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Glossary and Abbreviations

ACC

Acetyl-CoA carboxylase

ADP

Adenosine diphosphate

AI

Adequate Intake

ALT

Alanine aminotransferase

apABG

Acetamidobenzoylglutamate

ATP

Adenosine triphosphate

Bioavailability

The accessibility of a nutrient to participate in metabolic and/or physiological processes.

BMI

Body mass index; weight/height2 (kg/m2)

CHD

Coronary heart disease

CI

Confidence interval

CoA

Coenzyme A

CSFII

Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals, a survey conducted by the Agricultural Research Service, USDA

CV

Coefficient of variation

DFE

Dietary folate equivalent

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid

Dose-response assessment

The step in a risk assessment in which the relationship between nutrient intake and adverse effect (in terms of incidence and/or severity of the effect) is determined.



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OCR for page 537
DRI Dietary Reference Intakes: For Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline P Glossary and Abbreviations ACC Acetyl-CoA carboxylase ADP Adenosine diphosphate AI Adequate Intake ALT Alanine aminotransferase apABG Acetamidobenzoylglutamate ATP Adenosine triphosphate Bioavailability The accessibility of a nutrient to participate in metabolic and/or physiological processes. BMI Body mass index; weight/height2 (kg/m2) CHD Coronary heart disease CI Confidence interval CoA Coenzyme A CSFII Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals, a survey conducted by the Agricultural Research Service, USDA CV Coefficient of variation DFE Dietary folate equivalent DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid Dose-response assessment The step in a risk assessment in which the relationship between nutrient intake and adverse effect (in terms of incidence and/or severity of the effect) is determined.

OCR for page 537
DRI Dietary Reference Intakes: For Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline DRI Dietary Reference Intake α-EALT Erythrocyte alanine aminotransferase EAR Estimated Average Requirement α-EAST Erythrocyte aspartate aminotransferase EEG Electroencephalogram EGR Erythrocyte glutathione reductase EGRAC Erythrocyte glutathione reductase activity coefficient ETK Erythrocyte transketolase ETKAC Erythrocyte transketolase activity coefficient FAD Flavin-adenine dinucleotide FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations FIGLU Formiminoglutamic acid FMN Flavin mononucleotide FNB Food and Nutrition Board Hazard identification The step in a risk assessment, which is concerned with the collection, organization, and evaluation of all information pertaining to the toxic properties of a nutrient. HIV Human immunodeficiency virus HPLC High-performance liquid chromatography HPV Human papilloma virus IM Intramuscular IOM Institute of Medicine LCAT Lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase LOAEL Lowest-observed-adverse-effect level; the lowest intake (or experimental dose) of a nutrient at which an adverse effect has been identified. MCV Mean cell volume MI Myocardial infarction MMA Methylmalonic acid MTHFR Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase NAD Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide NADP Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate NAS National Academy of Sciences NE Niacin equivalent

OCR for page 537
DRI Dietary Reference Intakes: For Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline NHANES National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a survey conducted periodically by the National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services NHIS National Health Interview Survey, a survey conducted periodically by the National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services NOAEL No-observed-adverse-effect level; the highest intake (or experimental dose) of a nutrient at which no adverse effect has been observed. NRC National Research Council, the organizational arm of the National Academies NTD Neural tube defect 4-PA 4-Pyridoxic acid pABG p-Aminobenzoylglutamate PARP Poly-ADP-ribose polymerase PGA Pteroylglutamic acid PL Pyridoxal PLP Pyridoxal phosphate PM Pyridoxamine PMP Pyridoxamine phosphate PN Pyridoxine PNP Pyridoxine phosphate RDA Recommended Dietary Allowance Risk Within the context of nutrient toxicity, the probability or likelihood that some adverse effect will result from a specified excess intake of a nutrient. Risk assessment An organized framework for evaluating scientific information that has as its objective a characterization of the nature and likelihood of harm resulting from excess human exposure to an environmental agent (in this case, a dietary nutrient). It includes the development of both qualitative and quantitative expressions of risk. The process of risk assessment can be divided into four major steps: hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment, and risk characterization.

OCR for page 537
DRI Dietary Reference Intakes: For Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline Risk characterization The final step in a risk assessment, which summarizes the conclusions from the other three steps of the risk assessment and evaluates the risk. This step also includes a characterization of the degree of scientific confidence that can be placed in the UL. Risk management The process by which risk assessment results are integrated with other information to make decisions about the need for, method of, and extent of risk reduction. In addition to risk assessment results, risk management considers such issues as the public health significance of the risk, technical feasibility of achieving various degrees of risk control, and economic and social costs of this control. SD Standard deviation SE Standard error SEM Standard error of the mean TCI, II, III Transcobalamin I, II, and III TMA Trimethylamine TPN Total parenteral nutrition TPP Thiamin pyrophosphate UL Tolerable Upper Intake Level UF Uncertainty factor; a number by which the NOAEL (or LOAEL) is divided to obtain the UL. UFs are used in risk assessments to deal with gaps in data (e.g., data uncertainties) and knowledge (e.g., model uncertainties). The size of the UF varies depending on the confidence in the data and the nature of the adverse effect. USDA U.S. Department of Agriculture WHO World Health Organization