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dietary history) was positively associated with fetal growth in a study of 372 pregnant women (Badart-Smook et al., 1997), but the data are insufficient to warrant use of fetal growth as an indicator for setting the riboflavin requirement for pregnant women.

For pregnancy an additional riboflavin requirement of 0.3 mg/ day is estimated based on increased growth in maternal and fetal compartments and a small increase in energy utilization. This increased need is supported by the urinary excretion of less riboflavin during the progression of pregnancy and the more frequent appearance of clinical signs of ariboflavinosis in pregnant women on low intakes (less than 0.8 mg/day) than in their nonpregnant counterparts (Brzezinski et al., 1952; Jansen and Jansen, 1954). Also, EGRAC tends to increase during pregnancy (Bates et al., 1981; Heller et al., 1974; Vir et al., 1981). In the Philippines, Kuizon and colleagues (1992) found that riboflavin intake at 0.7 mg/1,000 kcal was required to lower the activity coefficient within 20 days to less than 1.3 for four of eight pregnant women compared with only 0.41 mg/1,000 kcal for five of seven nonpregnant women.

Riboflavin EAR and RDA Summary, Pregnancy

Adding 0.3 mg/day to the EAR of 0.9 mg/day of riboflavin for the nonpregnant woman gives an EAR of 1.2 mg/day. No adjustment is made for age or stage of pregnancy.

EAR for Pregnancy

14–18 years

1.2 mg/day of riboflavin

 

19–30 years

1.2 mg/day of riboflavin

31–50 years

1.2 mg/day of riboflavin

The RDA for riboflavin is set by assuming a coefficient of variation (CV) of 10 percent (see Chapter 1) because information is not available on the standard deviation of the requirement for riboflavin; the RDA is defined as equal to the EAR plus twice the CV to cover the needs of 97 to 98 percent of the individuals in the group (therefore, for riboflavin the RDA is 120 percent of the EAR). The results have been rounded up.

RDA for Pregnancy

14–18 years

1.4 mg/day of riboflavin

 

19–30 years

1.4 mg/day of riboflavin

31–50 years

1.4 mg/day of riboflavin



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