Page 349

INDEX

A

Access to electronic data, move to limit, 5, 50-51

ACE-1 Science and Implementation Plan, 164

ACRIM. See Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor

Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor (ACRIM), 257-258

Adaptive observation strategies, 171, 188-190

Advection, 192-193

Aerometric Information Retrieval System, 127

Aerosol climatology, designing and deploying networks to document, 164

Aerosol physics, 63

Aerosol Radiative Forcing and Climate Change, 162

Aerosols. See also Atmospheric aerosols and atmospheric chemistry, 40

chemical and physical properties of, 129-131

direct radiative forcing of climate by, 73-74

and environmental quality, 23

and interactions with other atmospheric phenomena, 7, 86-87

predicting size distributions of, 75-76

Agencies. See Federal government and agencies

Agricultural planning, value of predictions to, 26

Aircraft. See also Commercial aircraft

atmospheric effects of, 203, 220-222, 224-225

remote piloted, 36, 153, 223

Air quality

forecasting of, 3, 42-43, 138

improving predictive numerical models for, 2, 7, 134

Air quality monitoring, 2, 134, 150-151

American Meteorological Society (AMS), 177

AMIP. See Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project

AMS. See American Meteorological Society

Anthropogenic influences, 246-247, 289-296

ability to predict, 255, 324

affecting lower atmosphere, 8, 22-24, 106

affecting stratospheric processes, 211-212

driving global chemical change, 117

separating from solar, 259-263

Appleton, Sir Edward, 210

Appleton anomalies, 236

ARM. See Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program

Army Signal Corps, 21

Artificial intelligence (AI), 98



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Page 349 INDEX A Access to electronic data, move to limit, 5, 50-51 ACE-1 Science and Implementation Plan, 164 ACRIM. See Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor (ACRIM), 257-258 Adaptive observation strategies, 171, 188-190 Advection, 192-193 Aerometric Information Retrieval System, 127 Aerosol climatology, designing and deploying networks to document, 164 Aerosol physics, 63 Aerosol Radiative Forcing and Climate Change, 162 Aerosols. See also Atmospheric aerosols and atmospheric chemistry, 40 chemical and physical properties of, 129-131 direct radiative forcing of climate by, 73-74 and environmental quality, 23 and interactions with other atmospheric phenomena, 7, 86-87 predicting size distributions of, 75-76 Agencies. See Federal government and agencies Agricultural planning, value of predictions to, 26 Aircraft. See also Commercial aircraft atmospheric effects of, 203, 220-222, 224-225 remote piloted, 36, 153, 223 Air quality forecasting of, 3, 42-43, 138 improving predictive numerical models for, 2, 7, 134 Air quality monitoring, 2, 134, 150-151 American Meteorological Society (AMS), 177 AMIP. See Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project AMS. See American Meteorological Society Anthropogenic influences, 246-247, 289-296 ability to predict, 255, 324 affecting lower atmosphere, 8, 22-24, 106 affecting stratospheric processes, 211-212 driving global chemical change, 117 separating from solar, 259-263 Appleton, Sir Edward, 210 Appleton anomalies, 236 ARM. See Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program Army Signal Corps, 21 Artificial intelligence (AI), 98

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Page 350 ASOS. See Automated Surface Observation System Atmospheric aerosols,
7, 129-131, 162-166 designing and deploying networks to document aerosol climatology, 164 designing and implementing intensive field programs for, 164-165 designing and implementing new suites of measurement technologies for tropospheric aerosols, 163-164 developing predictive model capability for, 165-166 and global warming, 292, 293 maintaining and expanding stratospheric aerosol measurement capability, 162-163 Atmospheric boundary layer, 63, 172-173 resolving interactions at, 37-41 and studies, 88 Atmospheric chemistry Environmentally Important Atmospheric (chemical) Species, 108, 140-168 infrastructure, 135-139 mission, 112-114 recent insights, 114-121 recommended research strategies for, 121-132 summary, 7 Atmospheric components, interactions with other Earth system components, 3, 184-185 Atmospheric dynamics, 169-198 recommended research, 7-8, 173-175 small-scale, 6, 63 Atmospheric electricity, 6-7, 63, 67 and interactions with other atmospheric phenomena, 7, 65 investigating global electrical circuit and lightning as measures of stability and temperature, 78 mechanisms of charge separation in clouds, 78 nature and sources of middle-atmosphere discharges, 78, 249 production of NOx by lightning, 79 recommended research strategies for, 67, 77-79 Atmospheric emissions, rapidly increasing, 4, 45 Atmospheric forecasting. See Weather forecasting Atmospheric information developing a strategy for providing, 46-50 preserving free and open exchange of, 5, 50-51 prospects for, 48-49 Atmospheric information services distributed, 49-50 funding for, 56-58 optimizing, 50 Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP), 291, 315 Atmospheric observations. See Observations Atmospheric physics atmospheric electricity, 77-79, 93-95 atmospheric radiation, 71-74 atmospheric water, clouds, 73, 74-77, 87, 92, 102-103 boundary layer meteorology, 79-80, 87-89 cloud physics, 74-77 instrumentation, 103-106 mission, 68 models, improvement and testing, 84-85 small scale influences on large scale phenomenon, 99-102 Atmospheric potential vorticity, 172 Atmospheric prediction. See Weather forecasting Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program, 98 Atmospheric sciences, 1-2, 14-16, 101 contributions to the national well-being, 17-27, 65, 106, 111, 202, 271, 324 cost effectiveness of, 169-170 entering the twenty-first century, 15-16 history of, 14, 114-116 imperatives, 2-3, 28-37 key role of, 14 oceanography a close partner of, 15 role in environmental issues, 23-24 Auroral emission, 231 Automated Surface Observation System (ASOS), 21 Automated Weather Interactive Processing System (AWlPS), 21 B Baroclinicity, effect on boundary layer, 80 BASC. See Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate

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Page 351 Benefits and costs of atmospheric information services, 5,
47, 51-58 Benefits of atmospheric research, 17-27, 47 enhancing national economic vitality, 24-26 maintaining environmental quality, 22-24 protection of life and property, 17-22 strengthening fundamental understanding, 26-27 Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate (BASC), 1, 4, 6, 54, 59 disciplinary assessments of, 6-9, 28-29 imperatives of, 2-3, 28-37 leadership and management planning, 6 listing of reports of, 346-348 recommendations of, 3-5, 37-45 Boundary layer meteorology, 6, 65, 100 effects of inhomogeneity and baroclinicity on boundary layer, 80 exploiting new remote sensors, 88-89 interactions of planetary boundary layer, surface characteristics, and clouds, 81 and interactions with other atmospheric phenomena, 7 measurements of exchange of water, heat, and trace atmospheric constituents, 80-81 recommended research strategies for, 67, 79-81 structure of cloudy boundary layers, 79-80 turbulence and entrainment, 80 C CAAA-90. See Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 CAPE. See Convective available potential energy CAPS. See Center for the Analysis and Prediction of Storms Carbon dioxide, 22, 106 CASH. See Commercial Aviation Sensing Humidity (CASH) program CASR. See Committee on Atmospheric Services and Research Catastrophic events, 174, 297 potential for, 107 Cavendish, Henry, 114 CCN. See Cloud condensation nuclei CDNC. See Cloud droplet number concentrations CEDAR. See Coupling, Energetics, and Dynamics of Atmospheric Regions CEES. See Committee on Earth and Environmental Sciences CENR. See Committee on Environment and Natural Resources Center for the Analysis and Prediction of Storms (CAPS), 180 CFCs. See Chlorofluorocarbons Chaos theory, 41, 98 outgrowth of meteorology, 27 Charge generation, mechanisms of, 94-96 Charge separation in clouds, mechanisms of, 78 Chemical climatology, documenting, 109 Chemical constituents developing new capabilities for observing, 2 disciplined forecasting for, 3 Chemical instrumentation, continue development and validation of, 159-160 Chemical meteorology system, developing, 138 Chemistry. See Atmospheric chemistry Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) gases, 26, 123, 206, 222 and environmental quality, 22, 117- 119, 210-211 longevity of, 255 substitutes for, 216-217 Circulation systems, quasi-balanced and unbalanced, 172-173 Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA-90), 126, 134-135, 216 Climate, 272-324 climate monitoring, 2, 281, 307 climate sensitive enterprises, 25 climate weather and health, 44 climatic prediction, increase of skill in, 311-314 deterioration of current observational capability, 302-306 enhancing observational capability, 307-309 historical and paleoclimatic data, use of, 309-310 improvements in climate prediction, 314-316 key drivers for research, 297-302 mission statement, 278 priorities for climate research, 318-322 results of research in recent decades, 279-296 anthropogenic effects, 289-290

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Page 352 decade-to-century variability (DEC-CEN), 283-288, 313-314 joint effects of greenhouse gas forcing and aerosols, 292-295 seasonal-to-interannual,
277, 279-283 Climate Variability and Prediction Program (CLIVAR), 308, 313, 321 Clinton administration, 52 CLIVAR. See Climate Variability and Prediction Program Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), 66 populations of, 76-77, 87 Cloud droplet number concentrations (CDNCs), 74 Cloud physics, 6, 63, 100 coverage and radiative properties of clouds, 74 ice formation in the atmosphere, 75 improving understanding of precipitation formation, 75, 92-93 parameterizing subgrid-scale influences of clouds and microphysical processes on cloud models, 76-77 predicting size distributions of hydrometeors and aerosols affecting radiative transfer, 75-76 recommended research strategies for, 65-66, 74-77 Clouds charge generation in, 94-96 consequences of, 39-40 effect on radiation streams, 39 feedback from, 290 improved understanding of their roles in climate, 73 and interactions with other atmospheric phenomena, 7, 85-86 modeling, 92 noctilucent, 245, 247 resolving, 77, 102 stratocumulus and cirrus, 85-86 Cloudy atmospheres, radiative transfer in, 72 Cloudy boundary layers, structure of, 79-80 CMEs. See Coronal mass ejections Coal burning. 22-23 COARE. See Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment Collaboration needed among agencies, 274 needed among disciplines, 4, 46 COMET. See Cooperative Program for Operational Meteorology, Education, and Training Commercial aircraft, observations from, 30-31, 193 Commercial Aviation Sensing Humidity (CASH) program, 34 Committee on Atmospheric Chemistry, 77 Committee on Atmospheric Services and Research (CASR), listing of reports of, 346-348 Committee on Earth and Environmental Sciences (CEES), 52, 58 Committee on Environment and Natural Resources (CENR), 54-55 Subcommittee on Air Quality Research, 58 Committee on Solar and Space Physics (CSSP), 199, 204 Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Research (CSTR), 199, 204 Communication systems, space weather effects on, 8, 228, 231-241 Computer models, 14 Computers. See also Massively parallel processors (MPPs) for atmospheric analysis, 14, 197 increasingly more powerful, 1, 13, 98-99 Computer-to-computer communication, 5, 47 Computer visualization, 98 Computer workstations, 197 Concentration monitoring networks, maintaining current, 150-151 Condensed-phase chemistry, facilities needed for studying. 7, 139 Confidence in climate change predictions, 23 in forecasts, 1-2, 13 Convection, moist, 82, 88 Convective available potential energy (CAPE), 94 Convective downdrafts, 172 Convective ensemble simulations, 91 Convective heating, 40 Convective momentum transfer, 91 Convective storms, 237 Convective systems, mesoscale, 172 Cooperative Program for Operational Meteorology, Education, and Training (COMET), 180 Cooperative Programme for the Monitoring and Evaluation of Long Range Air Pollutants in Europe (EMEP), 167-168

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Page 353 Coordination, needed within atmospheric sciences, 46 Coronal mass ejections (CMEs),
37, 229, 231-233, 238, 242 Cosmic rays, 208 Costs. See Benefits and costs of atmospheric information services Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (COARE), 91 Coupled systems, seeing components of Earth's environment as, 3 Coupling, Energetics, and Dynamics of Atmospheric Regions (CEDAR), 243 Coupling between chemistry, dynamics, and radiation, 145-147 Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy stability criterion, 193 Coverage and radiative properties of clouds, 74 CRAY supercomputers, YMP model, 197 CSSP. See Committee on Solar and Space Physics CSTR. See Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Research Cyclogenesis, 38 Cyclones, extratropical, 175-177. See also Tropical cyclones D Data acquired for public purposes with public funds, 51 needed from over oceans, 8 Data assimilation techniques, 171, 188-190 Data denial experiments, 173, 194 Data from satellites and other remote sensors, innovative approaches to analyses of, 72-73 Dec-Cen. See Climate, decade-to-century variability (DEC-CEN) Decision making, incorporating atmospheric information into, 5 Deposition fluxes, developing and evaluating techniques for measuring, 166-167 Differential absorption lidar (DIAL), 194 Digital communication, for aviation weather and flight planning capabilities, 48 Digital computers, for atmospheric analysis, 14 Dimethyl sulfide (DMS), oceanic production of, 76 Disaster statistics, 21 Disciplinary assessments, 6-9 Disciplined forecast process, 3-4, 41-43 Disease vectors, affected by weather and climate, 15, 44 Distributed atmospheric information services, implications of, 49-50 DMS. See Dimethyl sulfide Dobson unit (DU), 124 DOC. See U.S. Department of Commerce DOD. See U.S. Department of Defense DOE. See U.S. Department of Energy DOl. See U.S. Department of the Interior Doppler laser, combining with Global Positioning System (GPS), 89 Doppler weather radar, 36, 68, 178-179 network, 21 Dropsonde tracking, 193 DU. See Dobson unit E Earth Observing System (EOS), 32, 98, 202, 217, 224, 308 Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE), 257-258, 290 The Earth's Electrical Environment, 77 Ecosystem exposure monitoring networks, designing and implementing, 167-168 Ecosystem exposure systems, 7, 110 Ecosystems, 15 Eddy correlation method, 153 Electricity. See also Atmospheric electricity and Benjamin Franklin, 14 Electronic data, move to limit access to, 5, 50-51 El Niño events, 42, 278 changes in weather patterns associated with, 18, 183 value of predictions to agricultural planning, 26 El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle, 38-39, 85, 180, 273, 277, 279-283, 296-301, 311-313, 317 EMEP. See Cooperative Programme for the Monitoring and Evaluation of Long Range Air Pollutants in Europe Emissions to the atmosphere, rapidly increasing, 4, 45 Energy budget for Earth, 35 Ensemble forecasting, 171, 183, 187-188 ENSO. See El Niño/Southern Oscillation cycle

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Page 354 Entrainment, 80, 100 Environmental health,
2 Environmentally Important Atmospheric (chemical) Species, 7, 108-109, 112-114, 122, 132-135 atmospheric aerosols, 7, 129-131, 162-166 developing holistic and integrated understanding of, 7 greenhouse gases, 7, 123-126, 147-157, 300 nutrients, 7, 132, 166-168 photochemical oxidants, 7, 126-129, 157-161 stratospheric ozone, 7, 122-123, 140-147 toxics, 7, 132, 166-168 Environmental management systems, 7. 111 assessing efficacy of, 7, 109, 134-135 Environmental quality aerosols, 23 chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) gases, 22, 117-119, 210-211 and global change, 22-23 greenhouse gases, 22-23 long-term consequences of chemical emissions, 117-119 maintaining. 22-24 ozone, 22 Environmental shear, 91 EOS. See Earth Observing System EPA. See U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ERBE. See Earth Radiation Budget Experiment ERS-1. See European Remote Sensing Satellite European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts, 184 European Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS-1). 36, 196 EUV. See Extreme ultraviolet Expendable bathythermographs (XBTs), 281 Experimental forecasts, initiating, 3 Expert systems, 32, 35 Exposure assessment networks, deploying. 137 Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation, 206, 263-264 F FAA. See Federal Aviation Administration Fatalities, 18-21, 65 FCCSET. See Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology Federal government and agencies access to atmospheric information, 50-51 development of new observational capabilities, 33-34 discipline of forecasting, role in, 41-43 emerging issues, 43 funding, see Federal funding of atmospheric research and operations historical roles, 21 interactions at boundaries, 37-38 planning and management, 58-59 protection of life and property, 17-18 role in observations, 29-30 Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), 24, 34 Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology (FCCSET), 52, 58 Federal Coordinator for Meteorological Services and Supporting Research, 4, 46 Federal Council for Science and Technology, 52 Federal funding of atmospheric research and operations, 52-58 by agency, 56 by categories, 55 historical, 53, 57 for information services, 56 for operations, 57 Field programs, designing and implementing intensive, 164-165 Field studies, carrying out process-oriented, for algorithm development and evaluation, 168 "Fire weather," forecasting, 173, 186-187 Fiscal Year (FY) expenditures, 56 Flash floods, forecasting, 184-185 Flight planning capabilities, by digital communication, 48 Flows, surface-induced, 83 Flux measurements conducting multiyear, over different ecosystems, 151-152 from oceans, improving methods for, 153 Forecasting. See Climate forecasting; Weather forecasting Fossil fuels, consumption of, 23 Franklin, Benjamin, 14 Frontal cyclones, mesoscale, 173 Fundamental condensed phase processes, 111 Fundamental understanding of the atmosphere, 26-27 Fuzzy logic, 32 FY. See Fiscal Year

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Page 355 G Gas exchange, conducting large-scale studies of, 152 GCM. See General circulation models GCOSs. See Global climate observing systems GDP. See Gross Domestic Product GEM. See Geospace Environment Modeling General circulation models. atmospheric (GCMs), 66-67, 77, 260, 292, 315 construction and evaluation of,
321 Earth-ocean coupling of, 299, 311 parameterizing, 84-85 progress in, 300-301 Geomagnetic storms, 231-232 Geophysical fluid flow, fundamental problem of, 40-41 Geospace Environment Modeling (GEM), 243 Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES), 181 GEWEX. See Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment GISS. See Goddard Institute for Space Studies Global changes affecting lower atmosphere, 8 affecting middle and upper atmosphere, 203 and environmental quality, 22-23 Global climate observing systems (GCOSs), 274, 306, 308 Global electrical circuit, as measure of stability and temperature, 78, 93-94 Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX), 45, 308, 321 Global observing system, 110 Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System (GOALS), 275, 308, 312, 320-321 Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG), 267-268 Global Positioning System (GPS), 194-195 accuracy of, 235 observations from, 31 radio occultation technique with, 37 Global rawinsonde network, halting deterioration in, 8, 173-174 Global stratospheric sulfate layer, 162 Global telecommunication system (GTS), 281 Global transport system, 14 GOALS. See Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS), 288 GOES. See Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite GONG. See Global Oscillation Network Group GPS. See Global positioning system Gravity waves, 90 Great Salinity Anomaly, 283 Greenhouse forcing of climate, 294 Greenhouse gases, 7, 22-23, 116, 123-126, 147-157, 289 conducting large-scale studies of gas exchange, 152 conducting multiyear flux measurements over different ecosystems, 151-152 conducting surface-based measurements near source regions, 152 devising new systems to make accurate concentration measurements, 153-154 expanding monitoring networks to include vertical profile measurements, 151 improving and developing models, 154 improving methods of measuring fluxes from oceans, 153 maintaining current concentration monitoring networks, 150-151 primary, 150 water vapor, 156-157 Gross domestic product (GDP), contributions made by weather and climate information, 24-25 GTS. See Global telecommunication system H Halogen Occultation Experiment, 157 Heaviside, Oliver, 210 Helioseismology, 267-268 Heterogeneous chemistry, 111, 224 facilities needed for studying, 7, 139 HF. See High frequency High frequency (HF) events, 184, 234 Holistic research strategy, need to develop, 135 Human health affected by weather and climate, 15 research recommended in, 44 space weather effects on, 8 Hurricane Andrew, 17-18, 21 Hurricane forecasting, 178-180 delineating optimal measurement system combinations for, 8 greatest opportunity to save lives and property, 178 Hurricane statistics, 19

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Page 356 Hydrological cycle improving understanding of,
171 and interactions with other atmospheric phenomena, 7 Hydrometeors, predicting size distributions of, 75-76 I ICAS. See Interdepartmental Committee for Atmospheric Sciences Ice formation in the atmosphere, 75, 87 Ice nucleus (IN) population, 76 IGAC. See International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) project IMF. See Interplanetary magnetic field Immune system, affected by ultraviolet (UV) radiation, 15 Incoherent scatter (IS), 251 Incorporating atmospheric information into decision making, weather-dependent enterprises, 5 Infectious diseases, affected by weather and climate, 15, 44 Inferential observation-based studies, 161 Information. See Atmospheric information Infrastructure initiatives needed. 135-139, 200 modeling, 13 needed to advance research in atmospheric chemistry, 7, 110-111 observational, 13 Inhomogeneity, effect on boundary layer, 80 Institutional arrangements for climate research, 323 Instrument development programs, 7, 111, 139 Integrated assessments, support, 161 Integrated field campaigns, continue implementation of, 160-161 Integrating observing systems to assimilate new forms of data, 32 with increased computing power, 31 with modeling efforts, 31 through international collaboration, 32 using information organizing systems, 32 using multiple data bases, 32 Intelligent systems, 98 Interactions among atmospheric phenomena of different scales, 3, 89-92 among atmospheric phenomena of different sorts, 7 between atmosphere and other Earth system components, 3 complexity of, 63-64 land-atmosphere, 184-185 long-term, 38-39 modeling studies of, 3, 252, 254 nonlinear, 41 observational studies of, 3 of planetary boundary layer, surface characteristics, and clouds, 81 resolving, 37-41 surface, 38 theoretical studies of, 3 water substance, 65 Interdepartmental Committee for Atmospheric Sciences (ICAS), 52-53 Interdisciplinary studies needed, 4, 43-45 in climate, weather, and health, 4 in management of water resources in changing climate, 4 in rapidly increasing emissions to the atmosphere, 4 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 23, 292 International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) Project, 87 International Research Institute for Climate Prediction, 42 International Solar-Terrestrial Program, 243 Interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), 37, 204 Interplanetary space, 204-205 Intrastratospheric transport, 146 Ionosphere, 8, 206, 210, 233, 234, 240, 251-254 IPCC. See Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change K Kennelly, Arthur E., 210 Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO), 269 L Lagrangian experiments, 165, 192-193 Land-atmosphere interaction, 184-185 Large eddy simulation (LES) models, 80 Large-scale models effects of moist convection in, 82

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Page 357 incorporation of surface-induced flows into, 83 Laser Atmospheric Wind Sounder (LAWS) instrument, 196 Laser systems, for atmospheric analysis, 14 Lavoisier, Antoine-Laurent,
114 LAWS. See Laser Atmospheric Wind Sounder Leadership and management, 4-5, 46-59 LES. See Large eddy simulation Lidar systems, 36, 88-89. See also Differential absorption lidar Life and property need for forecasts and warnings, 18-21 protection of, 17-22 Life sciences, 15 Lightning and Benjamin Franklin, 14 global monitoring of, 78 as measure of stability and temperature, 78, 93-94 propagation of, 94-96 M Magnetic fields, 37, 226 Magnetic storms, 209 Magnetosphere, 205 Magnetospheric storms, 231 Marconi, Guglielmo, 210 Massively parallel processors (MPPs), 190, 197 Maunder Minimum period, 265 Maximum usable frequency (MUF), 234 MCS. See Mesoscale convective system Measurements. See also Concentration measurements, Flux measurements, Observing systems central importance of, 198 conducting surface-based near source regions, 152 of exchange of water, heat, and trace atmospheric constituents, 80-81 improving capabilities for making, 6, 103-106 Measurement systems satellite-based, 195 surface exchange, 7, 138 Measurement technologies for critical gas- and condensed-phase species, 143-145 for tropospheric aerosols, designing and implementing new suites of. 163-164 Mechanisms of charge separation in clouds, 78 Medium frequency (MF), 251 Mesoscale convective systems (MCSs), 82, 91, 181 Mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST), 251 Microphysical processes influencing clouds, 182, 202, 224 parameterizing, 76-77 Microwave Limb Sounder, 157 Middle-atmosphere, 206, 208 nature and sources of discharges, 78, 94-96 Middle-upper atmosphere global change in, 201, 209, 245-255, 254-255 monitoring inputs to, 251-252 monitoring sensitive parameters of, 251 Midlatitude cyclones, small-scale features in, 82-83 Mission to Planet Earth satellite program, 252 Model development, 186 Modeling fluxes, 78 Modeling infrastructure, 13 Models and modelling in atmospheric chemistry in aerosol research, 165, 166 in chemistry, dynamics and radiation coupling, 147 in integrated assessments, 161 long-term biogenic greenhouse gases, 154 and operational chemical forecasting, 138 overarching research challenge, 134 predicted ozone column change, 124 in toxic and nutrient investigation, 168 in atmospheric dynamics and weather forecasting adaptive observations, 188 adjoint models, 176 in atmospheric convection studies, 180-187 ensemble forecasting, 187-188 massively parallel processors, used for, 190, 197 numerical techniques, 191-193 in orographic effects. 185-186 parameterization for, 190-191 for tropical cyclones, 178 in atmospheric physics radiation transfer, 71-72, 84-85

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Page 358 rapidly increasing computational power, 98-99 representation in cyclones,
82-83 in climate and climate change research construction and evaluation of comprehensive models, 275, 321 in coupled atmosphere-ocean research, 290, 301, 310-311 in decade-to-century variability, 284, 286-289 in ENSO prediction, 298 linkages between climate model prediction and human relevance, 316-317 data for improvement of, 30 fundamental aspects, 26 fundmg for, 55 in upper atmosphere and near-Earth space research atmospheric effects of aircraft, 220-221, 224 interactive radiative-dynamic-chemistry models, 217 in middle and upper atmosphere research, 252, 254 in space weather forecasting, 243 stratospheric-tropospheric interactions, 222, 224, 225 Model vertical coordinates, 192 Moist convection, 88 effects in large-scale models, 82 Monitoring. See Climate monitoring Monitoring networks. See Observing systems ''Montreal Protocol,'' 22, 216 Motion of tropical cyclones, physics of, 8 Mt. Pinatubo, 218-219, 286, 288 MPPs. See Massively parallel processors MST. See Mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere MUF. See Maximum usable frequency N NAAQS. See National Ambient Air Quality Standard NARSTO. See North American Research Strategy on Troposphere Ozone NASA. See National Aeronautics and Space Administration National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 54, 98, 223, 241, 243, 308-309, 319 National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS), 126, 131 National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), 36, 97 National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), 42, 188 National Crop Loss Assessment Network (NCLAN), 168 National economic vitality benefits of weather and climate information, 24-26 enhancing, 24-26 National Lightning Detection Network, 94 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), 21, 196, 241, 243, 287, 303, 309, 319 Aircraft Operations Center, 36 International Research Institute for Climate Prediction, 42 National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), 42 Office of Global Programs, 34 National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS), 319 National Research Council (NRC), 199, 204, 210 Committee on Solar and Space Physics (CSSP), 199, 204 Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Research (CSTR), 199, 204 National Science and Technology Council (NSTC), 58 National Science Foundation (NSF), 223, 241, 243, 309 National Space Weather Program (NSWP), 241-243 National weather information system, rapid changes in, 4-5 National Weather Service (NWS), 21, 47-49 National well-being contributions of the atmospheric sciences to, 17-27, 65, 106, 111, 202, 271, 324 enhancing national economic vitality, 24-26 maintaining environmental quality, 22-24 protection of life and property, 17-22 strengthening fundamental understanding, 26-27 Nature and sources of middle-atmosphere discharges, 78 NCAR. See National Center for Atmospheric Research

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Page 359 NCEP. See National Centers for Environmental Prediction NCLAN. See National Crop Loss Assessment Network NDSC. See Network for Detection of Stratospheric Change Network for Detection of Stratospheric Change (NDSC), 155-157 Newton, Sir Isaac, 14 Next Generation Weather Radar (NEXRAD),
48, 175, 181 NIMBUS-7 experimental environmental research satellite, 217, 257-258 NOAA. See National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Noctilucent clouds. 245, 247 Nonlinearity, fundamental problem of, 40-41, 119-121, 184 Nonspherical particles, radiation transfer through a medium containing, 72 North American Atmospheric Observing System, 32 North American Research Strategy on Troposphere Ozone (NARSTO), 159 North American Strategy for Tropospheric Ozone program, 58 "Nowcasting," 201 NOx, 120, 143-145 production by lightning, 79, 96-97 NPOESS. See National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System NRC. See National Research Council NSF. See National Science Foundation NSTC. See National Science and Technology Council NSWP. See National Space Weather Program Numerical computer models of the atmosphere, 3-4 Numerical techniques, 191-193 for advection, 192-193 model vertical coordinates, 192 Numerical weather prediction (NWP) models, 181, 190 Nutrients, 7, 132, 149, 166-168 carrying out process-oriented field studies for algorithm development and evaluation, 168 designing and implementing ecosystem exposure monitoring networks, 167-168 developing and evaluating techniques for measuring deposition fluxes, 166-167 NWP. See Numerical weather prediction (NWP) models NWS. See National Weather Service O Observational technologies, improving understanding of interactions among atmosphere, ocean, land, 13, 101 Observations adaptive strategies for making, 31 from commercial aircraft, 30-31, 193 deterioration of, 173, 302-306 from the Global Positioning System (GPS), 31 in near-Earth space, 37 new opportunities for, 30-31, 100-101 preserving free and open exchange of, 1, 47, 50-51, 302-306 in the stratosphere, 36 of water in the atmosphere, 34-35 of wind, 35-36 Observing systems for atmospheric chemistry research, 110-111, 136-138, 150-154, 155-156, 160-161, 162-165, 167-168 for atmospheric physics research, 88, 97, 103-105 for climate and climate change research, 274, 281, 301-306, 308-309, 318-320 for dynamics and weather forecasting research, 193-197 for upper atmosphere and near-Earth research, 216-218, 244, 258 Observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs), 2, 33, 173, 177 Oceanography, close partner of atmospheric sciences, 15 Oceans critical boundary for atmosphere, 15 data needed from over, 8, 36 fluxes over, 38-39 long-term interactions with, 38-39 Office of the Federal Coordinator for Meteorology (OFCM), 56, 58. See also Federal Coordinator for Meteorological Services and Supporting Research

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Page 360 Operational community, interacting with research community, 2 Operational models,
102 Orographic influences on weather, 172, 185-186 Oscillation effects, quasi-biennial, 220 OSSE. See Observing system simulation experiment Overarching Research Challenges, atmospheric chemistry, 129-131 Ozone destruction, 8, 246 Ozone layer. See stratospheric ozone Ozone, tropospheric. See tropospheric photochemical oxidants Ozonsonde program, 155 P Paleoclimatic records, 299, 309-310 Parameterization, 69-70, 101 Pattern recognition, 98 PCBs. See Polychlorinated biphenyls Phenomena. See Atmospheric phenomena Photochemical oxidants. See tropospheric photochemical oxidants. See also Smog Photoionization, 240 Physical processes. See also Atmospheric physical processes interactions between radiation and, 74 occurring on subgrid scales in climate models, 84 parameterizing, 190-191 Physics. See Atmospheric physics, Phytotoxics, 149 Planetary boundary layer, surface characteristics of, 81 A Plan for a Research Program on Aerosol Radiative Forcing and Climate Change, 87 Polarimetric radar, 181-182 Polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs), 118 Polychlonnated biphenyls (PCBs), 166 Power grid operation, space weather effects on, 8, 227 Pre-chlorofluorocarbon era, 141-142 Precipitation, radars for measuring. 14 Precipitation formation, 70, 100 improved understanding of, 75 Predictability, 186 Prediction. See Weather forecasting Predictive models developing capability, 165-166 improving numerical, 2 need to develop, 7, 134 Priestley, Joseph, 114 Primary greenhouse gases, 150 Private meteorological sector in fashioning the agenda, 59 in leadership and management, 46 in preparing predictions, 24 in providing weather services, 47-49 Process study observation, 102 Production of NOx by lightning, 79 PSC. See Polar stratospheric cloud Publicly-funded data acquisition, preserving open access to, 5, 50-51 Q QBO. See Quasi-biennial oscillation Quantification and characterization of critical gas-phase and heterogeneous mechanisms, 147 Quantitative descriptions, developing, 102-103 Quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO), 220, 250 Quasi-geostrophic theory, 83 R Radars early data networks, 21 measuring precipitation for atmospheric analysis, 14 measuring wind for atmospheric analysis, 14 Radiation. See Atmospheric physics Radiation transfer models, 71-72 using observational data, 84-85 Radiation transfer through a medium containing nonspherical particles, 72 Radiative forcing of climate instantaneous, 294 by trace gases and aerosols, 73-74, 293 Radiative transfer, 70 in cloudy atmospheres, 72 Radioacoustic sounding system (RASS), 195 Radio occultation technique with GPS, 37 Radiosonde networks, 34, 36 deterioration of, 303 early, 21 worldwide, 32

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Page 361 Radiosonde observational networks, early, 21 Rainfall events, variability in location of, 35 RASS. See Radioacoustic sounding system Rawinsonde tracking,
193 Recommendations of the Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate (BASC), 3-5, 37-45 Remote sensing capabilities exploiting, 88-89 improving, 1, 163 satellites for atmospheric analysis, 14 Rossby waves, 26, 220 S SAGE. See Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment SAR. See Subcommittee on Atmospheric Research Satellites and atmospheric chemistry research global chemistry measurement of greenhouse gases on a range of scales, 153 recommendation for optimal combinations of remote sensing and in situ observations, 173 satellite inferences of storm-associated rain rates, 179 satellite measurement of stratospheric aerosol, 162 small satellites useful to study chemistry at high altitudes, 147 Satellites and atmospheric physics research GCM parameterization compared with data from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project, 85 inferring hydrometeor and cloud characteristics from satellite observations, 101 innovative approaches to the analysis of data from, 72 process study parameterizations generalized and extrapolated by satellite data, 102 satellites for characterizing precipitation over the oceans, 103 Satellites in atmospheric dynamics and weather forecasting research GPS receiver and satellite transmissions for water vapor measurement, 194-195 satellite measurement of wind using Doppler lidar, sea surface scatterometers, 195-197 Satellites in climate and climate change research intersatellite measurement bias, 303-305 stratospheric temperatures from satellite measurement, 287, 288 Satellites in upper-atmosphere and near-Earth space research satellite measurement of solar irradiance, 257-259 satellites showing space environment effects, 235 UARS measurements of chemistry of the stratosphere, 213 weather satellite damage from space weather disturbances, 227, 228 Scales of flow, resolving interactions among different, 37-41 Schumann resonances, 78 Scientific strategy initiatives supporting, 65 key components of, 64-65 SEASAT (sea satellite) oceanographic satellite, 196 Seasonal climate forecasting, 8, 183-184 Sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs), 282 Sea surface temperatures (SSTs), 298, 312 Semigeostrophic theory, 83 Semi-Lagrangian approach, 192-193 Signal processing, 98 Skin cancer, affected by ultraviolet (UV) radiation, 15 "Skycam" operations, 195 Small-scale dynamics, 6 effects of moist convection in large-scale models, 82 incorporation of surface-induced flows into large-scale models, 83 interactions with larger-scale processes. 89-92, 99-102 recommended research strategies, 67, 81-83 representation of small-scale features in midlatitude cyclones, 82-83 Small-scale features, dynamical representation of in midlatitude cyclones, 82-83 SMM. See Solar Maximum Mission Smog, 22, 116, 120-121 Society, greater confidence in forecasts, 1, 13 Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), 267-268 Solar effects, 219-220 separating from anthropogenic, 259-263

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Page 362 Solar energetic particles (SEPs),
229, 231 Solar energy output, over a solar cycle, 257-259, 267-268 Solar influences, 210, 256-271 Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) spacecraft, 257 Solar phenomena interactions with near-Earth space, 26 long-term changes in, 268 near-Sun wind, 37 streams from flares, 14 Solar-terrestrial system, need for models of, 9 Solar variability, 8 effects on global climate system, 8 and global change, 203-204 Space climate, 228-229 Space physics activities, near-Earth, improving predictive numerical models for, 2 Space weather, 209, 225-245 disturbances, 228 forecasting, 3, 6, 9, 43, 200-201 ionospheric, 240 magnetospheric, 239 research needed in, 8, 203 Space weather system, 229-234 Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I), 35, 178 SST. See Sea surface temperature SSTAs. See Sea surface temperature anomalies STE. See Stratosphere-troposphere exchange Stratosphere observations in the, 36, 224 recommended research strategies for, 202-204 roles played in climate system, 200-201, 203, 222-223 Stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE), 221-222 better characterization of, 225 Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE), 155-156 Stratospheric aerosols, 224 maintaining and expanding measurement capability, 162-163 Stratospheric aircraft, 8 Stratospheric modeling, 224 Stratospheric ozone, 7, 122-123, 140-147, 202, 213-218, 223-224 coupling between chemistry, dynamics, and radiation, 145-147 and environmental quality, 22 measuring critical gas- and condensed-phase species, 143-145 monitoring distribution of, 142-143 quantification and characterization of critical gas-phase and heterogeneous mechanisms, 147 Stratospheric processes, 8, 208-209, 211-225 Stratospheric-tropospheric exchange, 146 Studies needed. See Interdisciplinary studies needed Subcommittee on Atmospheric Research (SAR), 52-53, 58 Subgrid-scale influences of clouds, parameterizing, 76-77 Subgrid scale (SGS), 84 Sulfate concentrations in atmosphere, 106 Sulfate layer, global stratospheric, 162 Sun, 204-205, 229-234 evaluating state of, 265 Sun-Earth connections, 226 Sunspot records, 261 Sun's Radiative Inputs from Sun to Earth (SUNRISE) program, 243 Surface effects, quantifying and parameterizing, 87-88 Surface exchange measurement systems, 7, 110, 138 Surface-induced flows, incorporation into large-scale models, 83 Surface UV network, 216 monitoring, 224 T TAO. See Tropical Atmosphere Ocean array Teamwork, importance of, 6, 323 Technology transfer programs, 7, 111, 139 Terrain scale, 185-186 Time lagging, 187 TOGA. See Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA) program TOGA-TAO array. See Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere-Tropical Atmospheric Ocean array Topography, continuous scales of, 185-186 Tornado dynamics, 181 Tornado statistics, 19 Toxics, 7, 132, 166-168 carrying out process-oriented field studies for algorithm development and evaluation, 168

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Page 363 designing and implementing ecosystem exposure monitoring networks, 167-168 developing and evaluating techniques for measuring deposition fluxes, 166-167 Trace chemical species,
86-87, 115. See also Environmentally Important Atmospheric (chemical) species Trace gases, direct radiative forcing of climate by, 73-74 Transport, 70 global, 14 intrastratospheric, 146 turbulent, 100 vertical, 33, 39 Triggering, 186 TRMM. See Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array, 38, 274, 281, 305 Tropical cyclones, 177-180 changes in intensity of, 8 dynamics of, 172 and interactions with upper ocean layers, 8 midlatitude, 82-83 physics of motion of, 8 Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA) program, 42, 91, 274, 281, 298, 305-306, 311, 321 Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere-Tropical Atmospheric Ocean (TOGA-TAO) array, 34, 38, 319 Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM), 35 Tropopause exchange of material through, 224-225 role in atmospheric dynamics, 172 Troposphere, exchanges with other layers, 3 Tropospheric aerosols, designing and implementing new suites of measurement technologies for, 163-164 Tropospheric photochemical oxidants instrumentation development, measurements documentation assessment, 7, 126-129, 157-161 Tropospheric stability, 78 Turbulence, 64 and entrainment, 80 U UARS. See Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite UAV. See Unmanned aerospace vehicle Ultraviolet (UV) radiation, 14, 213-218 health effects of, 15, 44 increasing intensity of, 254-255 solar, 206 variability in, 262 U.S. Air Force, 241 U.S. Department of Commerce (DOC), 241, 243 U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), 241, 243, 319 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), 98, 241 U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), 241 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 126, 131 U.S. Geological Survey, 241 U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), 3, 21, 23, 37, 55, 58, 279 U.S. National Climate Program, 279 U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, 210 U.S. Weather Research Program (USWRP), 3, 21, 37, 170 Unmanned aerospace vehicles (UAVs), 98 Upper-atmosphere processes, 199-271 growing emphasis on prediction of, 14 recommended strategies for studying, 8-9 research in, 8-9 stratospheric processes affecting, 8 Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS), 157, 217, 224, 257, 262-263 Upper ocean layers, and interactions with tropical cyclones, 8 Upper-troposphere, water vapor in, 64 USGCRP. See U.S. Global Change Research Program USWRP. See U.S. Weather Research Program UV-B radiation, 212-213 UV flux, 217-218 V Verification, 69-70, 186 Vertical profiles, 195 Vertical transport mechanisms, 33, 39 Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), 122

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Page 364 Volcanic effects, 8, 202, 218-219, 219,
224 Vorticity. potential, 172 W Water in soil, 184-185 and hydrology, 174 Water in the atmosphere and on land aerosols and clouds, 130-131 from aircraft, 220 cloud physics, 74-77 cloud radiative properties, 85-86 deposition in precipitation, 167 distributions in the atmosphere, 102-103 enhanced observation of water in all forms, 307 in EOS and GEWEX, 308 hydrometeors, 75 ice, 87 interaction with chemical species, 86-87 liquid in clouds, 191 measurements of, 156-157, 182, 194-195, 274 phase change and atmospheric circulation, 174 precipitation mechanisms, 92-93 run off, vapor, 34, 174 water vapor as a greenhouse gas, 149, 290 WCRP. See World Climate Research Programme The Weather Channel, 48 Weather damage, 20-21 Weather-dependent enterprises, incorporating atmospheric information into decision making, 5, 47 Weather fatalities, 18-21, 174 Weather forecasting research, 225. See also Climate forecasting convection, 180-183 data acquisition, 193-197 data manipulation, 188-190 ensemble forecasting, 187-188 numerical techniques, 191-193 recommendations, 173-175 and storms, 175-180 Weather forecasts, 169-198 economic benefit of, 24-26 four-way partnership for providing, 17-18 initiating experimental, 3, 49 new systems for providing, 47-48, 171 spatial scales relevant to, 2-3 temporal scales relevant to, 2-3 Weather modification, 93-94 Weather satellites, 21 Weather-sensitive enterprises, 25 Weather Service Radar (U.S. National Weather Service) 1988 Doppler Weather Radar System (WSR-88D), 35-36, 181 Weinberg, Alvin M., 15 Wind developing new capabilities for observing, 2 observations of, 35-36 radars for measuring, 14 WMO. See World Meteorological Organization WOCE. See World Ocean Circulation Experiment World Climate Research Programme (WCRP), 45, 275-276, 279, 313-315, 320-321 World Meteorological Organization (WMO), 302, 306 World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), 308 World Weather Watch (WWW), 302 World Wide Web (WWW), 48 WSR-88D, 35, 36, 181 X XBT. See Expendable bathythermograph X-rays, 263-264 Y YMP. See CRAY supercomputers