requirement is assumed unless data are available to support another value, as described in Chapter 1.
This adjustment, the metabolic weight ratio method, involves metabolic scaling but does not adjust for growth because it is based on a value for a growing infant. To extrapolate from the AI for infants ages 0 through 6 months to an AI for infants ages 7 through 12 months, the following formula is used:
AI7–12 mo = AI0–6 mo (F),
where F = (Weight7–12 mo/Weight0–6 mo)0.75.
The placenta actively transports water-soluble vitamins (except biotin) and choline from the mother to the fetus against a concentration gradient (Hytten and Leitch, 1971; Zempleni et al., 1992). Placental transport of biotin is a passive process (Hu et al., 1994; Karl and Fisher, 1992; Schenker et al., 1993). For many of the B vitamins, experimental data that could be used to set an EAR and RDA or an AI for pregnancy are lacking. In these cases the potential for increased need for these nutrients during pregnancy is based on theoretical considerations, including obligatory fetal transfer, if data are available, and increased maternal needs related to increases in energy or protein metabolism, as applicable. With the possible exception of B12, vitamin absorption does not appear to improve substantially during pregnancy. For choline, the AI is based on the increase in maternal weight.
For the B vitamins and choline, it is assumed that the total requirement of lactating women equals the requirement for the nonpregnant, nonlactating woman of similar age plus an increment to cover the amount of the nutrient needed for milk production. To allow for inefficiencies in use of certain B vitamins, the increment may be somewhat greater than the amount of the nutrient contained in the milk produced. Details are provided in each nutrient chapter.