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. "8 Folate." Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 1998.
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Werler et al., 1993 Case/control in Boston, Philadelphia, and Toronto
NTD cases and controls with other major malformations
Mothers of cases and controls
Shaw et al., 1995c
Case/control in California
NTD cases and normal control infants
a NTD = neural tube defect.
TABLE 8-8 Controlled Trials Relating Folate Supplementation and Risk of Neural Tube Defect in the Periconceptual Period
Randomized controlled trials—previous NTD pregnancy
Laurence et al., 1981
Randomized controlled trial in Wales
Pregnant women with prior NTDa-affected pregnancy; supplemented mothers took 4 mg of folic acid daily
Unsupplemented mothers took a placebo
Wald et al., 1991
Randomized controlled multicenter trial in United Kingdom and Hungary
Pregnant women with prior NTD-affected pregnancy
Supplemented mothers took 4 mg of folic acid daily