent writing Pretending, 26-27, 37 Pretend reading, 17, 28, 37, 59 Pretend writing, see Emergent writing Preventive interventions, 13, 127-145, 153 birth through age four, 128, 137, 138-139 defined, 149 Primary grades, general, 1, 11, 14 books, access to, 9 goals outlined, 10, 61, 62 literacy, general, 61, 64 see also First Grade; Kindergarten; Second and third grades Primary prevention, see Preventive interventions Print awareness, 7, 8, 10, 13 birth through age four, 18, 27-28, 29, 30, 32-33, 52, 55, 59 curriculum, optimal, 129 day care settings, 53 first grade, 10, 90-94 kindergarten, 10, 65, 66, 74, 85 sentences, 33, 65 see also Letter identification Problems with reading, see Reading problems Professionals, see Health care professionals; Libraries and librarians; Specialists; Teachers Psychological factors, see Motivation and attitude Q Questions birth through age four, 20, 21, 32, 35, 36, 37, 44, 55 first grade, 93, 98, 99-100, 102, 107 K-3 teachers, 63 kindergarten, 70, 74, 85 labeling games, 19 print awareness, 33 problem-solving activities, 5, 32 reciprocal teaching, 112 second and third grades, 112, 113, 114, 115, 118 word-picture associations, 24-25 R Race-ethnicity, see Minority groups Readiness, see Reading readiness Reading aloud, see Oral reading Reading comprehension, general, 6, 7, 10, 13, 101 audiotapes and, 35 defined, 147 developmental stages, general, 35 first grade, 88, 96-102, 107 K-3, 62 identifying/preventing difficulties, 127, 128 recall, 114, 118 second and third grades, 108, 110-111, 112, 115, 117, 118, 119 teachers, certification of, 123 identifying/preventing difficulties, 128 see also Fluency; Narrative comprehension; Predicting, reading comprehension; Summarizing Reading for meaning, 7, 46 curriculum, optimal, 129 first grade, 93 identifying/preventing difficulties, 127, 129

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Starting Out Right: A Guide to Promoting Children’s Reading Success second and third grades, 10, 108, 110, 117 see also Phonological awareness; Summarizing Reading level English as a second language, 132 Hispanics, 130 first grade, 87, 107 first-second grade summer reading skill losses, 108 second and third grades, 108, 110, 111, 113, 118, 119 Reading problems, 11, 13, 127-128, 130-145 birth through age four, 24, 42, 128, 137, 138-139 cognitive deficits, 128, 136, 137, 138 intelligence quotient, 136, 138 special education, 112, 127, 131, 138, 140 curriculum casualties, 130, 147 defined, 150 dialects, 124, 133, 148 English as a second language, 5, 124, 130, 132 Hispanics, 130-132 first-second grade summer reading skill losses, 108 kindergarten, 138 poor children, programs, 133-133, 138 literacy general, 120, 135, 137, 138 local factors, interventions, 140-141, 143 school-based factors, 130, 131-132, 140 morphology, 127, 139 motivation, 127, 139 parents, 128, 131, 135, 137, 138 phonics, 133, 141 school-based, 130, 131-132, 140 second and third grades, 108, 111 special education, 112, 127, 131, 138, 140 teachers, identification/prevention roles, 128, 131, 141 see also Disabilities; Poverty; Preventive interventions; Remedial interventions; Screening and identification Reading readiness, 5, 150 Reciprocal teaching, 112, 150 Remedial interventions, 13, 127 defined, 149 K-3, 61 “pull-out,” 128 reciprocal teaching, 112 see also Special education; Tutors and tutoring Repeating (grade level), 45 Rereading, 10, 74 first grade, 97 third grade, 115 Retardation, see Cognitive deficits; Special education Retention in grade, preschool quality and, 45 Rhymes and songs birth through age four, 17, 19, 20-22, 24, 42, 43, 46, 47-48, 57, 59, 135 computer-based instruction, 57, 121 curriculum, optimal, 129 early childhood learning difficulties, 24, 42 first grade, 62, 95, 102 kindergarten, 66, 82, 85 specific rhymes and songs, Apples and Bananas, 22 Follow the Leader, 74 Hickory Dickory Dock, 82 I Can Hear the Rain, 47 This Old Man, 48 The Spider, 48 Teddy Bear, 21 Rime, see Onset-rime Risk factors, 4, 15, 142, 153 defined, 150 reciprocal teaching, 112 see also English as a second language; Poverty; Preventive interventions; School-based factors; Screening and identification S School-based factors class size, 62, 87 reading problems, 130, 131-132, 140 student-teacher ratios, 134, 138 see also Teachers Screening and identification, reading problems, 141 classroom, ongoing, 10 early childhood, 15, 24 health care professionals, 24, 134 language disabilities programs, 24 parental role, 24, 42 school-level factors, 130, 131 specialists, 136 teacher role, 129, 131 volunteer tutors, screening of, 142 see also Outreach; Risk factors Second and third grades, 108-120 alphabetic principle, 108 computer-based instruction, 114 conceptual knowledge, 111, 118, 119 curricular design, 108, 110-111 decoding, 108, 110, 113, 115, 118 goals outlined, 10, 108, 117-119 independent reading, 10, 108-114 (passim), 118 language skills, general, 108, 114, 115, 117, 118, 119 letter identification, 10, 110, 113, 114, 115, 119 literacy, general, 111, 112, 119 oral reading, 110, 111, 113, 114, 115, 119 phonics, 10, 110, 113, 114, 118, 119 pictures, diagrams and charts, 111, 114, 118 questions posed to children, 112, 113, 114, 115, 118 reading comprehension, general, 108, 110-111, 112, 115, 117, 118, 119 reading for meaning, 10, 108, 110, 117

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Starting Out Right: A Guide to Promoting Children’s Reading Success reading level, 108, 110, 111, 113, 118, 119 reading problems, 108, 111 sentences, 113, 118 spelling, 108, 114, 117, 118, 119 summarizing, 112, 117 teachers, 108, 110-112 vocabulary, 110, 111, 114, 115, 117 writing, 111, 114, 115, 117, 118, 119 see also Primary grades, general Second-language speakers, see English as a second language Shared reading, see Group reading; Paired reading Sight word recognition, 7 curriculum, optimal, 129 first grade, 10, 94, 107 K-3, 62 kindergarten, 80-81, 85 Singing, see Rhymes and songs Small-group instruction audiotaped books, 51 curriculum, optimal, 129 first grade, 63, 64, 87, 96 see also Group reading Sociodramatic play, see Dramatic play Socioeconomic status, see Poverty Software, see Computer-based instruction Songs, see Rhymes and songs Sounds, see Phonics; Phonology Space/directionality, concepts of, 18, 60 Spanish speakers, 130, 131 Special education, 112, 127, 131, 138, 140 Specialists, 87, 123, 134, 136, 139, 140, 141 health care professionals, 14, 24, 134-135, 136 speech-language therapists, 24, 44 see also Teachers; Tutors and tutoring Speech, see Listening comprehension; Oral reading; Phonology; Spoken words Speech impairments, 24 Speech-language therapists, 24, 44 Speech sounds, see Phonology Spelling, 6, 7, 13 birth through age four, 55-56 computer instruction, 120 curriculum, optimal, 129 first grade, 10, 62, 63, 88, 91, 95, 102-106, 107 invented spelling, 10, 45, 55-56, 85, 88, 102, 105, 107, 149 kindergarten, 81-84, 85 morphology, 123, 149 orthographic awareness, defined, 149 primary grades, general, 10 second grade, 108, 114, 118 teacher certification, 123 third grade, 117, 119 see also Phonics The Spider, 48 Spoken words, 23-24 birth through age four, 18, 19, 35, 50, 56 computer instruction, 120 curriculum, optimal, 129 developmental stages, 35 dialects, 124, 133, 148 English as a second language, 132 Hispanics, 130 hearing impairments, 24, 136, 137 kindergarten, 66 listening comprehension, 60, 65, 68, 70, 74, 75, 85 third grade, 115, 117 see also Conversation; Oral reading; Phonemic awareness; Phonological awareness; Phonology Standards, teacher certification, 122-123 Storybooks, 36 audiotaped, 35, 50, 74, 120 big books, 52, 129, 147 birth through age four, 15, 19, 26, 44, 45, 51, 52, 57 computer-based instruction, 57, 120 day care settings, 53 developmental stages in reading, general, 35 first grade, 88, 96-102 Internet resources, 165-166 kindergarten, 65, 66, 70, 72, 74, 75 Storytelling, 20, 26-27, 51 computer-based instruction, 57, 121 kindergarten, 66 Student-teacher ratios, 134, 138 class size, 62, 87 see also Small-group instruction; Tutors and tutoring Summarizing, 10 curriculum, optimal, 129 first grade, 88, 96, 101, 107 kindergarten, 74 second and third grades, 112, 117 Summer reading lists, 10 T Talking, see Conversation Talking books, 25, 50, 74, 120 Teacher education, 122-124 birth through age four, 58, 60 identifying/preventing difficulties, 131, 141 Teachers approach to book at hand, 1, 4, 5 birth through age four, 44, 45, 50-51, 52, 58, 60 certification, 122-124 day care, 53 first grade, 86, 87, 91, 98, 102 identifying/preventing difficulties, 128, 131, 141 K-3, 61-64, 75, 81 outstanding, qualities of, 62-63, 112, 122-124

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Starting Out Right: A Guide to Promoting Children’s Reading Success parents, relations with, 127, 128 print awareness, 32 reading/storytelling, 21 reciprocal teaching, 150 second and third grades, 108, 110-112 see also Student-teacher ratios; Tutors and tutoring Teaching activities, 10 birth through age four, 2, 9, 11, 19, 21, 23-25, 26, 29, 32-35, 37, 47-56, 58 talking with children, 17, 19-20, 23, 27, 28, 30, 36, 50-51 first grade, 62-63, 87, 90-106 kindergarten, 66-84 see also specific activities Teaching materials, see Instructional materials; Toys Teddy Bear, 21 Television, 19, 34, 37, 166 Third grade, see Primary grades, general; Second and third grades Time factors birth through age four, preschool routines, 45 book reading by children, 53 first-second grade summer reading skill losses, 108 parents reading to children, 2 writing frequency, 10 see also Frequency of reading Toys, 16, 17, 29, 49, 76, 93 Trips, see Outings Tutors and tutoring, 2, 61, 141, 144 first grade, 87 individualized education programs, 140 program development, 1, 127-128 volunteer, 74, 87, 127, 141, 142 V Videotapes, see Audiovisual presentations Vocabulary, 13 birth through age four, 6, 8, 19-20, 35, 50-51, 59, 60 dialect speakers, 133 early language development, 6, 8, 19-20, 35 first grade, 90, 98, 99, 107 K-3, 62 kindergarten, 10, 70, 71, 72, 82, 85 second and third grades, 110, 111, 114, 115, 117 see also Sight word recognition; Word recognition Volunteer tutors, 74, 87, 127, 141, 142 W Word attack, 23 computer instruction, 121 defined, 150-151 first grade, 62, 63, 94-96 Word decoding, see Decoding Word games, 19, 23 labeling and labeling games, 19, 29, 37, 49, 59, 72, 86 see also Rhymes and songs Word recognition, 6, 7, 11, 23 adult interaction with children, 16 automaticity and, 88, 94, 108; see also Sight word recognition birth through age four, 17, 19, 34, 44, 57, 59, 60 computer-based instruction, 57 defined, 151 first grade, 10, 63, 88, 94-96, 99, 107 kindergarten, 10, 78-82, 85 second and third grades, 10, 108, 113, 115, 117, 118, 119 teacher certification, 123 see also Alphabetic principle; Frustration level; Spoken words; Word games World Wide Web, resources available, 165-167 Writing, 6, 13 birth through age four, 49, 51, 55-56 computer instruction, 120, 121 curriculum, optimal, 129 dictation activities, 51, 66, 85, 129 first grade, 10, 62, 63, 101, 102-106, 107 kindergarten, 10, 65, 66, 81-84, 85 letters, correspondence, 10, 30, 63, 66 primary grades, 10 second and third grades, 111, 114, 115, 117, 118, 119 see also Alphabetic principle; Emergent writing; Spelling