Index

A

Achieving Efficient Water Management, 257

Acid neutralizing capacity (ANC), 77, 80

Acid rain, 77

Agencies, independent, 178-181

Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution Model (AGNPS), 157

Agricultural Research Service (ARS), 140

hydrological model developed by, 157

Airshed-scale problems, 29

Allocation, defined, 225

Alternative costs, calculating, 226-227

American Heritage Initiative, 188-189

Anacostia River Watershed, 209

Animas River Stakeholder Group, 210

Aquatic biota, 25-27

Aquifers, 41

mapped, 73

mining, 72

Areal, Nonpoint Source Watershed Environment Response Simulation (ANSWERS), 157

Assessment subregions, 51

Australia, 196-199

Authority. See Responsibility

B

Baseflow, 63

Better Assessment Science Integrating Point and Nonpoint Sources (BASINS), 157-158

Big Sandy Area Lakes Watershed (BSALW), 191-192

Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), 104, 287

Biodiversity, 24-27

threats to, 25

Biogeohydrologic transformations, 75

Biota reserves, 271

Biotrophic web, 75

Blue Earth River Basin Initiative (BERBI), 190-191

Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), 21, 180, 211

Bottom-up management, 3

Boundaries

decisionmaking, 204

political, 34

riparian, 34

watershed, 203

Boundary Waters Treaty, 193

Buffer zones, 270

Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), 178



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--> Index A Achieving Efficient Water Management, 257 Acid neutralizing capacity (ANC), 77, 80 Acid rain, 77 Agencies, independent, 178-181 Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution Model (AGNPS), 157 Agricultural Research Service (ARS), 140 hydrological model developed by, 157 Airshed-scale problems, 29 Allocation, defined, 225 Alternative costs, calculating, 226-227 American Heritage Initiative, 188-189 Anacostia River Watershed, 209 Animas River Stakeholder Group, 210 Aquatic biota, 25-27 Aquifers, 41 mapped, 73 mining, 72 Areal, Nonpoint Source Watershed Environment Response Simulation (ANSWERS), 157 Assessment subregions, 51 Australia, 196-199 Authority. See Responsibility B Baseflow, 63 Better Assessment Science Integrating Point and Nonpoint Sources (BASINS), 157-158 Big Sandy Area Lakes Watershed (BSALW), 191-192 Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), 104, 287 Biodiversity, 24-27 threats to, 25 Biogeohydrologic transformations, 75 Biota reserves, 271 Biotrophic web, 75 Blue Earth River Basin Initiative (BERBI), 190-191 Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), 21, 180, 211 Bottom-up management, 3 Boundaries decisionmaking, 204 political, 34 riparian, 34 watershed, 203 Boundary Waters Treaty, 193 Buffer zones, 270 Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), 178

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--> Bureau of Land Management (BLM), 8, 175 Bureau of Reclamation (BOR), 3, 6, 8, 28, 133, 175-176, 195-196 funding through, 214-215 planning protocols of, 257-258 Bureau of the Census, 40 C California Regional Water Quality Control Board, 103 Canada, 192-193, 196 Cataloging units, 52, 54 Catocin Mountains, 12 Catskill Watershed Corp., 247 Census of Agriculture, 41 Census of Population and Housing, 122-123 Center for Advance Decision Support for Water and Environmental Systems (CADSWES), 133 Center for Exposure Assessment Modeling, 135, 160 Channelization, 95, 98 Channels. See also River channels erosion in urban, 96 Chesapeake Bay, 29, 194-195 Citizen concerns, 3. See also Public involvement; Public outreach City and County Data Book, 123 City utilities, 208 Clean Air Act, 179 Clean Water Action Plan, 273 Clean Water Act of 1972 (CWA), 26, 128, 174-175, 179, 184, 210, 243 , 256, 285-286 of 1977, 286-287 reauthorizing, 4-5, 213, 271-273 Clean Water Initiative, 44, 187 Climate change, 67 Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection, and Restoration Act, 176 Coastal Zone Management program, 173 funding through, 219 Collaborative planning, 241-247 Colleges and universities, role in educating citizens, 119 Colorado River Basin, new commission for, 221-222 Colorado River Compact, 195 financing under, 228-229 Colorado Water Conservation Board, 133 Columbia River Basin, 21, 133, 222-223 Committee on Watershed Management, 2, 4, 13-14, 269 conclusions and recommendations of, 203-204, 229, 264-265, 273-280 Conflict resolution, 244 new approaches, 33 Connections between ground and surface waters, 270 Contaminant profiles, 94. See also Water quality Cost allocation, 224-229 Croplands, 92-94 D Dams, 24, 99, 195, 271 Data, 112-119 aggregated by county, 40-41 agricultural, 41 collecting, 9 gaps in, 128-131 on the Internet, 289-292 socioeconomic, 121-124 sources of, 113-116 types of, 112-113 Data clearinghouses, 122-123 Decisionmakers connecting with science, 140-164, 233-240 implementing simulation models, 161 Decisionmaking boundaries for, 204 democratic, 241-247 environmental, 141 and planning, 233-268 Decision support systems (DSSs), 278 gaps in, 132-134 Demography, 85, 88 Digital Elevation Models (DEM), 120 Downstream areas, linked with uplands, 1 Drainage basins, 39, 44-46 temporal scales of, 50 E Earth Resources Observation System Data Center, 177 Ecological regionalization schemes, 81-81 Ecological risk assessment, 140-148 charted, 146

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--> Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land Resources Implementation Studies, 260 Economic and social data on the Internet, 290-291 Ecosystem management effective, 254-255 terminology used, 33-34 Ecosystems, 81-87 mapped, 83-84, 86-87 Ecotrust of Portland Oregon, 142 Electric Power Research Institute, 133 El Niño events, 67, 72-76 Endangered species, 26 Endangered Species Act of 1973, 26, 29, 172, 175, 213 Environmental decisionmaking, 141 equity in, 241-247 Environmental Impacts Statements (EISs), 145 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 6, 8, 28, 45, 116, 119, 126 , 179, 184-185 funding through, 216, 219 guidelines for ecological risk assessment, 141-148 hydrological model developed by, 157-158 planning protocols of, 253-256 watershed approach of, 15-16, 234 Erosion indexing, 62 urban channel, 96 Eutrophication, curtailing, 23 Evaporation, 58, 63-65 Evaporites, 80 Exchange, defined, 225 Executive Order on American Heritage Rivers, 186, 188-189 Exposure profiles, 144 F Farm Services Agency (FSA), 169 Federal agencies on the Interact, 289-290 Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), 180-181 Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), 174-175, 286 Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC), 8, 82, 123, 277 Federal government changing role of, 212-213 organizational diversity within, 167-181 reinvention of, 1-4, 164-165 Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, 179 Federal Land Policy and Management Act, 175 Federal lands, 88 mapped, 89 Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972. See Clean Water Act of 1972 Federal Water Pollution Control Administration, 284 Feedlots, runoff from, 104 Financing options, 229-229 for watershed organizations, 208-232 Fire. See Forest fires Fish, 25-27 Fish and Wildlife Conservation Act of 1934, 172, 176 Flathead Basin Commission (FBC), 22-23 Flathead Lake Biological Station, 23 Flood control, 20, 174 funding from, 4 Flood Control Act of 1944, 171 Flooding insurance against, 181 magnitude and frequency relationships, 49 mean annual potential, 71 Floodplains, 76, 270-271 Florida Water Resources Management Act of 1972, 190 Forest Ecosystem Management and Assessment Team (FEMAT), 27 Forest fires, 90-91 Forests, riparian, 118, 149-150 Front Range cities, 27 Funding mechanisms, 207-231 county, 209-210 current, 208-221 federal, 214-219 interstate, 210-214 local, 208-209 regional, 210-214 G Geographic information system data on the Internet, 290 Geographic information systems (GIS), 32, 45, 118, 120-121, 159 Geohydrologic gradient, 75 flow rate changes along, 75 Glacier National Park, 22

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--> Global Positioning Systems (GPS), 32 Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center, 134 Great Basin National Park, 27 Great Britain, 200 Great Lakes Basin Compact, 192-193 Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement, 193 Groundwater quality, 17 Groundwater surface, 101 Groundwater systems, 67 dissolved minerals in, 79 excessive extraction from, 100-101 organisms in, 76 problems of underemphasized, 75 regional, 74 water movement through, 75-76 Guide to State Environmental Programs, 167 H Habitat measurement, 117-118 Habitat preservation, 27, 151 HEC-RAS, 160 HSPF model, 160 Human effects integrative thinking towards, 1 on watersheds and streams, 88-105 Hydrologic Engineering Center Flood Hydrograph Package (HEC-l), 158 Hydrologic Simulation Program-FORTRAN (HSP-F), 158 Hydrologic Unit Model for the United States (HUMUS), 159 Hydrologic units (HUCs), 44-45, 51-53, 121 Hydrology. See Physical hydrology Hydropower production, funding from, 4, 21-24, 220-221 Hyporheic zone, 76 I Independent agencies, 178-181 Individuals, power of, 204 Information, 112-139 on the Internet, 289-292 Interagency Ecosystem Management Task Force, 82, 209 Interbasin areas, 39 Interbasin transfers, 41 Interfluve, 39 Intergovernmental Task Force on Monitoring Water Quality (ITFM),131 International Boundary and Water Commission, 193-194 International Institute for Aerospace Survey, 120 International Joint Commission (HC), 193 International watershed management, 192-201 Internet sites basic references, 291 economic and social data, 290-291 federal agencies, 289-290 geographical information system data, 290 physical environmental data, 291 remote sensing imagery, 291 state-based, 291-292 useful, 292 watershed-based, 292 watershed data and information, 32, 289-292 K Karst areas, and groundwater regions, 74 Keystone. National Policy Dialogue on Ecosystem Management, 33 Kinematic Runoff and Erosion Model (KINEROS), 159-160 L Lake evaporation, mean annual, 64 "Land and Resources Management Plans (LRMPs)," 256 Land cover, 80 Land Resource Regions, 82 Land use, 80, 88-95 Load allocations (LAs), 286 Local government devolution of authority to, 1-2, 166 funding from, 208-209 Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) program, 113, 116 M Marine Protection Research Sanctuaries Act, 173 Market value, 4 McKenzie Watershed Council, 211 McKnight Foundation, 18

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--> Metropolitan utilities, 208-209 Mexico, 194-195 Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, 18 Missouri River Basin, 215 Models. See also Simulation modeling diverse, 10 features of, 156, 160 ineffective, 3 list of, 157-159 planning, 242 updating, 126-127, 132 Monitoring network design, 9. See also Watershed monitoring Multiple Use and Sustained Yield Act of 1960, 169 Municipal Wastewater Treatment Construction Grant Amendment of 1981 , 287 Murray-Darling Basin, 198-199 N National Conservation Program, 171 National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, 145, 175 National Estuarine Research Reserve System, 173 National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP), 181 National Forest Management Act of 1964, 169-170, 256-257 National Forest System, 169 National Marine Fisheries Service, 172 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), 9, 173 funding through, 219 National Park Service (NPS), 8, 177-178 "Rivers, Trails, and Conservation Program"; 178 National Planning Procedures Handbook, 258 National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES), 102, 104, 188, 285-286 National Research Council, 243 National Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), 28-29, 32, 82, 121 watershed approach of, 16, 170-172 National Science Foundation (NSF), 7-8, 113, 116, 126, 275-276 National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI), 8, 123, 277 National Stream Quality Accounting Network, 121 National Water Data Network, 52 National Water Quality Assessment Program, 177 National Water Quality Monitoring Council, 131 National Wild and Scenic Rivers Act, 175 National Wildlife Refuge System Act, 176 Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), 209-210 funding through, 219 planning protocols of, 258-259 Nature Conservancy of Seattle, 142 Navigation, 21 New York City Watershed Agreement, 245-247 New Zealand, 197-200 NEXGEN effort, 160 NIMBY-style opposition, 262 Nonpoint source (NPS) pollution, 92, 184-185, 270, 287-288 NRCS. See National Resource Conservation Service O Ohio River Valley, 77, 81 Omnibus Parks and Lands Act of 1996, 211 Opposition, NIMBY-style, 262 Organizational structures in America, 166-181 contemporary responses, 186-196 dynamics of change within, 238 fragmentation within, 165-166 funding, 207-231 for the future, 201-203 independent agencies, 178-181 interstate initiatives, 192-196 intrastate initiatives, 187-192 recommendations for, 204 rigidity of, 235-236 search for coordination in, 181-186 for watershed management, 164-207 Organization for International Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), 139-140 Outreach, public, 118-119 P Patawalonga Catchment, 198-199 Peer review, 6

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--> Pennsylvania Spatial Data Access (PASDA) system, 123 Penzance Wash, 49 Phalen Chain of Lakes watershed project, 18-19 Photographs, time-series, 117 Physical environmental data on the Internet, 291 Physical hydrology, 56-81 Piedmont landscape, generalized evolution of, 97 Piezometric surface, 101 Planning, and decisionmaking, 233-268 Planning subregions, 51 Platte River Basin, 134, 214, 223-224 Plumas Corp., 211 Point sources of pollution, 101-105 efforts to curb, 128 Pollution "area-based,"; 4 nonpoint source (NPS), 92 point source, 101-105 sediments and, 21 Potential evapotranspiration (PET), 58, 63 Power Management Administrations (PMAs), 216 Power Marketing Administration Service Areas, 217-218, 220-221 Power Planning Council, 222 Precipitation, 56-62 chemical composition of, 77 erosion index, 62 mean annual, 57 mean annual maximum in 24 hours, 60 monthly means and extremes, 59 100-year 24 hour, 61 Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS), 158 Pricing structures, 4 Problem identification, 30 Public involvement, 31-32 in watershed monitoring, 116-119 in watershed planning, 232 Public outreach, 118-119 Purdue University Agricultural Engineering Department, hydrological model developed by, 157 Q QUAL2E, 158 Quinnipiac River watershed, 92-93 R Rainfall. See Precipitation Ramsey-Washington Metro Watershed District, 18 Rangelands, 140 Rapid Ecological Assessments, 32 Recommendations, 273-280 Recreational use, 27-28 funding from, 4 Reference sites on the Internet, 291 "Refuse Act." See Rivers and Harbors Act of 1988 Regional variations, 1, 56-111 Remediation, paying for, 227-228 Remote sensing imagery on the Internet, 291 Research. See Scientific research Reservoirs, 99-100, 185 Resource Conservation and Development Councils, 170 Resource Conservation and Recycling Act, 179 Resource Conservation Districts (RCDs), 169 Resource Management at the Watershed Level, 212 Resources Conservation Act of 1997 (RCA), 159 Responsibility fragmentation of, 10, 30 and power, 236 Restoration, 148-155 paying for, 227-228 1992 Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, 244 Rio de Flag at Hidden Hollow Road, 49 Rio Puerco Management Committee, 211 Riparian forest surveys, 118, 149-150 protecting and enhancing, 270 River Action Teams (RATs), 260-261 River basin, defined, 37 River channels average annual discharge in main, 70 data on, 46 size scale for, 44-47 Rivers, Trails, and Conservation Program, 178 Rivers and Harbors Act of 1988, 174, 283-284 Rocky Mountain Mine Waste Initiative, 210 Runoff average annual, 65-66 maximum annual, 68 minimum annual, 69

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--> S Safe Drinking Water Act, 28, 245 Sampling protocols, developing uniform, 129, 131 San Diego Creek, 96 Santa Ana Watershed Project Authority, 102-103 Scale considerations, 5, 54, 202, 204. See also Spatial scales; Temporal scales Scientific peer review, 6 Scientific research, 7-8 connecting to the decisionmaker, 3, 140-164, 233-240 current state of, 124-127 fragmentation of, 5 gaps in, 127-136 monitoring, 124-125 process-based, 8, 155-161 Seasonal Land Cover Regions, 81 Sediment control, 20-21, 77 during urban watershed construction, 51 "Separable costs, remaining benefits" (SCRB) method, 226 Shreve method, 45 Simulation modeling gaps in, 132-134 interpreting output from, 161 Simulation of Production and Utilization of Rangelands (SPUR), 159 Socioeconomic data, 121-124 Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), 159 Soil and Water Resources Conservation Act, 169-171 Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act, 169-170 Soil Conservation Service. See National Resource Conservation Service Soil water budgets, 63, 65 Southern Piedmont watersheds, 90 South Platte River Forum, 211 Spatial scales, 13-36, 38 geographic, 42-43 Stakeholders, involving, 5, 18-19, 240-247 State-based Internet sites, 291-292 State government, 187 devolution of authority to, 1-2, 166-167 STATSCO program, 121 STORET data base, 45, 179 Stormwater quality, 91 Strahler method, 45 Streamflows, 63, 65-71 changes of, 95-101 problems with data on, 129 Stream gagging, 9 Streams changes of, 95-101 human effects, 88-105 morphology of, 98 Stressor-response profiles, 144-145 Superfund Program, 92, 179 Surface waters, dissolved minerals in, 78 Surface Water Treatment Rule, 245 Suspended particulate matter (SPM), 80 Susquehanna River Basin Commission, 144-145, 182-183 SWMM model, 160 SWRRB model, 160 System Development Charges (SDCs), 226 T Technical tools, 32 Technology transfer, 119 Temporal scales, 13-36 for watersheds and channels, 47-51 Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), 8, 21, 179-180 improved data from, 130, 133 map of, 39 planning protocols of, 260-261 scale of, 44-45 Timber/Fish/Wildlife (TFW) agreement, 153 Tin Can Creek, 49 Top-down management, 3 Total dissolved solids (TDS), 80 Total maximum daily load (TMDL) approach, 134-136, 188, 270, 272, 286 1995 Toxic Release Inventory Report (TRI), 104 Toxic Substances Control Act, 179 TOXIROUTE, 158 Transfer of development rights (TDR) programs, 252 24-hour rainfall, 60-61 U Understanding Risk, 233-234, 240, 250 UNESCO, 120 United Nations plot, suspicions of, 188-189

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--> U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), 3, 6, 8, 28, 32, 210 funding through, 214-216 Hydrologic Engineering Center, 160 planning protocols of, 259-260 water-related responsibilities of, 173-174 U.S. Department of Agriculture, 6, 8, 41, 122, 126, 271 regionalization scheme of, 81 water-related responsibilities of, 169-172 U.S. Department of Commerce, water-related responsibilities of, 172 -173 U.S. Department of Defense, water-related responsibilities of, 173 -174 U.S. Department of Energy funding through, 216-219 water-related responsibilities of, 174-175 U.S. Department of the Interior, water-related responsibilities of , 175-178 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), 29, 82, 172, 176 U.S. Forest Service, 8, 81, 113, 116 planning protocols of, 256-257 water-related responsibilities of, 169-170 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), 2, 8-9, 32, 52-53, 117, 176-177 "Earth Resources Observation System Data Center,"; 177 funding through, 219 "Seasonal Land Cover Regions,"; 81 U.S. Water Resources Council, 51, 53, 183 University of Minnesota Department of Landscape Architecture, 18 University of Montana Flathead Lake Biological Station, 23 Uplands, linked with downstream areas, 1 Upper Carson River Watershed Management Plan, 211 USEPA. See Environmental Protection Agency V Verde Watershed Association, 210 W Washington Department of Natural Resources, 153 Washington Forest Practices Board, 152-153 Waste load allocations (WLAs), 286 Wastewater treatment plants, 101, 104 Water and Watersheds Program, 126 Water consumption, 18-19 Water in the West: The Challenge for the Next Century, 222-223 Water Pollution Control Act of 1948, 284 Amendments of 1956, 284 Water quality, 20, 76-81 problems with data on, 129 related U.S. legislation, 283-288 of stormwater, 91 Water Quality Act of 1965, 284-285 Water Quality Act of 1987, 287-288 Water resource democracy, 186 Water Resources Council, 213-214 Water Resources Planning Act of 1965, 213 Water resources regions, 51-52, 123 Water Resources Research Act, 177 Water sampling, 117 Waterscape, defined, 2 Watershed and River Systems Management Initiative, 133 Watershed approach rationale for new, 31-33 to wide ranging problems, 1, 5-6, 14-17 Watershed-based Internet sites, 292 Watershed boundaries, 203 Watershed condition, indicators of, 139-140 Watershed 96 (conference), 186 Watershed data and information finding, 122-123 on the Internet, 32, 289-292 Watershed Data Clearinghouse, 277 Watershed management. See also Ecosystem management barriers to adaptive, 237 cost allocation for, 224-229 defined, 14 effective, 3, 9 funding, 4, 7, 30, 32 guiding philosophy for, 5-6 international, 192-201 issues of scale, 202 need for flexibility in, 10, 279 organizational structure of, 164-207 processes of, 6-7 succeeding at, 269-271 terminology used, 33-34 Watershed management plans, 1, 6 barriers and challenges to implementing, 28-29

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--> characteristics of, 15 collaborative, 241-247 criteria for evaluating, 249-253 critical points in, 247-263 precipitation and, 58 process for, 248 Watershed monitoring improvements needed in, 131 involving public in, 116-119 Watershed organizations, financing, 208-232 Watershed planning. See Watershed management plans Watershed processes, gaps in knowledge of, 127-128 Watershed projects Flathead River-Lake Ecosystem, 22-23 North Temperate Lakes, 116 Phalen Chain of Lakes, 18-19 Santa Ana River, 102-103 Walnut Gulch Experimental Range, 116 White Clay Lake, 114 Willapa Bay, 142-143 Watershed Protection and Flood Prevention Act of 1954, 171 Watershed Protection and Partnership Programs, 247 Watershed research. See Scientific research Watersheds analyzing, 152-155 basis for planning and management of, 2-5, 34 characterization/analysis of, 121 defined, 14, 37-41 experimental, 115, 126 human effects, 88-105 managing to benefit people, 17-28 quantifying variables of, 142 rationale for, 1-12 restoration strategies for, 148-155 spatial scales for, 5, 13-36, 38 temporal scales for, 5, 13-36 Water supplies, 17-20 Western Water Policy Review Advisory Commission (WWPRAC), 6, 212-213, 275 funding through, 221-224 Wetlands, 94-95 White Clay Lake watershed, 114 White House Office on Environmental Policy, 82 Wide Area Information Servers (WAIS), 123 Wild and Scenic Rivers Act, 176 Wild and Scenic River system, 27, 178 Wilderness Act of 1964, 170 Willapa Bay watershed, 142-143

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