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Study

Design

Subjects

Werler et al., 1993 Case/control in Boston, Philadelphia, and Toronto

NTD cases and controls with other major malformations

Mothers of cases and controls

Shaw et al., 1995c

Case/control in California

NTD cases and normal control infants

a NTD = neural tube defect.

TABLE 8-8 Controlled Trials Relating Folate Supplementation and Risk of Neural Tube Defect in the Periconceptual Period

Study

Design

Subjects

Randomized controlled trials—previous NTD pregnancy

Laurence et al., 1981

Randomized controlled trial in Wales

Pregnant women with prior NTDa-affected pregnancy; supplemented mothers took 4 mg of folic acid daily

Unsupplemented mothers took a placebo

Wald et al., 1991

Randomized controlled multicenter trial in United Kingdom and Hungary

Pregnant women with prior NTD-affected pregnancy

Supplemented mothers took 4 mg of folic acid daily

Unsupplemented mothers took a placebo



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