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FIGURE S-1 Dietary reference intakes. This figure shows that the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) is the intake at which the risk of inadequacy is 0.5 (50%) to an individual. The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) is the intake at which the risk of inadequacy is very small—only 0.02 to 0.03 (2% to 3%). The Adequate Intake (AI) does not bear a consistent relationship to the EAR or the RDA because it is set without being able to estimate the average requirement. It is assumed that the AI is at or above the RDA if one could be calculated. At intakes between the RDA and the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL), the risks of inadequacy and of excess are both close to 0. At intakes above the UL, the risk of adverse effects may increase.

Adequate Intake [AI]) are defined by specific criteria of nutrient adequacy; the fourth (Tolerable Upper Intake Level [UL]) is defined by a specific indicator of excess if one is available. In all cases, data are examined closely to determine whether reduction of risk of a chronic degenerative disease or developmental abnormality could be used as a criterion of adequacy. The quality of studies was examined by considering study design; methods used for measuring intake and indicators of adequacy; and biases, interactions, and confounding factors. After careful review and analysis of the evidence, including examination of the extent of congruence of findings, scientific judgment was used to determine the basis for establishing the values. In this report, the scientific evidence was judged to be too weak to use the prevention of chronic degenerative disease as the basis for setting any of the recommended levels of intake. Thus, for the B vitamins and choline, EARs and RDAs, or AIs if applicable, are based on criteria related to their general func-



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