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have detected low plasma concentrations of biotin (Bhagavan, 1969; Dostalova, 1984); others have not (Mock and Stadler, 1997). DM Mock and colleagues (1997b) detected increased 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid in more than half of healthy pregnant women by the third trimester, and urinary excretion of biotin was decreased in about 50 percent of the women studied. It is not known whether these changes in values are normal for pregnant women or indicate low biotin intake relative to need. However, these data are not sufficient to justify an increase in the AI to meet the needs of pregnancy except for pregnant adolescents.

Biotin AI Summary, Pregnancy

AI for Pregnancy

14–18 years

30 µg/day of biotin

19–30 years

30 µg/day of biotin

31–50 years

30 µg/day of biotin

Lactation

Method Used to Set the AI

To cover the amount of biotin secreted in milk, the AI is increased by 5 µg/day for lactating adolescents and women. No distinction is made for the stage of lactation or age.

Biotin AI Summary, Lactation

AI for Lactation

14–18 years

35 µg/day of biotin

19–30 years

35 µg/day of biotin

31–50 years

35 µg/day of biotin

Special Considerations

Persons receiving hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis may have an increased requirement for biotin (Livaniou et al., 1987; Yatzidis et al., 1984) as would persons with genetic biotinidase deficiency (Mock, 1996).



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