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Risk characterization

The final step in a risk assessment, which summarizes the conclusions from the other three steps of the risk assessment and evaluates the risk. This step also includes a characterization of the degree of scientific confidence that can be placed in the UL.

Risk management

The process by which risk assessment results are integrated with other information to make decisions about the need for, method of, and extent of risk reduction. In addition to risk assessment results, risk management considers such issues as the public health significance of the risk, technical feasibility of achieving various degrees of risk control, and economic and social costs of this control.

SD

Standard deviation

SE

Standard error

SEM

Standard error of the mean

TCI, II, III

Transcobalamin I, II, and III

TMA

Trimethylamine

TPN

Total parenteral nutrition

TPP

Thiamin pyrophosphate

UL

Tolerable Upper Intake Level

UF

Uncertainty factor; a number by which the NOAEL (or LOAEL) is divided to obtain the UL. UFs are used in risk assessments to deal with gaps in data (e.g., data uncertainties) and knowledge (e.g., model uncertainties). The size of the UF varies depending on the confidence in the data and the nature of the adverse effect.

USDA

U.S. Department of Agriculture

WHO

World Health Organization



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