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Folate Dose (mg/d)

Adverse Effects Observed

Methods for Assessing Associations and Adverse Effects

4

None

NRa

1

None

NR

0.4–1b

Pregnancy complications, fetal distressc

Statistical association between 12 indices of nutrient status and 7 poorly defined categories of complications

5

None

NR

4

None

Medical exams performedb

0.8

None

NR

1

Frequency of developmental anomalies not greater than expectede

NR

0.36

None

NR

0.8

13.4% fetal death rate in supplemented group compared with 11.5% fetal death rate on controlsf

Documentation for all pregnancy outcomes was collected. Statistical evaluation based on two-tailed chi-square test.

e The frequency of developmental anomalies was not greater than expected but parental reports of worries, fearfulness, and fussiness in the children were greater than expected.

f This may be a chance finding resulting from multiple comparisons. It has been reported that prenatal multivitamin supplementation (which includes folic acid) can reduce preterm deliveries, causing an apparent increase in recognized abortions as the duration of all pregnancies increases (Scholl et al., 1997).

  • in most cases throughout the dose range, folate supplementation maintained the patients in hematological remission over a considerable time span; and

  • the background intake of folate from food was not specified, but all except for three cases (those reported by Allen and coworkers [1990]) occurred before the fortification of breakfast cereal with added folate.

Uncertainty Assessment. An uncertainty factor (UF) of 5 was selected. Compared with the UFs used to date for other nutrients for



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